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About Plattsmouth weekly herald. (Plattsmouth, Nebraska) 1882-1892 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 10, 1887)
I'LAlTSMODTil WEKKL-Y IIERALD.TJHriiSDA V NOVEMHEK 10, 1887,
FARM AND GARDEN.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A DAG
TIE THAT WILL NOT SLIP.
Approval Mrtliorinof Making CIU r Viae
r In lioth I.u.ri;i and Small Ouuntl
tio I low to lr'irff mid l'iM:k I'oultry
Intiiietl for IHstant Murlu-ts.
The fipason Is at hand uhcn ioultry nmy
be BHfoly parked for ncmiin to distant
markets in a dressed Ktate; a few words of
ulvko on Uio Kabjcct will tliereforo bo
oppo'tune to many readers.
Via. I I'ACKINU lYUTLTHT.
Toboglii with, letall poultry fast twelve
hours previous to killing it, to immro
empty crops. As the highest prices lire,
other things boh); equal, paid for dry
picked poultry, it goes without 8ayiu that
it pay to pick it dry. Iu picking t.'io
birdd be mire and remove all tho jfu
feathers, us any left in give an untidy ap
pearance that goes against the successful
marketing of the bird. The best time to
pick poultry without scalding it is while
the birda are warm.
As some markets require the fowls to
he "drawn," while others prefer them
with the entrails undisturbed, euch ship
per ought to advise himself of the re
quirement of his own market. As n. rule,
New York und Philadelphia dealers prefer
dressed poultry that ha.s the feathers only
removed; head, feet and entrails romain.
Boston, Baltimore and Chicago markets
require that the fowls be "drawn." Some
markets as Chisago, for instance give
preference to dressed poultry that has
been re lieved of the heads and which lias
the skin drawn up and neatly tied over the
Do not pack the birds for transportation
until they are quite cold. In cold weather
poultry is Fometimes shipped in clean
boxes or barrels, without any pacing
material; but the usual plan is to pla.'e
layers of long, clean straw between each
layer of birds. Bye straw will lie .found
flood for the purpose. Becrin with Cover
ing the bottom of the box with a layer of
etraw. Now pick up a fowl, bend tho
head under and to one side of the breast
bone, and lay it down flat on its breast,
back up, the leys extended straight out
behind, as shown in-Flg. 1. Lay the first
bird in the left hand corner. With this
beginning, lay a row across the box to the
right, and pack close, row by row, until
only one row is left; then reverse tho
heads, laying them next tho other end of
the box, the feet under the previous row
of heads. If there is a space left between
the two last rows put in what birds will
fit sideways. Fig. 2 illustrates the man
ner of packing in the box. Pack straw
enough between the layers so that tho
fowls cannot touch, and so proceed until
the box is completely filled.
TIG. 2 PACKING POULTRY".
The Stockman, which recommends tho
above method, adds the following very
Sensible advice; advice that if followed
Vol euro both shipper and consignee much
annoyance and trouble: Having securely
nailed down the cover of the box mark
thereon tho name or initials of tho packer,
tne number of fowls and the variety; also
mar on, in legitjio letters, tho full namo
f the person or firm to whom the box
and its contents are consigned, with street
and number. The receiver will know at
a glance what the box contains, and does
not have to unpack and hnudlo its con
tents to nnd out.
Vinegar can be easily made from many
tunerent suDstances, but m a country
abounding in apples there is no excuse for
making it for domestic use from anything
bui me nest, i'ure cieier vinegar is easily
though not quickly made by the natural
process, and when thus made is healthful
and free from all the objections attached
to the manufactured article and 'never
disappoints the housekeeper by degener
ating to insipidity or eating up her pickles
with extreme acidity. When made in
large quantities the making begins as soon
as enough apples have fallen to furnish
a supply. These are ground in the cider
mill as for cider and may be pressed at
once, but a better way is to keep the
pomace in large vats or casks to remain
until it has become quite sour, when the
cider is pressed out and again put into tho
vats or casks to be kept there until it is
well settled, then the clear liquor is drawn,
off into barrels not quite full.
These barrels should be kept in the sun,
covereel with loose boards to protect them,
until cold weather, when they are re
moved to the vinegar house, which must
have a stove to keep it warm in the win
ter, and thus hasten the process.
