Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 19, 1885)
w Tay Ar Obtalawl from the Lewer
Most of the valuable gems found ia
the fisheries of Baja California have
been sent to Paris, the great pearl mar
ket of the world. About all the com-,
petition that exists is confined to a few
French houses, which have agents at
La Paz, who buy up the stones as fast
a found. It seems a strange indiffer
ence on the part of the United States to
treasures so easily within her reach, not
to mention the merchants of England
and Gcrmauy, that France is permitted
to secure all these gems for a nominal
sum. and then sell them again to these
same countries at an enormous ad
vance. .It is difficult to approximate the value
of the Gulf of California fisheries, be
cause the fishers themselves place a
mere nominal value on the pearls in
their consular Invoice before sending
them to Europe. Thus a superb gem.
which may sell for 8500 when first torm
from the red hand of the coral reef,
will bring in Paris from $3,000 tto
$3,000. Yet. with the haphazard policy
that has always prevailed, the annual
Jrield of the gulf beds is estimated at not
ess than $2.10,000 worth, while five
times that amount would mora fitly rep
resent the real value of the pearls as
aold in Kurojie. The frequent occur
rence of black pearls in these fisheries
has given them unusual importance,
those gems being now the rage on the
Continent, to be worn "by people in
mourning. Rare and beautiful pink
pearls are also occasionally brought up.
more valuable than diamonds of equal
sjize. During the year 1883 several not
able specimens were found. Among
them was a light-brown pearl, flecked
witu darker shades, which weighed
sixty-five karats, its estimated value
being $8,000. It was" brought
up bv Manuel Urbauo. and
purchased by the pearl firm
of Gouilcs & Huflb. who sent it to
Paris. Another, -found by Xapoleom
Savin, was pear-shaoed, white, shot
with dark specks. It weighed forty
four karats, and sold for S7.500. At
the same time Messrs. Pablo, Hidalgo
fc Co., pearl merchants of La Paz,
ecu red another eni from some un
known Iudiau diver for which they
paid $10 aud received $5,500 for it in
France. It was oval shape, of a light
sandy color, perfect in " contour and
brilliaut in luster, weighing thirty-two
karats. That lucky diver. Savin, found
two other treasures last year, weighing
respectively forty -live and thirty-one
karats, which together, because of their
surprising luster, brought $11,000.
But the most famous treasure of all
was secured years ago near Loreto by
a Mexican diver, who came up into the
sunshine with the loveliest gem of the
sea grasped in his dusky hand, a per
fect pearl, weighing 100 karats, which
aiay to-day be seen iu the royal crown
of Isabel the Catholic
The profit of the fisheries is by no
means limited to the pearls them
selves. The shells are also coveted,
the poorest selling upon the spot 5or
from 8 to 12 cents per pound, while
in Europe, where the lining of the
shells is worked into buttons and knife
handles, thev brinyr from 20 to 'M
cents per pound. Many of
shells' are shinned to San
to $5 per
where, as mother-of-pearl,
ready sale at from $1.50
pound. For centuries
the Gulf coast
has been noted for its couchological
beauties, but the shells of the pearl
fisheries are most highly prized, some
of 'them being fully fifteen inches wide,
and marve'ously "beautiful when pol
ished. One may find them for sale in
the San Francisco shops for fabulous
prices, with bird, flowers or land
scapes elaborately carved upon them.
The meat of the pearl oysters, though
unsalable in the American market, is
also made a source of profit, being
readily bought by Chinamen, who dry
the leathery little bivalves, or seal them
up in cans and send them to their
brethren in China or iu San Francisco.
Those scions of the Flowery Kingdom,
who reside in great numbers around the
gulf, are never employed as divers, but
are engaged iuthe un-avory occupation
of digging and shipping guano from
wave-washed caves and rock-bound
coasts, where sea-birds have been de-
Eositing it fur couture. It is a well
nown faet thai tearls are sometimes
produced by means that are partly arti
ficial, especially in the Japanese fisher
ies. That gem of purest ray serene so
prized by admirers of precious stones in
all ages of the world, is but the result
of some Ics'on sutlered by the oyster,
its solidified tear of suffering. Hence
an injury is often purposely inflicted br
introducing be.wceu the shells a small
stone cr shot or bit of gravel, and then
the oysters are again put to bed. This
process is said to be successful iu pro
ducing great quantities of pearls, but
those thus torni-d are inferior in luster
and loss desirable for marketable pur
poses. No such attempts have been
made in the Mexican fisheries, for those
supplied by nature are Miflicieutly nu
merous. San Francisco Cor. X. Y.
THE SUICIDE MANIA.
More Live Lost by Si:-SUu-klrr Taaa
by A nr Otltrr SI H (Tic Cams.
Disastrous as the present year prom
ises to be to human life, it is questiona
ble whether it-; record will not event
ually show that more lives have been
lost by .suicide than by am lbersiugle
cau6e, so far at least as this country is
concerned. Human life i not only held
cheap b the lower and more brutal
elements of society, but the regard for
it seems to have lowered so rapidly that
self-murder is now perpetrated upon
the slightest provocation aud for rea
sons which sometimes are absurd and
often grotesque. It Is never possible to
obtain the exact number of Miicides ac
complished in a i-crtaiu time, as many
of them arc nol reported, but an ap
proximate idea of their rapid increase
may be obtained from the number re
ported by telegraph, aud these, since
the lit of lat .lunu ry. foot up three
hundred and seventy-eight, which is
nearly a hundred more than were re
ported for the first live months of last
year, or for "many years previously.
These self-murder.; are not confined
by any means to unknown people. On
the other hand, among the prominent
persons who hav shu.Ued off the mortal
coil by their own hands this year arc
three bankers, three city officials nine
merchants, three postmasters, three
clergymen, two lawyers, three college
professors, two dentists, two editors,
and one jude, actor, physician, artist
and army olliccr. Melancholia is the
most common came, and ne.t, in this
order named, come unknown reasons,
insanity, "disappointed, love, domestic
infelicity, liquor, ill health and
business losses. Thore is a general
impression that women are more
addicted to suicide than men, but such
is not the case. Of the three hundred
aad seventr-cight instances reported
above, two hundred and ninety-four were
sea. and the same proportion holds
good year "by year. Au analysis of the
causes which have led to suicide shows
some curious facts. A boot seventeen
recently committed suicide' because his
father reprimanded him. He took poison
ia a barn, and one of his father 8 em
ployes, seeing hinitommit the fatal act
procured poison .aad-killed himself be
fore night aba ' A boy of fourteen at
Ifouat Carroll in this State hanged him
self because his mother Jtold him he
must take 'medicine. A studenjt ia St.
