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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (May 10, 1882)
"WEDNESDAY, 31AY 10, 18SJ
:ks Pirtc:, Cd-sits. lTrt.. a: sece-si
-4 SUCCESSFUL LAWYER.
He heaped the loirio pile on pile, the evidence
The counsel on the other s'd he hinted was a
Be said his client was a well-known gentleman
And that bis s:de hud never paid their witneas-
es a do!lir.
Be told them of the orphan's moans, the base
And, pilinirpsthos mountain deep, moved all
the Court to tears.
He said: " I came not hero for fame, nor yet
for paltry gold;
But justice is h thing-, my friends, that never
can be sold:"
And then at the rascality filled with indignant
Declared the act unparalleled in any previous
He said that such a perjured wretch ne'er
breathed beneath the sun,
And, rising in his legal miht, asked that the
right be done.
Be quoted Ulackstone. Chitty, Bumm, that no
owi could dispute.
And said bi "chain of reasoning" no lawyer
He told the " honest, lawful men" to judge
aioae by fact.
Ab4 not be swayed by empty speech and mere
Be wound up witn a glowing scene that
moistened every eye.
And took bis seat to meditate on his stupen
SUPERSTITIONS OF THE MIXES.
Stories of the Sunn-natural Told
Aaoag the Mexican and Indian Miners
r the Car West.
As a class, there are no more super
stitious men th:iu miners, nor have any
class more strange and eerie concep
tions, it has been so from the earliest
time. To the miners we owe some of
the most beautiful as well as some of
the most grotesque and horrible of the
many strange beliefs which have exist
ed amongthe uneducated. The men in
the far North invented the Trolls, odd
little beings supposed to act as guard
ians over the treasures of the earth.
These in Germany and the Hartz Mount
ains became the Nixies, the name being
changed while the beings remained the
rune. In the Hartz the terrible
Demons or Spirits of the Mines were
supposed to live, beings who seemed to
unite in themselves all of the cruelty
and the malevolence the mind of man
could conceive. Farther south, in
Spain, the subtly-imagined Diablilas
peeped out of every globule of quick
silver at Almadeu. We have to-day in
the divining-rod, so firnilj' believed in
by Cornish miners, a relic, and one of
the few that remain to us, of the days
"of the alchemists, of the search for the
philosopher's stone, and the belief in
the subtle, and, one might almost say,
spiritual affinities of the metals.
xae miners oi me n est represent a
tnnge conglomeration of men. The
English, Welsh and Germans brought
all of the Old World superstitions with
them, and found themselves among a
class of men in the Mexican camps who
could equal and in some cases surpass
theirs. The Mexituins drew their tales
from two sources, their own Spanish fore
fathers, and the Aztecs and Toltecs,
found in the country when their fore
fathers conquered it Strange are the
beliefs and stories that have grown out
of the union of thee superstitious ele
ments. Things are lucky or unlucky
because possibly some worker in the
Hartz said so 500 3'cars ago, or some old
Toltec had a lit of nightmare at an
equally remote period. One of the
most commonly believed tales is that of
the " Step Devil." The men tell you
that in some of the oldest mines there
fa an evil spirit which takes the form of
a deformed dwarf. A peculiarity about
him is that he has immensely long arms,
anus o long that he can take off 'his
sandals without stooping. This dwarf.
when there is any danger in the mine,
such as a cave, goes up the ladders,
lifting himself by his arms, with his
legs hanging free. As lie passes each
rung he kicks or stamps it out of the
side pieces, so that the men when they
attempt to fly find that all means of
climbing out of the mine are destroyed.
uic very uiu mines, wmeii worn
"u' ") "Jt iuuians, iiwrc were no
ladders, but in their place trunks of
trees jn which notches had been cut,
and the Indians climbed by inserting
the big toes hi the notches. When the
Indians tell j-ou of the "Step Devil"
they say that he has on each big toe an
enormous jiail and tliat as he climbs the
tree trunk he uses this to coupe the
notch cut by splitting off the part on
which the. toe rests. The story is evi
dently an Indian one,, although altered
by Mexicans to suit the change in the
means of going up and down the shaft
THE MADRE P'OUO.
A story about which there is a fas
cination which it is impossible to resist
when, you hear men tell it is that of the
"Home of the Gold." Somewhere in
Southwestern New Mexico, in the Sierra
Mad re, it is said there is a "wonderful
valley. Small, inclosed by high, roeky
walls, and accessible only through a se
cret passage, which isknown'tobut few,
is this extraordinary place. It is about
ten acres in extenChas running through
it a stream which waters it thoroughly
and makes it a perfect paradise, with
its exquisite flowers and beautiful trees.
In it are. thousands of birds of the most
brilliant plumage. Running across it
i a leiLre of Dure cmld -(limit thirl i-
. ... .-' r
feet wide, which glistens in the sunligh't I
fte a great goiaen belt The stream
crosses this ledge, and as it runs, mur
murs around blocks of yellow metal as
other streams do among the ebules.
This ledge of gold is supposed to be
solid gold and to run down into the cen
ter of the earth. The legend is of In
dian origin, and around it clusters a
numberof Indian storiescin which the
name of the ill-fated Montezuma occurs
frequently. The descendants of the
Aztecs believe firmly that the time will
come when Montezuma will return and
free them from the domination of the de
scendants of the Conquistodores. They
believe that the money necessary fortius
work will be taken from Madre d'Oro
The secret of the entrance into the
valley is supposed to be carefully mardetl
by a tnbe of Indians living near it, and
among themdt is only communicated to
the eldest men amid the solemn cere
monies of the medicine lodr. ir.,--nn-
such a story to work upon, there is little I
wonaermai me vivid imagination of
the Mexicans should have built upon it
tales of men who have found thiswnn.
derf ul place. One is that a certain Jose '
.Ait arrac wuu, .wauueruig through the
mountains in search fo- game,"saw the
valley from the top of . ae of the walls.