The barrels ought to be iron hooped anel
painted, as it is desirable, though not in
dispensable, to expose them to the sun in
the warm autumn days, and for large
operators a vinegar house is an excellent
thing. But many keep their sour cider in
cellars or barns until spring, when it is
again exposed to the sun and a circulation
of air, for a cellar is not a good place for
making vinegar. The bung holes should.
' b covered with musquito net or anything
that will keep out flies without shutting
off the air, but the bangs must not be
used except temporarily until the vinegar
Is entirely made, for with proper treat
ment it will continue to grow stronger
until three years old.
The loss by evaporation and leakage is
from a fourth to a third of the whole
quantity; but as a compensation, pure
cider vinegar, two and three years old,
will bear an addition of rain water some
times equal to the loss and still be strong
enough to meet all requirements. Indeed,
the dilution with water is generally neces
sary to some degree, as in many cases the
old vinegar is too acid to be agreeable,
and the cider in the first stages of making
Is often slow in turning to the acid state
on Recount of an excess of saccharine
matter, which is corrected by a proper
addition of soft water.
The natural process may be hastened
by occasionally turning the cider out of
one barrel into another, exposing it more
fully to the air, also by the addition of a
gallon of strong vinegar to each barrel,
and sometimes trickling it down through
beach chips or shavings is practiced for a
oore rapid making, but people who have I
largo orchards and make large quantities
never resort to any of tho questionable
inethodH sometimes used by manufacturers
for making what they call cider vinegar
quickly, but are content to wait on the
natural process, and find their compensa
tion in the; higher value placed on thei
products by their customers.
Families without cider mills and with
but few apples may make their own vine
gar by mashing tho apples in a tub with
a pounder and putting the pomace in a
half barrel with holes in tho bottom and
placed over another tub as a receiver,
with a follower on the jomace to be
pressed down by a lever or stationary
weights placed on it, and thus pressing
out the cider, w hich should be kept in u
keg with open bung in n warm place until
the vinegar is made. After that a supply
is easily kept up by occasionally mashing
some apples and putting them in n stone
jar covered with water, into which apple
parings can also be thrown or any soured
fruits or berries, which if kept covered in
a warm place will sim become sour nnd
can be used to replenish the vinegar keg.
A housekeeper of forty years says the best
place for tho family vinegar keg is the
garret, and that the warm, sultry air
near the roof will turn cider to vinegar ia
a short time.
The cellar is not a good place to keep
vinegar in unless for a short time in ex
tremely cold weather, for warmth and
exposure to n dry atmosphere are essen
tials in making vinegar.
Ktraln of the Shoulder in Horse.
Strain of the shoulder, very truly says
Professor Kich in his work on artistic
hor.se shoeing, is generally a cloak for the
ignorance of the groom or other attendant
upon the horse. It is, in fact, a very rare
accident, though often assigned as a cause
for lameness which is really in the feet,
legs or knees. It is an inflammation of
some of the muscles ef the shoulder fol
lowing violent strain, and generally con
fined to the berratus muscle, which slings
the body to the shoulder blade, and which
is sometimes strained in. coining down
from a high leap, etc. The symptoms are
a dragging of the toe in the walk, with
deficiency of action on the trot and a tlrop
of the head while the affected leg is being
extended, and not while it is on the
ground; hence, when shoulder lameness is
mistaken fer foot lameness, the groom is
apt to smit t ne oia me on to the wrong
foot. It nmy also be distinguished by
laying hold of the affected leg and draw
ing the whole together with the shouhler
l'o.rward, when, if the latter is affected,
the horse will give evidence of pain, which
he will not do if the foot or leg is the Leat
ef tie mischief.
The treatment for shoulder lameness
lies in rest, bleeding, purging, cooling
balls, with nitre, etc. A cooling diet of
green meat will also be needful, and all
the corn should be taken away. After all
the heat has disappeared the horse may
be turned loose into a box, and in another
fortnight he may be walked out with a
leading rein; but it should be two or three
months before he is again mounteel.
liran on the Farm.
Professor Brown, of the Ontario Agri
cultural college at Guelph, Can., recently
summed up the usefulness of bran to
farmers, after having carefully considered
its chemical composition:
1. Bran is a concentrated food, which,
though variable in composition, possesses
higii nutritive value.