Loais suicided because he failed to pass
examination sat admission tatae
Medical College. A boy of
fourteen at Rockford im this State read
of a suicide and then took Us life in the
same maner. Large numbers of billy
young people have killed themselves
because their parents would not allow
them to marry as they wished. While
the majority of deaths have been those
of very young persons, no age is exempt
from the craze, for Elizabeth Bowy, of
Falmouth, Ky., without any apparent
reason, barred the doors and windows,
set her house afire, and was burned to
tfeath, while another very old woman in
New York, in a fit of passion with one
of her neighbors, poured kerosene over
her bed, touched it oil with a match aud
then deliberately threw herself into the
burning clothes. What sadder case can
be found than that of George W. Tripp.
of Freeport, J5. Y., an old man of sev-eatv-nine,
who, when he was told that
his wife, with whom he had lived hap
pily over fifty years, could not live, went
out and hanged himself in the barn, leav-in-behind
him only these words: -Mother
wiTl die and leave'me alone. I can not
It is a curious phase of the suicide
mania that it goes over the country iu
waves. The recent sad suicide i.t a
young lady at Rockford. III., by drown
ing has been followed by several other
oases of a similar character, two cf
which grew out of reading the accounts
of her death. The latest victims amon
these young girls are Nellie Caufield. a
grandniece of Abraham Lincoln, who
shot herself at a female seaiinarv at
Belleville. N. J., and Miss Hattie
Bedient, the daughter of a farmer at
Hornby, N. Y.. who killed herself at
the Grand Union Hotel. New York. It
is state 1 by the New York World that
her suicide has served to disclose the
startling fact that at the present time
there are ten young girls missing within
a radius of a few miles from thai city.
The general cause which l'cs behind
these suicides is surely worthy of study
by the social philosophers, for the dis
ease appears to be gi owing epidemic :n
its character. It is certainly worth
while to consider what argument? can
be used to prevent a mau under the in
fluence of extreme melancholy from
taking his life. If the instinct of self
preservation is the strongest implanted
in our nature it would be eauallv well
to consider why it is that scores of boys
and girls, to whom life is specially dear,
kill tnemsclves for the most trivial rea
sons. It is becoming a very sinister
phase of modern society, and one which
is not considered enough. It would be
well to know whether ttie race is declin
ing morally as well as physically, and
if so what remedies can be applied to
strengthen these weaker specimens. It
would h( a. fruitful tone also for the
pulpit to exanrne with reference to de
ciding whether the growth- or ma
terialism and the'eonse jueut dissipation
of any fears for the hereafter, such as
troubled Hamlet, have anything to do
with it. Chicago Tribune
OaaUflcaUont or a Public
Teacher iu the Far Wait.
A teacher, whose school was in the
far West, furnishes the following ac
count of his examination by the director
of the district:
"You ever graddyated?"
"Glad of it! Graddyatcs don't half
of 'em know beans when their head's
in the bag. Ever studied "stronomy?"
"No, sir. never."
"Big fool if you had. Ever go nosing
round studyin the flory of a country
bottomy. they call it?"
"You couldn't teach young uns o'
mine if you hcd. They was a crank
here onct tryin' to make us b'leeve they
was scch things ez male and female
plants. Must o' thought we hadn't lo
sense. Do you go much on grammar?'
"I think it a very useful study."
" think It a pack o' stuff and clut
terbosh! Don't eallate. tcr hev my boys
an' gals talk by rule an' rote, an' min
citC things up tel thoy aint no sense it.
'em. Do you fool ' w a' much time on
"Physiology? Yes: I think jt an ex
cellent thing for boys aud-f-jjirjs to
study." " t
"Well. 1 aiut so awfully set agin
that I reckon it's a good thing ter
know what ter do when one busts a
blood-vessel or breaks a leg. 'Taint
much use to gals, though. They
would do nothin' but set up a yell in
either dileininy, not if they was chock
full o' fcenology. Do you go any on
what they call tizzognony?"
"I do not teach it."
"Ye hadn't better. A man did once.
He boarded with me fust week, an' I
ketched him up on his fizzognomy. My
woman had fell down sullar an' raised
a tumble bump on her head. I got
this smarty to mappiu' out her karac
ter from her bumps, an' he said the
welt she got fallin1 was combative
ness ouusually developed. He meant
fightiu' stren'th. W'y, she could o'
whaled a lion ef it hed been so, an' here
.she's so delikit it clean tuckers 'er out
ter hoi' up the liind eend o' the waggin
when I'm a-tarrin' of it. Kin yon spell
cleau through the dictionary?1' ,-
."No, 'sir. I am not a'good r speller. V
aHaint? Better brush up thar then,
or some o' our youngsters'A down ye.
That's their main holt. How are yon
"Very good, I think. I can teach
anvthying you would care to have
taught here, even to higher algebra."
"Algebray! we aint no use for alge
bray here! Some men blat 'wav 'bout
a ekallin' b or x, who couldn't say the
multiplication table backwards ter save
'em. Could you haul off yer coat an'
vest, crack yer fists, an' lam a six
footer of a youngster cf he was ter bo
sassy at ye?"
"f would try to punish a very re
"Well. I'll give ye a chance. We
b'leeve iu good old-fashioned corp'ral
whalin' here. No soft-sawderin' '11 do
instid of it Learn tbe youngsters good
hoss-sense, an' do 'way with all fol-de-rol.
Learn 'cm the "vally o' t'me an'
money, an' how to figger, write, read
an' spell, an' then turu 'em loose to
paddle their own canoe, sez L'
X Detroit Mas Who Brat the Chap That
Leaped f.jiu the Brooklyn Bridge.
"Heard of Odium, haven't you?" he
asked, as he entered an office on the
Fourth floor of a Griswold street block.
"Yes; the chap that jumped freai the
bridjje and met his death."
"Well, I'm a better jumper than
Odium ever was, and I came hen to
jump from your big bridge."
"But we haven't any."
"Yes; I learned the fact only after
"I sec And vou are dead broke?"
"Well, you might call it that, and In
ease you felt like"
"Yes; I feel likje. 1 always feel like.