Finding, that he could not hopu to enter
it by t climbing down, he took up his
abode with the Indians who tniarj the
canyon leading into it Thedauo-hter
of the chief fell in love with him ami be
trayed the secret to him. Exactly how
she found it out they do not tell. Hav
ing beeen shown the entrance, Josi
went in and would possibly have got
away with some of the gold had he not
weighted himself down to such an ex
tent that he could not get up the declivi
ty at the lower end of the passage. He
was discovered and the Indians sacri
ficed him on the golden ledge with all
of the terrible ceremonies of the old
Aztec religion. The girl, in despair at
losing him, threwTerself from the high
walls into the valley below. Hundred
of prospectors have spent months of toil
trying to find the Madre d'oro, but it is
scarcely necessary to say.'-with no re
mit Miners in the quartz mines believe
that the rats there are thousands of
them in mines that are being worked
can tell when an earthquake or oave in
ie waustx the mine is conune. Thev
i that before anything of the kind
uieraxfi-wui be seen a,riiioi'"to"
case may be, in which the ore is hoist
to the surface. There is a similar be
lief about the cockroaches, which aire
said to crawl np the slfaft before a ac
It sometimes happens that in the clay
"casings," or seams of clay between
the ledge and the reckon each side of
it, bunches of wire silver will be found.
In Northwestern Arizona this is fre
quently the case. These bunches con
sist of pure silver in the form of wire
curiously matted together. The Indians
and Mexicans account for them by say
ing that the silver dislikes the .rock in
which it finds itself and tries to get out.
Beaching the clay it liuds that there is
more rock beyoml and so, in despair,
stays where it is. A more fanciful ex
planation which is sometimes given is
that the matted bunches of silver wire
were originally little snakes turned into
metal and placed in the clay as a pun
ishment for having offended the Great
One of the oldest superstitions is that
connected with the arastras." An
arastra" is a circular pit about two
feet deep, lined with stones, in which,
by the aid of a mule, stones are dragged
around. The silver ore being put into
it is ground, water being added during
the grinding, into a slime. It is proba
bly the most ancient method still em
ployed for pulverizing ore. Sometimes,
the .Mexicans tell you, the arastras"
get bewitched, and will not work. It is
of no use to relieve them with fresh
stones, nor does it do any good to put in
new grinding blocks. The arastra"
is bewitched, and that is the end ot it
If the witch who has done the mischief
cannot be found there is one thing
to do. The owner gets a three
ball cacti vegetable globes cov
ered with thorns and splits each
into four parts. He places these twelve
pieces at equal distances around tho
edge of the "arastra" pit. He then
fills the pit with finely broken ore and
starts the mule up. The grinding-stoues
being drawn arouud for about an hour,
the machine is slopped and the ore
carefully examined. It is always found
to be ground more in one place than
in another. The owner takes the pieces
of cactus near the part where the ore is
not ground, and burns them to ashes.
The other pieces he throws away.
Having put an end to the spell by this
operation, he relieves the "arastra,"
puts in fresh grinding-stones, and find
ing that it works all right, points tri
umphantly to the fact as proving that
it had been bewitched and cured by the
cactus. When asked why the cactus
removes the spell from the "arastra,"
the Mexican will say, "My father
did it," and there is an end to the ques
tions. A belief common, especially among
the Indians, is that the lairs in which
great snakes keep themselves are always
over gold veins. One of the most com
mon snakes in the southwest is called
the "gold snake" from this cause.
Manj' Mexicans are infected with this
superstition, and the writer remembers
one case wnere a large gom snaxe was
killed in Southern Arizona, not very far
from a small village. Before ten o'clock
next day two men had been killed in the
fight which arose between those anxious
to locate a mine on the spot where the
snake had been found. It is scarcely
necessary to say that a careful examina
tion failed to snow a ledge or anything
like one. For all that, the location,
when made, was sold to some enterpris
ing capitalists in the neighborhood. K.
A Contraband Mule.
" Andy, let's go a-swimming.'
"Well. Harry, I don't know
that. I'd like to take a food
but, you see. there's no telling how soon
we may move."
It was the afternoon of Tuesday. June
14, 1864. We had been marching and
fighting almost continually for five
weeks and more, from the Wilderness
to Spotteylvania, over the North Anna,
in at Cold Harbor, across the Pamunky
and over the Chickahominy to the banks
of the James River, about a mile and a
half from which we were now lying-,
along a dusty road. Wo were sun
burned, covered with dust aad general
ly used up, so that a swim in the river
would be a refreshment indeed.
Having learned from one of the offi
cers that the intention evidently was to
remain where we then were until the
entire corps should come up, 'and that
we should probably cross the river at
or somewhere near that point we re
solved to risk it
So, over a corn-field we started at a
good pace. We had not gone far when
we discovered a mule tied up ina.oump
of bushes, with a rope around. Vfeneck.
And this long-eared animaL. somewhat
"gothic" in his style oi architecture,
we decided, after a solemn, council of
war, to declare contraband, and forth
with we impressed; him into service, in
tending to retottn, him, after our bath,
on our way back to camp. Untying
Bucephatus from the bush, we mount
ed, Andy ia front and I on behind, each
armed with a switch, and we rodealono
gayly enough, with our feet dangling
among the corn-stalks.
For a while all went well. We fell
to talking about the direction we had
come since leaving the Pamunky; and
Andy, who was usually such an author
ity on matters geographical sad' astro
nomical that on the march he was
known in the company as the- " com
pass," confessed to me as we-rode on
that he himself had been somewhat
turned about, m that march over the
"And as for me," said I, "I think
this is the awfullest country to get
turned about in that I ever did see.
Win-, And while we were lying over
there in the road it seemed to me that
the sun was going down in the east
Fact! But when took my canteen and
went over a little ridge to the rear to
look for water for couee, I found, on
looking up, that on that side of the
ridge the sun was all right. Yet when
I got back to the road and looked
around, judge of my surprise when I
found the whole thing had somehow
swung around again, and tho sun was
goinj' down in the east"
' Whoa dar! Whoa dar! Whar you
gwme win aat are mule o' mine? Whoa,
The mule stopped stock-still as w
caught sight of the black head and faoe
of a darkey boy peerins forth from tlae
a tobacco house that we were
Possibly he was the owner of
the whole plantation now, and the mule
i ete might be his only live-stock.
"Where are we going, Pompey?
Why, we're going 4on to Richmond!'"
" On ter Richmond An' wid dat dar
mule o' mine! I. lar to goodness,
sodgers, can't git ajongwidout dat mule
Better git off'n da.t dar mule!"
" Whip him up, Andy!" shouted L
"Come up, Bucephalus!" shouted
And we both laid on right lustily.
But never an inch would that miserable
mule budge-from the position he had
taken on hearing the darkey's voice,
until all of a sudden, as if a mine had
been sprung under our feet, there was
such a striking out of heels and such an
uncomfortable elevation in the rear, the
angle of which was only increased by
increased cudgeling, that at last with
an enormous spring, Andy and I were
sent flying off into the corn.
" Yi! yi! yi! Didm't I say better git
off'n dat dar mule o' mine? Yi! yi! yiT'
Laughing as heartily as the darkey at
our misadventure, we felt that it would
be safer to make for the river afoot
We had a glorious plunge in the waters
of the James, and returned to the regi
ment at sunset greatly refreshed.
.Burjr -b. juejftrm Oi.
crowd into the cajjw or btrcScrs.
Work at Hell Gate.
It is known in an indefinite way that
General Newton is preparing near Hell
Gate an explosion compared to which
that of thesummerof 1876 will seem insig
nificant. Then the area of rock blown
up was about three acres ; at the next
affair of the kind about eleven acres of
rock will be treated to dynamite at
As soon as the work of blowing np
Ilallet's Point Reef was ended, General
Newton turned bis attention to Flood
Kock, a still, more important obstacle to
safe navigation than was nallet's Reef.
The position of the rock will be seen by
reference to any map of the city. It
lies off Hallet's Point, to the northwest
of the reef blown up in 187C, and is
right in the center of what would be the
natural Hell Gate channel. It marks
a Teef of rocks covering about eleven
acres of the river bed. It was resolved
to treat this reef, in precisely the same
manner which proved so successful in
tho case of Hallet's Reef. Work contin
ued upon small and uncertain appro
priations until 1878, when it was suspend
ed for want of money. In 1879 the old
nl&nt of drilling machines, boilers, etc.,
brought to Flood Rock after work at
Hallet's Reef was done, began to give
way, and it was not until 1880 that new
and better machinery was at work. The
system followed is exactly similar to
that pursued at Hallet's Reef. Galleries
about seven feet wide and six feet high
are cut eight feet apart, running at
right angles to each other, the result
being somewhat like a map of the city
with the streets running very closely to
gether, the blocks between galleries re
presenting solid columns of rock, eight
feet square, which hold up the roof of
the mine. The reef is irregular in
shape, with an extreme length of about
1,100 feet, and a width varying from
600 to 200 feet. At present about seven
acres of the reef have been honeycombed,
the work proceding at about the rate of
500 feet of gallery in a month, the rock
having to be drilled and then blasted.
Then drilling and blasting goes on con
stantly at a depth of 50 to 60 feet under
the water. During 1880, the number of
linear feet cut was 4,346, to effect which
it was necessary to sharpen the drills
57,016 times, to make 43,011 blasts, and
to remove 12,941 cubic yards of loose
rock. The wages paid the drillers
and helpers for this work amounted to
$23,347, and the explosives cost
The depth below low water of the
floor of the lowest gallery is sixty-four
feet, the depth of the galleries varying
with the depth of the rock below the
surface. After the blast is over, and
the loose rock has been cleared away,
there will be a depth of twenty-six feet
at low water. The thickness of rock
between the roof of the tunnels and the
bed of the river is about thirteen feet
When the time comes for raising the
whole roof at once charges of dynamite
will be placed through the mine and
exploded by electricity.
The explosion at Hallet's Reef was
followed by five years of dredging to
remove the loose rock. This was done
by the Atlantic Dredging Company,
who have taken out about eighty-live
thousand tons of broken rock. The
entire reef has- now disappeared; and
there is a uniform depth of twenty-six
feet at low tide where six years ago was
om of the terrors of navigation through
Besides, the large reefs that have made
Hell Gate-so dangerous, there are sev
eral Toeks which can be treated with
doste of dynamite without resorting to
tunnelling. Several have already been
destroyed, among them Way's Reef,
Shell Drake Rock, Coenties Reef, Heel
taps Rocks, Diamond Reef, in the East
River, and some smaller obstacles to
vessels. Drilling was begun long ago
upon Pot Rock and the Frying-Pan
Rocks, both of which reefs can be re
moved at any time. On the north side
of the channel are two small rocks,
known a& Great Mill Rock and Little
Mill Rook ; they are not in the way of
vessels, and will be made the suppo'rt
for a dike between the two rocks, made
oi the material from Flood Rock.
The work of improving the East Riv
er and Hell Grate was decided upon in
1867, and General Nawton began work
in 1S69. His original estimate of the
costwas $5,000,000. Up to the 30th of
June, 1881, the appropriations have been
$2,900,000, and the expenses $2,616,000.
General Newtoo is confident that the
entire work can be finished without
exceeding- the original estimate, unless
constant, interruptions, due to lack of
money,, interfere with the work and
scatter the' men. About four years more
will be necessary to -complete the whole
whole work if the tunnelling at Flood
Rock goes on sufficiently fast to allow
the final explosion to occur abont two
years hence. The present appropria
tion for the work will be exhausted in
less than two months, and unless Con
gress makes smother appropriation at
once the men who have learned to do
the work will be dispersed, the machin
ery will deteriorate, and when work be
gins again much time and money will
Be wasted in teaching new men. N. Y.
A Family Breeze Over Protection
Mr. Breezy, I wish you would tell
me something abont this protection and
free trade," said Mrs. Breezy, putting
down the evening paper and seating
herself near the ctmter-table. "What
do they mean by it, anyway?"
44 Wei, my dear, said Mr. Breezy, 4,it
isn't a question yon would be interested
' ' And whynot, I should like to know ?' '
asked Mrs. Breezy. "I suppose you mean
it is something; a woman can not under
stand." 44 Well, yowsex usually leave political
economy to our side of the house," said
Mr. Breezy, smiling pleasantly. "But
of course some women enjoy that sort
of subject, but very few of them."