Come out here!"
The jumper followed him out into the
hall, and the gentleman drew back hit
right leg. pointed to the stairs aadsaii:
"You bet!" chirruped the stranger,
and he landed on the seventh step,
turned over and reached the landing
right side up. made a bow to the audi
ence and turned the corner. Detroit
Mr. Martin F. Tapper, the author.
of "Proverbial Philosophy," appeals to
the American public for moaey. Ha
ays he'aever had any profit from the
American edition of his works. He it
aa wril of aii his readea. JIT. Y. lYwe.
?$ JuraL I
Am Old KaffUsh Game Ita AdoptUa la
The good old English game of skit
tles, perhaps from its being constantly
associated with the idea of beer, ranks
somewhat low.among popular amuse
ments; its chief votaries will be found
among the frequenters of suburban tea
gardens or of roadside public houses.
It is useful in its way as providing op
portunities for the display of a certain
amount of address, combined with
more or less physical exercise, accord
ing to the energy of the players; but
there is a general" roughness and want
of nicety about the game which will
account 'for its not having made its
way into favor as an adjunct to our
country house gardens, especially as
these defects render it iH adapted for
the gentler sex. The American form
of the game, the bowling or ten-pin
alley, is a very great improvement
The" necessity for physical strength is
reduced, while that "for skill is in
creased, thereby making it better
adapted for both sexes; but it must be
played indoors, or at all events in a
covered alley, in order to prevent
the "table" from being damaged
by exposure to the weather; and,
moreover, the weight of tbe balls and
tbe length of the ground render the
construction of this "table" somewhat
costly. Further, it is almost impossi
ble to play for any length of time with
out bavins: a boy constantly at the end
of the alley to pick up the pins and
send back the balls to the players. In
Southern Germany a different form of
the game is verymuch in vogue; the
ball, instead of being bowled, is swung
by a rope suspended fisam a sort of
gallows, and thus returns by its own
momentum to the player's hand after
every stroke. Nothing in the way of
a "table" is required beyond a small
square frame on which the pins stand,
and this may be made of stone or of
wood sufficiently strong to defy the
weather. The pins and all the aijuuets
of the game can be made by any ordi
nary village carpenter and may be left
outof doors during the whole summer
without taking any damage. A very
small space is required, a plot
of grouud twenty-four feet long
with a breadth of sixteen
feet being amply sufficient; thus
there is scarcely" any garden in
which a corner might not be found
with room enough. This game is to
be seen in the gardens of almost every
"Wirthschaft," in the Black Forest
gardens that differ very much from
those of our public houses in that they
are frequented and civilized by the
presence of the wives and daughters of
the 'men of the lower and middle;
classes, who after working hours pml
the long summer evenings in these r
sorts. Mauy of the hotels have onejjf
these skittlegrounds attached to them
in some shady nook, adding muchto
the attractions of the lazy life of anfen
forced sojourn at a German Bad; ''and
they are frequently also to be seen iu
the gardens of " private residences,
showing that the game is by no means
practiced only by the lower elites. It
has been long .known in England on
the toy and miniature scale3nd has
even in its fullni&s been sometimes im
ported here by seme of thoswho have
found it an agreeable pastime in Ger-
raanv: and wherever it nrmvoeen intro
duced it has metHvithKvor in the
ALCOHOLIC WG ARIES.
Satl Sight Seen by an
ut ia a Large
At one of the may ho
Hals iu this
city, which has been poii
netter class oi people as a
for a few weeks at a time,
and sons who wiTl overstep t
oi uecency anu get on perioui
and in cousetpjence be in need 6t some
place where they can- be doetoBd up
and keptHftidden from their acquaint
ances while suffering from the delirium
tremens, a reporter for the Daily Aews
was a visitor last night The place
was scrupulously clean and neat and
was really inviting. Two young men,
with aristocratic bearing and clothes
of the finest fit and texture, sat in the
office and wondered why their car
riages did not come. They looked pale
and rather hollow-eyed, but one woirfd
not think they had been inmates there
simply visitors. "Those two young
men are of very aristocratic families,"
said the reporter's friend, who was
identified with the institution. "They
have been here over a fortnight. They
were chums together, and had been
drinking hard "for several weeks. One
was brought here with the 'jim-jams'
on a Friday, and the other in the same
condition on Sunday. They are going
out to-day. but are likely to be back
again iu a few mouths. Too much
money to spend has caused their
The gentleman then took the re
porter up stairs and showed him
through the hospital proper, where
persons with various ailments and dis
eases were comfortably reclining on
clean cots, and finally" reached a de
partment in the top stocy, separated
from the rest by a double door. There
yere over a dozen cells, but all so ar
ranged that the light and ventilation
were "perfect. Nearly all the cells were
padded, and the occupant eould not dg
himself any injur3. These cells were
nearly all vacant, only four being oc
cupied, and the occupants of tMto being
out in the corridor. a.
"To tell vou the truth," said the Te- L
porter s.jriend, "I have never seen this
department so nearly deserted as it is
just now. The decrease has been com
ing on steadily for six months, and I
really believe that the number of drunk
ards is declining. Many persons think
that the Washingtonian home wauld
be the resort of these drinking
men, but it is not. As a general rule
the aristocracy does not care for the
whole town knowing of the faults of
"I suspect you have some queer ex
periences iu this department,"remarked
the reporter, as he took a seat in one of
the vacant cells.
"You can well say so. No comedy
could be more amusing or tragedy
more exciting than some of the scenes
which have been enacted by persons
with diseased minds right here. The
poor wretches, as they see imaginary
devils around them in all sort of
shapes, causing their eyes to bulge
from their heads in fright their hands
to tear their hair in very terror, and
great beads of prespiration to stand out
on their faces and then drop to the
floor, cause one to feel deep regret for
their unfortunate condition. And all
this suffering results from the imagina
tion. They see and feel snakes and all
sorts of vermin crawling over them,
yet nothing of tbe sort exists. You can
not well help heaving a sigh for the
fellows, but perhaps the next minute
you are smiling at them. In their wild
imaginations they see a being, perhaps,
of perfection's truest type, and gaze
with admiring eys at a dark corner of
tbe cell. Then they smile archly, and,
as she .does not recede into dark" obliv
ion, they go through all the forms of
an introduction and are soon sitting
quietly on the cot talking in honeyed
tones to the imaginary beauty who
does not exist
"Less than a year ago we had a man
here who is worth, at the lowest es
timate, one hundred thousand dollars.
lie was reared in luxury ana was
hurhlv accomplished. One day he Im
agined hiauelf a chickem with a brood
of little ones abovt hla. Be woaM
strut around and look aboat him with
the utmost solicitude. When the least
noise was made he would coaaeae
clucking like a mother hen and spread
his arms out and Imagine his little fam
ily was hid out of sight It was very
comical, but lasted only a day.