44 No, said Mrs. Breezy, giving her
work: basket a jerk across the table.
"Once in a while there is a woman with
brains enough to read something above
a dime novel, but, of course, the major
ity of us are poor, weak-minded crea
tures,, without sense enough to go in
(when it rains unless we are told to by
you men. To talk .abont anything but
' fashions or the cost of a dinner stamps
a woman as orignal at once. I suppose
you think I wouldn't understand a word,
no matter how hard you tried to drive
an idea into my poor weak head."
44 1 don't know dear I "
44 Yes, you do, Mr. Breezy," said
Mrs. Breezy, bringing her hand down
with a vigorous slap upon the table.
"You know it would be rank nonsense
to talk about politics, or anything of that
sort to a woman; and, of course, you
are right. We women are only fit to
tend children, mend your clothes and
44 Talking," said Mr.. Breezy, inad
vertently. 44 Mr. Breezy, you always try to bluff
me off I that is, you never treat me
with the slightest consideratioa. You
44 Suppose we drop the subject," said
Mr. Breezy, smiling faintly.
No, Mr. Breezy, I will be treated as
a human being, and not as a mar a mur.
Mr. Breezy, will you or will you not tell
me about protection ' and and
trade?" said Mrs. Breezy, setting her
self in her chair and fixing her husband's
eye with her own.
44 Of course, dear," said Mr. Breezy.
"Where shall I begin?"
44 Now, Mr. Breezy, there you go
again," said Mrs. Breezy. "You al
ways imagine me a subject for, ridicule.
Mr. Breezy, how should r know where
you are to begin?" ---
"Well. sutoDoee we becin with our-
selves," saiOfr. Breasy. ; .
t - Jl a-
The Sick-Room Hints aad Remedies.
Wcshoiild all know how to treat the
more common forms of diseases,- and.
not run to the doctor or apothecary for
pome drug. Indeed our kitchens con
tain many effective remedies, if we only
know how to administer them. Pure air,
exercise, bathing and proper food aro
great foes of disease, and we should
ward off its approaches by uf ot them.
A cold is one of the most common ways
by which we become aware tint some
of nature's laws have been violated, and
we are apt to make more light ol it as
being "only a cold," when in fact it is
a serious thing and we should guard
against its recurrence. Every cold, no
matter where it makes itself felt, causes
a decrease of vital force and is the pre
cursor of other forms of disease.
We should not keep our rooms so
warm in winter aa to make a salaman
der faint, nor so cold as to cause a polar
bear to sigh for an additional overcoat,
but try to strike a medium temperature
where human beings can be comforta
ble. Flannels should be worn by all
during the cold months, and those who
are delicate should never discard them.
In case of colds give hot lemoiade,
pennyroyal or cilmint teas, in sufficient
quantity to cause perspiration. This
will often be all that is required if done
in season, and c ire U exercised next
day. A gargle of salt and water is ex
cellent for sore throat, i know a fam
ily where all make use of this before
breakfast every day in th; year, and
they are singularly free from all throat
and lung difficulties. If diphtheria is
feared use a gargle of sulphur and water,
or have a little of the dry powder blown
into the throat through a quill. Sweet
oif and mustard or goose oil applied to
the outside, mustard paste on the chest
and back, and onions or drafts on the'
feet are always to be depended on.
Barberry water, made by pouring a
a enpful of boiling water' on a large
spoonful of barberry preserves, makes
an excellent drink to use in case of
fevers and cold, and is said to be an al
most sure cure for scarlet fever if used
early and freely. I know of many cases
in which it has proved beneficial?
For fever give cooling drinks, bathe
often under a sheet, keep the bowels
open, and the head cool by the applica
tion of cloths wet in eold water, and
drafts on the soles of the feet. Give a
shuttle diet of milt, gruel, rice water,
tapioca, beef tea, and broth when the
patient can bear it. For indigestion,
find out what caused the trouble and
avoid it in the future. Live simply, ex
ercise regularly, .and you will be well
before you know it. Headache is usu
ally caused by some derangement of that
great center, the stomach, or of the
nervous system.. For the first a tea
spoonful of powdered charcoal taken in
cold water will often give relief, while
ior the latter rest and quiet are the only
remedies which can be applied at the
time, and then the system should be.
regulated so as to bring the refractory
nerves into subjection.
Earache is a" pain from which chil
dren ofteu suffer severely. It may be
relieved by putting in the ear a bit of
cotton dipped in sweet oil in which is
done up a pinch of black pepper; the
core of a roasted onion is also good.
Great care should be ued when doctor
ing this delicate organ, as it is easily in
jured. Lug ache is another of child
hood's trials. When one of the little
ones is thus alli'cted, wring a crash
towel out of wild water, wrap closely
about the limb, cover with several thick
nesses of flannel, and before you would
think it possible the child will be asleep,
for this pain usually comes on in the
night. Cramp in the limbs may often bo
cured by tying a bandage tightly around
between the spot where the pain is lo
cated and the body. Friction and heat
will accelerate the cure.
Borax is almost a certain cure for the
bites of all insects, and a strong solution
should be kept on hand and applied
freely whenever occasion requires. Bee
stings may be removed by the applica
tion of half a raw onion ; wet clay and
hartshorn are also good. Common
baking soda is one of die best remedies
for burns, . and possesses the merit of
always being at hand in the place where
burns are most likely to occur. Pulver
ized charcoal is a convenient and effect
ive remedy, and if kept on for several
hours will prevent a scar. ' In case the
burn is so bad as to take off the 'skin,
creosote water is the best thiti!? to use :
" 9 vhA Ttf A- fh b kal Mv-hJ nsa
u mia utui uut uc uuuuucu, wuuu suui
(not coal) pounded, sifted and mixed
with lard will do nearly as well, as such
soot contains oreosole. If you can get
hold of nothing else put on plenty of
wheat flour and let it remain, kopt in
place by a bandage.