"Another man who was here a short
time ago had a very queer way. Be
was as mad as a March hare. I re
member him well. It was the third
time he had been here. The first day
his vagaries were of a wild nature.
He saw golden threads floating above
his bedside and would try to catch
them until completely exhausted. His
strength given out, he would fall back
on the bed. The next day he wa3
looking wilder. His eyes were blood
shot and his glauces nervous. Sud
denly he screamed and jumped to his
feet. 'Take them away; they will kill
me.' he cried, and then burst into loud
laughter. 'Oh, you little devils,' he
said in high glee, 'you came pretty
near scaring me. but I know you; you
can't fool me any more. I know your
green eyes and your forked tongue.
I've seen you too often to let you come
it over me now. I've got 'em again;
that's what's the matter. Now, as
you can't scare me. suppose you go
away and try it on some other poor
devil. Go on, I tell you,' he cried in
anger, suddenly, and commenced to
stamp violently as he said: 'I'll kill
you all if you don't get out of here.
You can't hurt me and I know it. Ha,
ha, ha! See them go.' he laughrd. I
fixed them that time. I'm too old a
duck to be caught the third time.'
What became of him? Oh, poor fellow,
he was too far gone to recover, and
died within a week. Chicago Sews.
COTTON SEED OIL.
The Growth of a Very Curious
"When I was a private in the Con
federate army I should have been very
glad to take such a drink as this."
And with that the young gentleman
in charge of the mill swallowed a wine
glass of something that looked like
pale sherry, but was really cotton-seed
oil fresh from the press. It was "a
pleasant and a nutritious thing with a
kind of fragrance about it. The re
mark was made in 18G5. Since that
time the cotton-seed oil industry has
grown to something very important.
In old times, cotton seed, which is
an abundant product, bearing to the
lint in weight the relation of about
three to one, was almost a refuse.
Some of it was used as a fertilizer, but
a great deal more went to waste. Now
it is utilized to a large degree, and by
many curious processes. The plauter
sellsit for ten or twelve dollars a ton.
The steamboat earns a handsome
freight on it to the city. The first
thing at the mill is to pass it through a
gin more grasping and incisive than
the kind used iu the country, and thus
to shear from it a good deal of the lint
that is useful, at least, for paper stock,
if not for some sorts of cloth. It then
passes into a huller. The hulls furnish
an abundance of fuel for the mill and
the excess is sold to gardeners as a fer
tilizer. The seed, when thus decorti
cated, is like that of a small peanut,
but greenish-yellow as to color. This
is then ground to a fine meal. Then
this meal is placed in small hydraulic
presses and squeezed as only hydraulic
presses can squeeze. The oil runs out,
and the oil cake is left in. shape
and similitude like a small card
of ginger-bread. This is a nu
tritious food for cattle, and when
ground up resembles corn meal. Re
turning to the expressed oil, we find
it gathered iu vats and clarified to a
certain extent by being allowed to set
tle. The dregs.'which are left when it
is drawn off, make an excellent soap
stock, not unlike that produced from
olive oil. The crude oil.so far clcaused,
is then refined, and becomes something
which it is difficult to distinguish from
olive oil. There is probably no chemi
cal reason why it is not as wholesome
an article of food. It has been used
extensively along the Gulf of Mexico
as a substitute for lard in cooking.
The Hebrews naturally prefer it to
lard. It must be confessed, however,
that its principal use is to adulterate
salad oil; and it seems a pity that such
should be the fact All adulteration is
fraud. Happib this special one is
neither harmful nor unpleasant. We
may eat our salads in peace aud quiet
ness, knowing that whether their, oil
be derived from olive or from cotton
plant, they will neither injure nor of
fend. The growth of this curious industry
since the late civil war has been very
great. The production in 1874, 1875,
had reached in the United States about
3,450.000 gallons; in 1882. 1883, it rose
te about 19,000,000. The exports in
1874, 1875. were 417.387 gallons; in
1883. 1884. they were 3,C05,94C. The
total number of mills in the United
States, distributed all the way from
North Carolina to Texas is about
117. There are six of these in New
Orleans, and they are s much larger
than the average of those in the coun
try that their capacity represents about
one-sixth of the entire industry. M u
Wort Howe, in X. Y. Indcpend-
The Distinguished Gentleman
When I first went to Washington, the
western approach to the Capitol, be
fore the "pending improvements" were
commenced, was through a fine old
park, the heavy foliage of which in
spring concealed much of the Capitol
from view. The approach then led up
two steep parallel terraces, which ex
tended the whole length of the build
ing. The pages, in winter time, took
advantage of these declivities for coast
ing. Instead of sleds, however, thev
used certain large, paste-board cnvef-J
ope boxes, which they obtained from the
One day, the terraces and park
grounds were covered with a thick,
hard coat of sleet; so the envelope
boxes were brought out, and the lively
tobogganing began. In the midst of
the sport. General Benjamin F. Butler,
accompanied by other Representatives
came along, and stopped on the para
pet to witness the fun. As he seemed
to enjoy the sight, one of the pages
asked him if he would take a ride.
After a brief deliberation, the General
remarked: "Well. I think I will."
In a moment, a box was placed at
his disposal near the edge of the para
pet, or upper terrace. In this, vith
considerable difficulty, the portly rep
resentative ensconced himself, and
soon he stated that he was "ready."
At the word, the pages gave him a vig
orous shove, and down he went with
lightning swiftness, to the great delight
of the assembled spectators. As with
increased momentum he struck the
second terrace, the box parted, and,
with terrific speed, he finished the trip,
"all by himself." And he war still
going when lost in tbe distance of the
park! Edmund Alton, in St. Nicholas.
"I went lo see the plan of Mrs.