Continued vomiting is often relieved
by immersing the bands and wrists in
as hot water as can be borne ; meanwhile
give the sufferer clear cold coffee or
cream of tartar water. When hoarse
avoid using the voice as far as possible,
meanwhile taking the foBowiujr mixture :
Beat well the whites of two
add two tablespoonfuls of white sugar,
stir this into a pint of lukewarm water,
grate in half a nutmeg and mix thor
oughly. Drink often. This usually acts
like a charm in banishing this trouble
We should bear with all the fortitude
at our command such pain can not be
removed, and not make the lives of those
with whom we associate as miserable as
our own, yet we should not forget that
pain is always a signal of danger, a sign
that we have transgressed some of na
ture's laws, and we should rigidly ex
amine ourselves and see wherein we have
erred, and then profit by experience.
Many times difficulty is experienced
in changing the bed linen with a person
in bed, though nothing is easier when
one understands how to proceed. Have
everything that is required thoroughly
aired. Move the patient as far as posi
ble to one side of the bed, and remove
all bnt one pillow. Untuck the lower
sheet and cross sheet and push them
toward the middle of (he bed. Have a
sheet ready folded or rolled the wrong
way and lay it on the mattress, unfold
ing it enough to tuck it in at the sides.
Have the cross sheet prepared as de
scribed before, and roll it also, laying it
over the under one and tucking it in,
keeping the unused portions of both still
rolled. Move the patient over to the
side thus prepared for him; the soiled
sheets can thus be drawn away, the
clean ones completely unrolled and
tucked in on the other side. The cov
erings need not be removed while this is
being done ; they can be pulled out from
the foot of the bed and wrapped around
the patient. To chauge the upper sheet,
take off the spread and lay the clean
sheet over the blankets, securing the
upper edge to the bed with a couple of
pins; standing at the foot, draw out the
blankets and soiled sheets, replace the
former and put on the spread. Lastly,
change the pillow cases. Hill Georget in
Sitting-Bull's antithesis among the
Indians appears to be Iron Bull, of the
Crow tribe. When the latter heard
recently that gold had been found at
Clark's Fork, on the Crow Reservation,
he sent word to the towns that no Crow
objected to mining, and that the pale
faces might dig as much as they pleased.
Iron Bull's theory is that, though the
whites may be temporarily checked,
nothing on earth car stop them from
controuing the whole continent in a
little while. Chicigo Tribune.
Queen Victoria has presented Marie
Roze with a bracelet set with seven soli
taire stones four diamonds of great
purity and considerable size, two sap
phires and a ruby in memory of one
evening lat December when the artist
sang before the Queen at Osborne.
What has been unjustly gained can
not be justly kept
Farming as an Occupation.
Natural bia or inclination is first of
all to be considered in deciding on the
business of life. I knew two brothers,
born and rai.-cd on a farm one of them
look no interest iu any of lite work go
ing on, unles-j some machinery wis con
nected with it. He was made for a me
chanic, and alter he hail finished a school
course, and had made a trip to Europe,
he informed his friends that, his desire
to build steam engine's was overpower
ing, and that ha would consider it to be '
doing him no favor to give him the
farm. So he went into a machine shop
and, in the old way, learned a trade.
The other brother, from early youth,
took the greatest interest in all the op
erations of the farm, and during vaca
tions from school was with the men in
thc-field.. He knew the places for all
the tools, and the names of all the ani
mals. Iu his ease the inclination to be
:i farmer was as decided as was that of
his brother to be a worker in iron. Each
was allowed to ad.pt the desired busi
ness though it is not often that views
of boys in their teens are thus decided
it is generally easy to find out something
of the biases and adaptations and gen
erally when a boy thinks he knows what
he wants to d it is well to let him try
to do it. If he has had no experience of
actual farm, work, except such as has
been derived from summer vacations
from city life and thinks he would like
to be a farmer 1 would advise follow
ing the example of a well-known New
York merchant, who had one among his
somewhat numerous flock who felt that
be must be a farmer. This did not
meet the views of the father, and much
was said to induce the boy to follow his
brothers into the store, but it availed
nothing. It so happened that there was
in the family an ancestral farm, of many
acres and line buildings that innde the
summer home and on which lived a
"farmer," who conducted matters so as
not to have the balance of' disburse
ments and receipts too heavy on the
The father propocd to the son that
he should go to 'he house of the "farm
er" and spend the winter, in all respects
living with and sharing the food and
woikof the hired men, eating his tvi
o'clock breakfast, and doing his part of
pig-feeding, stable-cleaning, and all
other nupU-asaiit chores and report
how he liked it the next spring. This
plan was strictly carried out, and in due
time theyoungsU rwas clear in his mind,
that he was made for the farmer he be
came, and in a few years his name wa.
known throughout the whole land. If 1
should give any more of his history, I
would tell everybody who he is, if, in
deed,-1 have not already.
Boys raised in cities and surfeited witl
schools often imagine that the would
like to be farmers. Let them follow the
example I have given, only extending it
through a whole year, taking the sanie
relative positions that they would be
forced to take in learning any other
business. Begin at the bottom, stepping
on the lowest rounds of the ladder, ami
touching every one, until the top is
reached. This is the way to qualify a
man for managing a farm. Young men
who have taken this way of learning
farming, though their early years havo
been passed along paved streets, and in
schooLs, have made some of our most
There is another road that is oftee
taken, but not often with lasting satis
faction. Buy or otherwise acquire a
farm, subscribe for several agricultural
papers, purchase books on farming,hire
a farmer, purchase a full set of tools and
machinery. Learn by experiment, and
if your money and zeal hist long enotigU
and you work hard you will fi unity make
a good farmer, but your education will
be a costly one. I knew a case quita
like this :
A farmer's son was " educated," a
people say. He had his tour years of
classical study allowed him by a rule of
the Court, and spent nearly his threw
years m a lawyer's office, when circum
stances made it necessary for him to gc
to his father's house, and assume thfl
management of nearly one thousand
acres of land perhaps one-third of ic
called "improved" that is, it had been
partly cultivated. Los: heaps, piles of
stones, clumps of bushes, and swampy
places adorned the fields. The owner
was just twenty-one years old without;
other knowledge of practical farming
than such as he had acquired in observ -ins:
the rude processes of that long ago
time during vacations, and one summer
with the hired men when a lad of six
teen years. He found his lands in tiv
occupancy of tenants, who must remain
for one season. He went into the field-i
with these tenants and worked without
other compensation than instruction in
the use of tools, and devoted the season.
to trying to learn enough to justify his
attempting the management of the farm.