Bartholomew Jones's house the other
day," said Brown to his friend on tbe
street car. "She was very enthusias
tic about her new improvements and
se on, and told me tbe gem of the
whole house would be a beautiful
spinal staircase. Ha, ha, ha!" Simp
kins "Well. I don't see anything re
markablv fnnnv about that. Ska nrnb.
ably meant the back stain.?
fUrltary Conditions ef Tanners UwrlBaa
The country with its blossoming
irehards and fragrant clover fields ie
looked upon as the healthiest place ia
which to live, but this is often a delu
sion. About the farm buildiugs have
bceu congregating for perhaps fifty
years a i'ollvct:on of animals and men,
and unless unusual precaution has
teen taken, the surroundings are likely
to be just such as cholera germs would
thrive upon, also those of diphtheria
and t;pho"d. Prospeet of cholera
which those who ought to know say is
coming this sumrnec should cause a
thorough clearing up. Some of tbe
oldest farming sections of this State,
settled nearly a century ago. that have
proved healthy in the past, are now be
coming afflicted with miasma, on ac
count of gradual accumulations de
structive to health.
Thesanitary condition of the coun
try is simply abominable far worse
than of cities, . although the general
opinion is to the contrary. The soil
about dwellings becomes saturated with
filth from dish water and slops. The
water pipes from the kitchen sink may
become frozen in winter and clogged
in summer, causing the foul water to
soak under the foundations of the
house, aud make a breeding place for
disease. I know a back yard that was
dug up to be planted, not supposing
there was am thine; objectionable, but
upon exposure to the hot suna.terrible
stench arose 'if. t : r the condit on of
the soil aL....i '.,u M us where every
thing was c-: - d ivii clean and nice.
In regard to driuking-water, the
great source aud medium for the dis
semination of disease, the ruralist can
never feel absolutely certain of its
Kurity. Suppose he is dissatisfied .with
is present supply and determines to
sink a new well. He does not know
the history of the place, and there is
nothing to prevent his locating the well
at cr near a point decidedly objection
able, owing to an out-house vault that
may have been located there in the
past It is commou practice to fill up
such vaults with earth without remov
ing the contents, and remove the out
house to another spot, this being found
to be the easiest method of avoiding a
nuisance. This practice should be
condemned. But who knows how
many such covered pits may have been
on the place before he purchased it?
Springjidd (Mass.) Republican.
The Cause and Seuic Kenedial Sagges
tlen. The ino-t promiuent cause of cold
ness of the feet, at least with females,
is the improper or insufficient protec
tions, or too tight boots. But few men
would dare to brave the rigors of win
ter wearing as thin boots as are gener
ally worn by females, particularly the
fashionable. The thickest worn by
this class are made of kid, serge often
being worn in very cold weather. It
is not strange therefore, that the feet
are cold, almost to freezing. (I will
not say that this is the cause of the
coldness of your feet.)
Again, tli.- f:ihonable boot is onlv
about two-t!i ids of thereat width oi
the foot, and about one size shorter.
It is utterly impossible for the blood to
circulate freely to the extremities when
so small a boot is worn, and as impos
sible for the feet to be warm, since the
warm blood from the heart is the prin
ciple source of animal heat. Again,
any cause which drives the blood from
the feet, or in any way interferes with
a good circulation of tbe blood, may
produce, coldness of tbe feet, such as
a derangement of the stomach, dim
inished power of the heart, tight
bands around the limbs, brain exer
cises, etc. Unusual labor of the brain,
withdrawing., a disproportionate sup
ply of blood to itself, just to that ex
tent diminishing the relative supply te
'other parts, particularly the extremi
ties, not us easily reached, naturally
reduces the warmth of the feet This
is much aggravated by the fact that
most close students take but little
physical exercise, from which fact the
blood is not drawn to the muscles, thus
equalizing the circulation. A brisk
walk, for example, when the 'brain is
overcharged with blood, will tend to
invite this fluid to the muscles, siuae
action, attended by a wste of tissues,
with a demand for more nourishment
("the blood is the life"), will cause the
blood to flow where it is most needed.
Such a walk, several times a day, will
.do much to relieve your head, particu
larly with the adoption of a plain and
simple diet. When the head h hot at
the same time of the coldness of the
feet, it is judicious to cool it by the ap
plication of wet cloths, at the same
time putting the feet in hot water, kept
till they are thoroughly warm, the pores
well opened, followed by a dash of cold
water, and thoroughly rubbed with a
crash till a glow of beat is secured.
Dr. J. in Hannaford, in Golden Rule.
How They Should be Cultivated aad Hat
If the crops on a farm are varied
there will be less risk from drought
and other causes. A subscriberdesires
us to give information in regard to the
cultivation of white navy beans, which
we consider an excellent suggestion.
Beans are a warm weather crop, as
the slightest frost injures them. They
grow aud mature quickly, and are
adapted to either light or heavv soils.
In the garden the rows are marked off
with a line, two feet apart, and a bean
friaeed every six inches in tbe row, and
cultivated with a hoe. For field cul
ture they must be laid off so as to per
mit the use of the horse hoe or culti
vator between the rows. The seed :s
usually placed from a foot to eighteen
inches apart, dropping two seeds in a
.place. They must be kept clean, and
perhaps the use of the hoe may be
necessary once or twice. They should
be picked by hand from the vines as
fast as they ripen, if the best quality
and cleanest beans are desired, but the
usual practice is to allow them to
remain on the vines until the
whole crop is thoroughly ripe
when the vines are pulled up and
packed loosely in the barn, where the
pods are picked off during such un
seasonable weather as will not permit
of other work. The beans are sepa
rated from the pods by shelling in the
usual manner by band, but it is tedious,
and hence the plan of flailing the beaas
on a clean floor is best
The cultivation' of beans demands
considerable labor, but they usually
sell at a fair price, and return a large
profit in proportion to the care and
time bestowed upon them. They are
usually a sure crop and easily mar
keted. In somV sections they are
grown almost exclusively, and will
Eroduce as many bushels as wheat, aid
ring a higher price. They will grow
where wheat will not thrive, and we
doubt if they call for more labor or ex
pense than wheat when all the details
of the cultivation of both crops are
compared. Farm, Field and Slocb-
A very large put partially explored
cave exists in Josephine County, Ore
gon, on the headwaters of Williams'
Creek, twenty miles south of Grant'
Pass. As far" as this cavern has been
entered, only about five hundred feet,
sufficient subterranean woaders have
been discovered to indicate the exist
ace at a vary large aad iateraetbif
PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL.
New Orleans contains seven white
women to eix men. and four negro
women to three negro men. X. 0.