The next year he assumed direction
Foremen were not yet invented to helj
incompetent farmers. He had a team;
plow, etc., for his own use, and for a
while worked with his men, but soon
learned that seventy-five cents a day
would pay a better man than he was for
holding a plow, and that his eyes to
overlook the whole work were worth
more than his hands driving a team.
But the perplexities he suffered, that;
came of the ignorance of this "edu
cated" man, can not be recounted. No
one so well as himself realized how littla
he knew of farming, and he looked
among his neighbors for advisers. It so
happened that there were three very
successful farmers, living in different
directions, but all within a few minutes"
ride of his home. They were very un
like in their ways and tastes, but all.
able men. Each of these men wa.
freely consulted; not all at once, bn.
separately. They would not have en
joyed a common talk, but each alone
liked to help this beginner and many
ride he took to their houses for advice,
and the habits he then formed of inquiry
into farm management never left him
At school he had studied chemistry or.
then taught, and could understaudingly
read Lieuig's works, which about tha.
time startled the world by attempting U
reduce agriculture to a icience. Agri
cultureal newspapers were diligently
read, and much hard work of imud and
body was done by this man ; farming
Kiid, and he became an enthusiastic
over of the business.
Although the hopes held out by Lie
big that fanning might itself be reduced
to a science have not. lmeii realized, yet
much good did he do by promoting in
vestigation; and the great improve
ments th:it have been made within the
lives of many of us may be said to have
commenced about the time he began
writing, and this jonng farmer had the
good fortune to commence his career
just at this interesting period.
I need hardly say thai my purpose in
giving these instances ha- been to .show
that farming is a 'business which de
niamls a special education, as much as
any other, and that whoever is thinking
of going into this bushiest;, or of pitting
a son into it, must know that without
this education failure is quite likely to
follow. Hon. (Jeorge Guides, in tlie
A tine crop of cattle thieves is grow
ing up in Utah, and .one of these days
Utah will m:ikc Texas ashamed of her
self. An old cattle thief recently told
the reporter of the PiociH' Ilcconl that
the old hands at the bu-i'ies had pretty
much given up stealing rattiu, as they
could now buy cattle for l.ttle or noth
ing from the young boys who rob their
Two men, strangers to one another,
found themselves at work together in a
Connecticut town. One was from New
Yorkythe other from New H-iveu. They
discovered that they were brothers who
had been separated for sixteen years.
HOME, FARtf AXD (JAKDEX.
Cure for a stye Touch it with a
camel's hair brti-.i. dipped in :r:i:nonia.
It .will sting a little, but will also cure
The convenience of a low nrmtel
sufficiently balances other reasons in
favor of a higher shelf.
Buckwheat cakes are improved for
some people by mixing the buckwheat
with graham flour. Put about one
third graham with it. Start the cakes
at night with yeast.
Cracks in buildings, especially in
those where stock is to be wiutered,
Bhould be stopped. No farm animal
can be profitably kept in a barn or shed
through which the wind whistles at
It would be much better if horses
were trained to walk fast, rather than
to trot and rim. A farmer needs good
walking, but cares nothing for 2:40 trot
ting. Enameled cloth makes a neat and
useful covering for the wide lower shelf
in the pantry where bread and cake are
out. It is useful also, and looks well on
the kitchen table, and can be kept abso
lutely clean with little trouble.
Writing of the effect of food on
flsh and eggs, a correspondent of the
Toronto Qlobc cites the fact that these
products of fowls kept on supplies of an
unclean kind, such as swill and decayed
garbage, will in one case quickly taint
and in the other taste unsavory.
At the last annual meeting of the
National Butter and Egg Association, it
was stated that the best material for
packing egsrs. is clear, bright oats, and
that in holding egjjs in cold storage the
temperature should be kept at thirty
eight degrees to forty degrees. The oats
can be sold after unpacking.
A correspondent of the Country
Gentleman says: As the result of con
siderably inquiry, and of my own ex
Eerience, I think that a yield of ten
ushcls per acre will give half a ton of
straw: a yield of twenty bushels per
acre about 1.500 pounds of straw, and
thirty bushels per acre one ton of straw.
As a rule the larger the yield of any
grain the smaller the proportion of
Btraw that is required for a bushel.
Prof. Tracy, in an instructive pa
per on the farm and garden, urged the
removal of all beds, and the planting of
vegetables in rows so that horse culti
vation may be practiced; gardens then
would be less neglected. The garden
should be convenient to the barn as well
as to the house, so that it will be easy to
cultivate it whenever field cultivation is
in progress. The garden should be long
and narrow, so as to save time in culti
vation. Prof. Taylor, of the Agricultural
Department, announced that naphtha
line can be used successfully in the de
struction of insect varmin, etc. He
says: "If seeds, grain, dormant plants,
eta, be placed in any tight vessel and a
small quantity of the naphthaline' be in
troduced into the vessel, and it then be
covered, in a few hours any insect that
may infest them will be asphyxiated.
Seeds thus treated have been tested and
do not lose their vitality when the sub
stance used is pure.
Shipstuffs is the sreneric name foi
bran, middlings and shorts, also called
mill stuffs. Shorts is the next product
of the grain to middlings and comes
next to the flour iu fineness. It con
tains the coarsest part of the flour and
most of the inner coating of grain, and
this consists largely of gluten. Shorts
is not made in the new process of grind
ing, being nearly all contained in the
No. 3 and No. 2 flour. Shorts alone
would not be a good food for cows. If
mixed with as much corn meal it would
be an excellent food, and four to six
quarts a day of the mixture would be
ample to keep a cow in full milk.
Dr. I. R. Page, of Baltimore.- calls
the attention of physicians, in the Med
ical Record, to the topical use of fresh
lemon juice as a most efficient means
for the removal of membrane from the
throat tonsils, etc.. in diphtheria. He
states that in his hands it has proved the
best agent that he has as yet tried for
the purpose. He applies the juice of
the lemon to the affected parts every
two or three hours by means of a cam
el's hair probang. In eighteen cases in
which he has used the remedy the effect
has been all that he could have wished.