Itcayniit. . . 'H
Ah ram Curt's. "the walking kcle
ton." recently died t We.ton..jM.
Va. He was "fifty years old. a -little
above the average height, and weighed
but forty pounds.
Princess Mathilde is a very affec
tionato creature. When M. de Lesseps
delivered his recent speech at the re
ception in the French Academy the
overjoyed Princess sard: "My dear
Lesseps. I can't help it. I must kiss
you." "Do." briefly replied de Lesseps.
And she did.
Jo-iah F. Twiss, of Hallis. N. H..
died the other, day, and in his will pro
vided that the music at bio funeral
3hould be a brass band, for which ser
vice forty dollars should be paid, and
that twenty dollars worth of peanuts
and candy should be distributed among
the mourners. Ronton Globe.
A traveler, recently returned from
India, was relating bis traveling iui-
Eressions. "What a country that is!"
e exclaimed. "There everybody keeps
dozens of servants. I had ' four whose
sole business was to look after my
pipe. One brought it to me. another
tilled it, a third lighted it for me "
"And the fourth?" "The fourth
smoked it for me. Tobacco never
agreed with me." Mitcclanea.
Joseph Flanncr. well known as an
American resident of Paris, and a
liabitue of the Anglo-American resorts
in the quarter of the Grand Hotel, died
suddenly there lately. Mr. Flamu'r
first went to Paris some twenty-three
or twenty-four years ago as one of the
agents of -the Southern Confederacy,
charged with- the mission of negotiat
ing the rebel Government's bonds, ami
never returned to this country. Chi
cago Herald. t
Paul de Cassagnac, equally noted
as journalist, politician, aud duellist,
says his skill with the sword is not duo
to assiduous practice in youth. "I
never was a good fencer," he says,
"and never cared to be. I fenced only
to amuse myselL All that is said about
my studied tricks is pure invention.
The whole secret is this: I am pretty
strong and very quick of hand aud
eye. Then, I don't mind getting hurt.
If I am proud of atuthjng it is of be
ing a good shot. I modestly consider
myself one of the best in France."
An old woman named Sands died
on a small farm in Westchester County,
N. Y.. recently. She was supposed to
be poor. When her effects were ex
amined there was found sewed up in
an old petticoat $30,000 in greenbacks
and bank books showing deposits of
$110,000 aud $100,000 in bonds. In
addition to this Mrs. Sauds left real es
tate in various parts of New York City
and the farm upon which she resided.
The bulk of the estate, under the will,
wjll go to her four nephews Mortimer
Brown, of New York City; James and
William PupIv, of Port "Chester, and
another in Chicago. X. Y. Sun.
"A LITTLE NONSENSE.'
--Doctor: 'Mt is nothing but an at
t.iek of dyspepsia." Wife: "And what
does that come from. Doctor?" Doctor:
"That comes from the Greek, madam."
.V. Y. Indef.r.ndeiit.
"1'iie been a-boardin' wid a grass
widder lately." Interlocutor How
do you know she is a grass widow?"
"'Cause her husband died wid' hay
fever 'spose l'e a fool?" Exchange.
"Talking about signs," whispered
the smart bov at the head of the clas
to the dull boy at the foot. "1 think
they ought to "put 'signs of rain in
front of umbrella stores." Golden
--"Talking of theaters," said Fogg,
''the most successful stars I ever knew
were those which years ago got a cor
ner in the American flag, and have
had the field to themselves eveT since."
A man ia Sadieville. O., has a bul
let in his head which can be heard to
rattle when he moves about. His wife
might utilize him as a rattle to amuse
the baby, but he absolutely refuses to
have his better half "shake" bias.
She had but recently -arrived from
the "owld couutry." and being sen tout
in front of the house to water a largo
bed of crimsou petunias, the following
conversation took place between herself
and the youngest son and heir: "I
say. Bridget, what's tbe name of those
flowers?" "Shure, now. I don't like
to tell ye. 'Tisu't a noiee name they
have at all. dear; for 'twas up at the
house I heard your own mother calling
r " "" - -"- - fc
The Troy Tunes relates this inci
dent: "A woman entered a second
hand store on King street and sad,
'What do you buy here?' 'Most every
thing, replied ihe proprietor. The
visitor had a dried-apple pie under her
arm. The pie was miniw a good-sized
b:te. 'Well,' said the visitor, 'I bought
this pie of a baker. I don't like it I
will sell it to yon for money enough to
buy me some soda crackers.' She
failed to strike a bargain and passed
into the .street remarking. 'You find
more humbug in the world every
A San Antonio durkcy was on trial
forstealiug money from' a house on
Soledad street. Julian Van Slyck, the
attorney for the prisoner, in his ad
dress to the jury, said: "Gentlemen,
my client is a poor man. He was
driven by hunger and want to take the
small sum of money. All that be
wanted was sufficient money to buy
bread, for it is in evidence that he did
not take the pocket book con
taining three hundred dollars
that was in the same bureau draw
er. If be was a professional thief he
would hure 'certainly taken the pocket
book." The eloquent attorney for the
accused was interrupted by the convul
sive sobs of his client.- "Why do you
weep?" asked Judge Noonan, who was
on the bench. "Bekase I didn't see
dat ar pocket-book in de bureau draw
er,1" was the reply. Texas Sitings.
Checks After Death of Drawer.
Bankers and business mea geueralh
have suffered considerable inconven
ience by the delayed payment of drafts
and orders presented for payment after
the death of the drawer. The Legis
lature has just passed a law, and it haa
been signed by Governor Robinson,
by which savings banks can pay for
thirty days after the date of the
"order," and later if no actual notice
of the drawer's demise has been re
ceived, and national banks, trust safe
deposit, and all other depositories, are
allowed to pay but for tea days after
the drawer's death. This law'applies
to single-name 'checks, of course.
Henceforth, therefore, the only thing
to be considered in taking and de
positing such single checks is the draw
er's financial standing and character.
Hitherto tbe taker bad reason to be
afraid-that the drawer might die before
payment, anu u known to the payee
the holder would have to wait one or
two years, until the estate could be
settled, and it might then be proved
to be insolvent. Hence, a man alone
ia business bad not the same facilities
(at least so far as giving out checks ia
settlement of accounts) as he who had
a partaer. The ameadmeat of the
law just enacted was certainly called
for, aid business asea will be .dad tr
aaowiau u mm amm
Should be your crowning glory. Ajcr's
Hair Vfcjor will restore the vitality and
color of youth to hair, that has become
thia sad faded; aad, where the glands arc
act decayed or ab&orbcd,- will cause a new
growth oa bald heads.
WAV the youthful color and vior
JaUL X - of the hair be preserved to old
age? Scad tbe following-, from Mrs. G.
Norton, Somervifle, Mass. : "I have used
AVer's. Hair Ykjbr for the past 90 years;
and, although I am upwards of 60, my
hair b) as abundant aad gIosv to-day as
wheal was 25."
1MB assured, that atrial of Ayer's Hair
9Mt Vigor will convince you of its
writes : "Two year ago, my hair having
abnost entirely fallen out, I commenced
the use of Ayer's Flair Vigor. To-day my
hair h 29 Inches long, fine, strong, aud
V VII VIII 19 Ta " strengthened
JU&J1JSW Xlll by the- ue of
Ayer's Hair Vigor, the h:ur regains Its
youthful color and vitality. Rev. II. r.
Williamson, Davidson College, Mecklen
burg Co., N. C, writes: "I have used
Ayer's Hair Vigor for the lat ten years.
It Is an excellent preservative."
ws the use of Ayer's Hair Vigor, Geo.
A X A. Dadraan, Waterloo, Mo., hud
his hair restored to its original healthy
condition. He was nearly bald, and very
gray. He writes: "Only four bottles of
the Vigor were required to restore my
hair to its youthful color aud quautity." "
IIMI"Ul"l Arer'sI"a'r Vigor cures dis
tlwJJllJ eases of the scalp. F. II.
Foster, Princeton, Ind., writes: "I bad
been troubled for years with a disease or
the scalp; my head was covered with dan
druff, and the hair dry and harsh. Ayer'a
Hair Vigor gave me immediate relief,
cleansed the scalp, and rendered the hair
soft and pliable."
Ayer's Hair Vigor,
Sr. J. C. Aysr &. Co., Iowell, Haas., V. S. A.
For sale by all Druggists.
'"-BanSaS s ,
BaV'-lBaV3K?BBl V 'm bVB9,bBb
aaal iAaaas . av bi av w ar aaaar al aaaa
aaaav jaaaaa -mm. Hv: BaWBiS Bava
JBsaaaBin i" T'T El" BaBfi BaB
iaB3BaBA Bf H rVHBBJBaBPffiTaBBL
aaaaaKsaaaatB aj .BbtbwBTBbvSaIi bvBab
BaaajjBaajH av aaaaj jBaaaang bbbhbj
THE FALL TERM
A.t Fremont, Neltraslca,
SEPT. 1st, 1885.
UNUSUAL ADVANTAGES WILL UK
AFFOKDED 1'ElthOXS WISHING TO
THE BUSINESS DEPARTMENT
afford every opportunity for improve
ment. Penmanship, ltusiness Arithmetic,
itook-keeping. Commercial Correspond
ence, and imitation of actual hitnines.
We csn-.Mpeak with the utmost eontl
dence. of .the instruction given in our
Music 'Department. Miss Kose Conrad,
instructor or the Piano Forte, a graduate
of the Cornell Conservatory of Music, is
not only a brilliant performer, but a
pains-taking and superior teacher. The
imtrnctors in Vocal Culture, Nole.read
ing and Singing are thorough and suc
Tuition for ten weeks, $10 to $12 if
paid strictly in advance. This in
cludes admission to Normal and ISusiues
classes. Music, $12 for twenty lessons.
Short-hand, $12 for twenty lesson". Type
writing, with use of instrument, $10 lor
twelve wteks. Good day board can be
obtained in the College Heme at $2.2T per
week. Ilooms 50 eta. to 7'ct. per stud,
IV. I. JONl?., A. M.
President of Normal College,
SPEICE & NORTH.
Geaaral Agents for the Sale of
Ualoa Pacific, and Midland Pacific
R.S. Lands for sale at from $3.00 to $10.00
per acre for cash, or on five or ten years
time, ia annual payments to suit pur
chasers. We have also a large and
choice lot of other lands, improved and
unimproved,, for sale at low price and
en reasonable terms. Also business and
residence lots in the city. We keep a
complete abstract of title to all real es
tate in Platte County.
621 COLUNMUN, HEM.
BECKER & WELCH,
SHELL CREEK MILLS.
MANUFACTURERS AND WHOLE
SALE DEALERS IN
FLOUR AND MEAL.
OFFICE, COLUMBUS, NEB.
A book ofioo page.
Tbe best book for aa
maaveruser va con
sult, be be expert
AnAA.l t AtliAnvfWi.
of tbe coat of adverUslnaT.Tbe artvcrUserwbo
. .. . 1.vllv Unila In Iff hi. In
formation be require, while forlum who will
laveatoae bond red thousand dollars la ad
vmrtlatam. a scheme Is Indicated which will
meet fed every requirement, or tan bemmiU
rcAMNrfcact. la editloas bave been israed.
bSL wosCpaid. to any address for 10 casta.
WrtSB toGEO. P. ROWBXX. CO.,
US9prac9C.Prl&Uaff HcmaeSq.), tew York.
! A. & M. TURNER'S
BEST ; GOODS
The Lowest Prices!
CONSULT THE FOLLOWING ALPHA
A 114 1 J MM. Arithmetic. Arnold Intc
(fliMinliu'), AlL''lir:i, Antoj;r:n!i Al
liums, Alphahct li.ick.Aiuhor!i CuriN,
Ark. Arconleon, Abstract I.csi.il Cup.
HRILSIIIX H:ikL't!.l!:ily Toy.ltoo(v-.
Uihlcs, BcIN for Soys. Blank ltook.
Birthday Cirri, Bakut Uu-ric!.. boy
TooU.-hr.st, Balls, Banker' Cases,
hoy. Wapitis. Sleds and Wheelbar
rows. Butcher Books, Br:is-erij;cri Kil
lers, Bill -books, Bmik Str:iw, Banc
Balls and Bats.
4'A:II:!X, Cants. Calling Cards, i'trd
Case Combs. Comb Cases. Ciar Ca
ses, Checker Board. Children's Chairs,
Cups and Saucers (fancv) Circulating
Library, Collar and Ciitf Boxes, Copy
Books, Christmas Card. Chinese To i.