He finds that several of his professional
brethren are prepared to give the same
favorable account of the remedy.
A writer in a West Virginia paper
combats the opinion held by many agri
culturists, that an open country is never
converted into a forest through the op
eration of natural causes, and, as estab
lishing the fact that such change does
sometimes occur, brings forward the
case of the Shenandoah V alley. When
first settled, about one hundred anil six
ty years ago, it was an open, praine
like region, covered with tall grass, on
which fed herds of deer, buffalo, elk,
etc., and having no timber, except on
ridgy portions ot it; but in consequence
of its settlement, the annual fires were
prevented, and trees sprang up almost
as thickly and regularly as if seed had
been planted. These forests, having
been preserved by the farmers, cover
now a large part of the surface with hard
wood trees of a superior excellence.
These facts would also seem to substan
tiate the theory that the treeless char
acter of the prairies of the West is due
to the annual burning of the grass by
Take Care of the Stable.
1. Let your stable be well drained and
sufficiently lighted- The vapors from a
damp, putrid floor and the sudden
change from darkness to light will al
most certainly cause blindness.
2. Let the floor of the stalls be quite
flat and level. Standing on a sloping
place is very painful, and causes lame
ness by straining the ligaments and
membranes. It also produces grease
and sore heels.
3. Every stall should be at least six
feet wide, and nine feet long. This will
enable the horse to turn around without
bruising himself, and to lie down and
stretch himself with comfort
4. Let the stalls be separated by par
titions, not by bars. They prevent the
horses from fighting and kicking each
5. Let proper openings be made just
under the ceiling to permit the hot foul
air to escape, and proper openings at
the bottom of the wall to admit fresh
air. Impure and con lined airwill cause
6. The fresh air shoidd enter through
a number of small holes, rather than a
large hole, such as an open window.
That prevents draughts, which cause
chills and cough.
7. The temperature of a stable should
be that of a sitting-room or a parlor;
not over seventy degrees in summer,
nor under forty-live in winter. Hot,
close or foul stables will bring on gland
ers or inflammation, while a very cold
or damp one may cause an incurable
cough or disease of the lungs.
8. Do not keep the hay over the man
ger. The &team and breath of the ani
mal make it both unpleasant and un
wholesome. If the hay must be kept
over the horse, the ceiling should be of
plaster. This will prevent the vapors
from passing up to the food.
9. Have no opening into the manger
from the hay-loft Dust is very often
thrown into the horse's eyes when fed
-in this way, and thus blindness is be-
f-ttn. The breath ascends directly to the
ood through the opening, which at the
same time pours a continual draught
down on the horse's head, thus causinfi-
chills as well as bad food. Valentin i
o.'$ "Stable HinU."
II (TIIFS s.'iv.s.
BONKS. i L'KIIS AXD
IftllE.-. AND ;,
MOVCs? THE lil'Vi i.
KENDALLS SPAVIN CUEEI
II Has ..nod U,..u,n,l. r ,, ,, u dl..tinej t0 cure ,, ,., m
KENBALIi'S SPAVIN CUBB!
I the only positive cure ktu. v. :,n.l to show what ttiU re.nadv will do we ,lvei
... a .-:.-,.,!, ut ,-:,,., .-ureobT it, a statement which was 3
OlVxIN UNDER OATH.
. 'Alum, it May Concern. Iu the
ye.ir is.o l treated witn "Kendall's
'' Li t lire." n bone -.iin of several
in-ntn-.' growth, nearly half lar'c as
tick ejr;r, and t-oinpIetel stopped tho
lain. Mi-., and removed the enlargement.
I liae worked ttie bur..e eversiuee very
hard, and he never has been lame, nor
iuuju t over see any Ulllereucu in the
ize of the hoefc joints Mnee r treated
him with "Kendall's Spin in Cure."
,, , . 1J.-Y.Iiai.sk.
hncsliurgh v-IU. Vt.. Feb. -79.
sworn and Mihcribeil to before me
this i'lth day of Feb., a. d. 1S7!).
Justice of l'eaee
KENDALL'S SPAVIN UBlj
ON HUMAN FLESH it has been ascertained b,, repeated tn ih to be.
he very best Unimenl ever uved for any deej, seated pain of lonq standing
or oj short duration. Also for COHNS, HUNOXS. F'HOS r-BJTFS
or any bruise? cut. or lameness. Some are ujruid t use it on human flesh
unjly because U is a horse medicine, but you should remember that what
ts yoodjor BEAST is good for MAN. and ice know from Experience
that-A EN HALL'S SPAVIX CUHE" can be used on a JxdVyeTr
old with perfect safety Its Effects are wonderful on human desh and it
does nut blister or make a sore. Try it and be convinced.
KENDALL'S SPAVIN CBBBj
Read below of Its wonderful elleets as a liniment for the hu 1 in family.
w 1 Tk-t-v. .,, r r x "KMATira. Missouri, Anist 20, law.
h. .1, IYKNHAU.A- l o.. (.KNTS: I am so overjoyed iu iew of the result or an an.
plication of your KendalPs spavin Cure that I reel that 1 ouht for Humanitie,'
ake publish it to the world. About tl.im -live years a-o while ridim; a youSr
ugly horse 1 was injnred.in one or my tt-ticle, and from' that tim to three weeks
!lr ?Jj,,.iiW iUt constin,t J-'nlawment ha been the result, giving me a great amount
of trouble, almos-t entirely preentiug me from horsebaek ridini. which was mv
usual way of traeling. I saw a notice or your Kendall Spavin I ure, never once
thought ontloranythmg except for horses, but alter receiving he medicine and
reading over what it was good for, feeling terribly exercised about 111 v UHHcultv. for
1 bad consulted many physicians and none gave me anv specitic but 'when it coul
be endured no longer to remove it v ith the knife. I applied our Kendall's Spavin
I ure as an experiment, and it was so painful in its application that I concluded
not to repeat it and thought no more about it until near a week, and lo and behold
'lie-halt the size was gone, with joy 1 could mm reel v believe it, I immediately au
plied it over a.un. and have made in all about ' dozuu ipplie lions ruuniu" uvur
space of two weeks and the terrible enlargement is almost goe. in view of "which
I cannot express my feelings or delight. It has been a God send to me. miv ho
-end to others with like troubles, John Hick
Tastor of Hematite Congregation il Church.
P. S. You are at liberty to put this iu any shape von mav please. I am not
ashamed to have my name under, over or by the side of "it.
KENDALL'S SPAVIN CURE!
Kendall's Spavin Cure is sure in its effects, mild iu its action as it does not
blister, yet it is penetrating and powerful to reach anv de -p seated piin or to re
move ; any bony growth or any other enlargement if used lor several davs, such as
spavins, sjilints, callous, sprains, sucllin-. anv lamcnes? and all enlargements or
the joints or limbs, or rheumatism in man and lor any purpose for which a liniment
i used Tor man or beast. It i now known to be the best liniment for man ever ueil
icting mild yet certain iu its effects. It is ued iu lull strength with perfect safety
tt all seasons of the year.
Send address for Illustrated Circular, which we think gives positive proor. or its
virlues. Xo remedy Iris met with su-'h iimpi illli -d siio.-.ss to our knowledge, or
beatas well as man. Price $1 per bottle, or .-ix bottle- tor ."i.
ALL DRUGGISTS have it or can get it for yoa,
or it will be sent to anv address ,n receipt ot" piico. b the proprictois,
48 Dr. H. J. KENrI)ALL& CO, Enosburg Falls, Vermont.
WHEN YOU TRAVEL
ALWAYS TAKK THE
B. & M. R. R.
Examine map and time t-ible- carefully
It will be seen that tliK line connects
with C. M.&q. i. I.'.; iu fact they
are until r one mauai nielli,
and taken tnjjc'hcr form
what is called
Shortest and Quickest Line to
CHICAGO. ST. LOUIS. PEORIA.
DES 3I0INES, ROCK ISLAND,
And "Especially to all Points
IOWA, WISLOXSIX. INDIANA,
ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN, OHIO.
I'KINCIPAL ADVANTAOKS AKK
Through coaches from destination on C.
B. & Q. K. It. No transfers: changes
f.om C. B. .v. Q. IJ. IJ. to connect
ing lines all made iu
CAN UK HAD
Upon application at any station on the
.oad. Agents are also prepared to check
jaggaie through; give all information as
.0 rates, routes, time connections, etc.,
md to secure sleeping car accomoda
tions. This company is enrai;ed on an exten
tion" which will open a.
NEW LINE TO DENVER
And all points' in t'olorado. This ex
tentiou will be completed and ready for
lusiness in a ,rew months, anil tue pu
ie can then enjo all the advantages of
1 through line between Dener and
Chicago, all under one management.
I. M. l'UMti.
Uen'l Tk'l A'gt.
PHYSICIANS, CLERQYMEN, AND
THE AFFLICTED EVERYWHERE.
THE GREATEST MEDICAL
TRIUMPH OF THE AGE.
SYMPTOMS Or A
Tjossof sppetite.M's.use,boweIs co stive,
Psin in thoHead.with doll senaatioaln
tho back part, fain under the shoulder
blade, fullness after eating, with a diain
clination to exertion ofbody or mind,
Irritabilitr of temper. Low spirits. Ikum
of memory, with a feeling ot having neg
lectedTsome duty, weariness. Diszlness,
Flntteringof the Heart, Dots before the
eyes, Yellow akin, Headache. Bestrasa
ness at night, highly colored Urine.
jf thzis WASimref aez uitheedzd,
SERIOUS DISEASES WILL SOON BE DEVELOPED.
TUTTS FILLS re especially adapted to
such eaaes.one dose effect suehachange
Of feeling sts to astonish the sufferer.
They Suerenae the Appetite, and cau.e th
body to Take m Tlritii, Urns ttie ryttem Is
riOird.anit by tlielrTonlc Actionem Hie
l'rice 'S cents. 5 Wurrmj t. Jl.TT.
TUTT'S HAIR DYE.
Obat HAiRorWniaXKXs changed to aOtfxwr
Black by a single application of this Dyk. It
Imparts a natural color, acta Instantaneously.
Eola by DrngguU, or tent by exprt. oa receipt of f 1.
Office, 35 Murray St., New York.
CSV. TUTTS X1JHUL mf TaluaU I.forMU. a4
CraM BotIvU wta aalM HUS a att4lwlta.f
NOT THE Kyv
UNIMEX l' p..';'
Id conducted an a
Devoted to the best mutual inter
nets of its readers and itn publish,
er.s. Published at Columbus, Platte
county, the centre of the agricul
tural portion ufNebraska.it is read
by hundreds of people eaut who art
looking towards Nebraska as their
future home. Its subscribers in
Nebraska are the staunch, solid
portion of tho community, as is
evidenced by the fact that the
JOURNAL has never contained a
'thin' against them, and by tue
other fact that
In its columns always brings its
reward. Business is business, and
those who wish to reach the solid
people of Central Nebraska will
tind the columns of the Juuknal a
Of all kinds neatly and quickly
done, at fair prices. This species
of printing is nearly always want
ed in a hurry, and, knowing this
fact, we have so provided for it
that we can furnish envelopes, let
ter heads, bill heads, circulars,
postern, etc., etc., on very short
notice, and promptly on time as
1 copy per annum $2 00
Six months 100
" Three month), 60
Single copy sent to any address
iu the United States for 5 cts.
M. X. TURNER & CO.,
Can now afford
A CHICAGO DAILY.
All the New? every day on four large
pages of fceviMi columns each. The Hon.
Frank V. Palmer ( Postmaster of Chi
cago), Editor-in-Chief. A Republican
$5 per Year,
Three mouths, $l.o. One mouth ou
trial 50 cents.
Acknowledged by everybody who has
read it to be the be-t eight-page paper
ever published, at the low price of
81 PER YEAR,
Contains correct market report!, all
the news, and general readtug interest
ing to the farmer and his family. Special
terms to agents and clubs! Sample
Copies free. Address,
CHICAGO HERALD COMP'Y
40-tf CHICAGO ILL,
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