Crayons, Checker.. Chess. men, Crotiuej
DOMKMTIC Sewing Machines. Draw
ing l'aper. Dressing Cases, Drums,
Diaries. Drafts in books, Dolls, Dressed
Dolls, Dominoes, Drawing hooks.
i.lYKMfePI-:!. Hleiiientary school
hook, Erasers (blackboard), Kraer
FlCri'lO Books, Floral Albiim, Fur
aK A 11 M. KM ideographic, (loome
tries.fJIove boxe. toy (Suus,0 vrvscope
(to illustrate the laws of motion).
Aid:!!' Headers, haiuUome Holi
day gilt, Handglasses, Hobby. horse,
I.HIi!, (all good kinds and color). Ink
stands common and fancy).
JKWIX Cases, .lews harps.
KKCiMof ink, Kitchcu bets.
I.KIHaEatM, Ledger paper, Legal cap.
Lunch baskets, Lookiugglasses.
MAKOX & Hamlin Oran. .Magnets,
Music lmxe, Magazines, Mut'ichr
eups. Mouth organs. Memorandum.
Music bonks. Music holders, Machine
oil. Mats, Moderator's record, Muci
iKKIslKM for sewing machines. Note
OKWArVN. Oil for scwiti- m::t hiiie.
Organ stools. Organ M-:it.
PKKIOltlCAI.M. Pictures, l'tizlc
Mocks, lreents, Picture book. Piano-,
Pen, Papetries, Pencil. Purses. Pol
ish for furniture, P.imphlet cases, paper
cutter.. Paper fasteners. Picture puz
zles. Picture frames. Pocket hooks,
Perlumery and Pertumerv cai. Paper
racks, Peucil holders.
KKWAKI) cards, Kubber lulls, Hub.
SCHOOL books, Sewing stands, School
Satchels. Slates, Stereoscopes and pic
tures, Scrap books. Scrap pictures.
Sewing machine needle. Scholar's com
panions. Specie purses. Singing toy
canaries, Meris for boy, Shawl straps.
Tt:iKMC:01K.i. Toys of all kinds,
children's Trunk, Thermometers,
Tooth brushes (folding). Tea bets for
girls. Tool chests for boys, Ten-pin set
for boy., Tooth picks, Tin toys.
VIOIjIKM and strings. Vases.
WOODBMinCJI-: Organs. Work bas
ket., Waste baskets, Whips (with
case), Webster's dictionaries, Weather
glasses. Work boxes. Whip for hoys.
Wagons for boys. What-not, Wooden
Bennta Street, "Journal" Bulling.
DR. WARNS SPECIFIC No. 1.
A Certain Cure for Nervous Debility,
Seminal Weakness, Involuntary Kinis
sions, Spermatorrhea, and ail diseases of
the geuito-urinary organs caused by self
abuse or over indulgence.
Price, $1 00 per box, six boxes $.r.(H.
OR- WARNS SPECIFIC No. 2.
For Kpilcptic Fits, Mental Anxiety,
Loss of Memory, Softening of the Brain,
and all those diseases of the brain. PrUe
$1.00 per box, six boxes $.".0O.
DR. WARNS SPECIFIC No. 3.
For Impotence, Sterility in either sex.
Loss of Power, premature old age, and all
those diseases requiring a thorough in
vigorating of the sexual organ. Price
$2.00 per box, six boxes $10.00.
DR. WARN'S SPECIFIC No. 4.
For Headache, Nervous Neuralgia, and
all acute diseases of the nervous syMcni.
Priee S0c per box, six boxes $i.r0.
DR. WARNS SPECIFIC No. 5.
For all diseases caused by the over-iine
of tobacco or liquor. This remedy is par
ticularly efficacious iu averting palsy unri
delirium tremens. Price $1.00 per '.ox,
six boxes $..0O.
We Guarantee a Cure, or agree to re
fund double the money paid. Certiticate
in each box. This guarantee applie to
each of our live Specitics. Sent by mail
to any address, secure from observation,
on receipt of price. Be careful to mention
tbe number of Specitiu wanted. Our
Specitics are only recommended for spe
cific diseases. Beware of remedies war
ranted to cure all these diseases with one
medicine. To avoid counterfeits and al
ways secure tae genuine, order only from
DOWTV Sc Clll.W,
19-1 Columhu. Neb.
Health is Wealth!
Da E. C. West's Nxbte and Bbais Trxat
UB(T, a guaranteed specific for Hysteria, Dizzi
ness. ConTutoions, Jr'its. Nerrous. Neuralgia.
Headache. Nervous Prostration caused by the usa
of alcohol or tobacco. Wakefulness, Mental .De
pression. Softening of the Brain resultingin in
sanity and leading to misery, decay and death,
. ... M.l A.. UAnMAa Iiaa nflui,F
in either ser. Involuntary Losses andHpermat.
- - i juhsai lMia.uTapt!(in ftf thnnrnin.Mli
abase or oTer-indulgenco. Each box, contains
one month's treatment. flXO a box. or six boxes
CorlSJO. sent by mail prepaidou receipt or price.
WB GVAMAXTEt: SIX BOXES
To curs any case. With each order receiTedbyBS
for six boxes, accompanied with fSJJO. we will
send tha purchaser our written cuarantee to re
fund the money if the treatment doeanottaect
cure. Qaaraateea issued only by
JOHN O. WEST & CO.,
M2 W. MADISON ST., CHICAGO, ILL.,
Solo Prop's West's Lirce Pills.
Pjiy.l, fill H4m In, liiliiulm, OiimipHnti tuTinnmn
w owl car fck Wa' ViUkl ttt TCli. wbra U t im.
Meatsn strictly coacpM wkk. TUy partly futU,ai
mmrblX ta t)r MllihfHno. Sagw Coated. Luf bsiM,cw
lhUCKai.lSct. WtmltbrtiliiutiUu. Brwv.ol
MilwWH Ml iBlUrtnw. Tk ita! Bwfecta4 Mir T
ohm e. WEST ca.ni A ll W. IMIm Si, Ckiat.
iirXTlT more money than at anything
VV I l e'se br taking an agency for
-i"L the best selling book out. Be
ginaers succeed grandly. None fall.
Terms free. Hallktt Book Co , Port
land, Maine. 4-32-7
JamTU 7Z7 "Aim 1
Ibbbbbbbbbbbbb l smmmmvaawmmai .am ammmmmmmmmammmmmmmi
Powered by Open ONI