2. Koller process bran is, on the aver
age, richer than old process bran.
3. It3 excess of ash or mineral matters
eminently fits it for bono building in
growing animals, and for supplementing
the lack of mineral matters in roots.
4. Its chemical composition points to
the conclusion that it is somewhat better
adapted to the formation of fat and pro
duction of heat than to the formation of
muscle or of milk.
5. Both its chemical composition and its
physical form adapt it admirably as a
supplementary food to be used in connec
tion with poor and bulky fodder, such as
straw and roots.
Care of Newly Set Trees.
Professor Budd, of Iowa, advises the
mounding in the fall of newly set trees
with earth for the first three year3 after
setting the orchard. It protects from the
possible barking of the stems by mice and
helps materially to protect the tender
sectlling roots in tho first stages of growth
and extension. In the colder portions of
north Iowa and in Dakota, Minnesota
and Manitoba it will pay to mound the
stems well up to the branches for the
first three years after setting. It should
never be forgotten that the newly set tree
will not endure the elry freezing of winter
as perfectly as it will when it has made a
deep extension of root; hence the mounel
ing should never be omitted.
How to Tie a Bag.
The illustration here given showV a
form of bag tie which, according to The
American Agriculturist, effectually pre
vents any slipping if properly adjusted.
A SECTKE BAG TIE.
Take any strong cord about eighteen
inches long and double it as herewith
shown, passing the enels through, making
a loop around the mouth of the bag.
Now pull as tightly as you can; then take
an end of the string in each hand and pull
again in an opposite direction; pass the
string completely arountl, make a knot
and double or single bow knot and the
work is tlone. A very little experience
will make one expert and he can then
guarantee the bag not to come untied.
Manitoba's crops this year, say statisti
cal reports, exceed all estimates.
The hop crop is larger than was antici
pated, but not of extra quality.
The New York poultry show is an
nounced for Dec. 14-21.
The last estimate of the .corn crop by
Statistician Dodgo was 1,500,000,000
The government now estimates the
wheat crop at 450,000,000 bushels.
A New York syndicate, it is told, will
shortly invest $100,000 in the culture of
tobacco in Florida.
More fodder corn has been cut through
out the west this fall than ever before.
The effort to do away with the extra
charga for peach baskets has found almost
universal support in New York city dar
ing the past season.
It is estimated that over 8,000 head cf
cattle have been slaughtered in Chicago in
the efforts of the Illinois live stock com
missioners to stamp out pleuro pneumo
nia in that state.
FARM AND 0ARDEX.
SAFE AND EASY WAY TO SHOE
SiiKKCstloii About fattening l'oultry and
DreKwing It According tit Method 1'rae-
ticed Jn Juik-o Two Convenient IVetl
Itucks for Ilorsin und Cuttle Jhrtlf J.
The feed rack for cattle illustrated in
the first cut has been used on the lowu
Agricultural college farm with satisfac
tory results, being both convenient and
free from waste fulness.
FIG. 1 OUTDOOR FEED HACK.
Prairie Farmer describes it as follows:
It is composed of a rack three feet wide,
eight or nine feet high, fourteen feet long
and enough of them to hold hay for the
number of cattle and horses to be fed.
This has horizontal boards or poles nailed
on from the top to within two feet of the
ground. This rack has a fence around it
made of strong boards, planks or poles.
The fence should be eighteen inches high
and the same distance from the rack and
may lean outward somewhat. This pre
vents the hay which the cattle pull out
from under the rack front getting under
their feet, and they must keep it pretty
well eaten out in order to get fresh huy
from the rack.
The journal quoted from illustrates and
describes the feed rack shown in tig. 2.
This has most of the advantages of the
one already described, and is easily made.
At the ends set the forked corner posts
five feet apart and have them extend six
feet aliove ground, and put tho poles on
as shown. This may easily be made very
strong and durable, and any one who has
FIG. 2 FEED RACK.
used out door feed racks for cattle knows
this to be a very important feature. The
poles can be fastened together at points
of contact with smooth fence wire and
plenty of common fence staples.
Fattening Fowls for the Table.
There is room for improvement in the
matter ol rattening fowls for the table in
this country. The French dressed poultry
s very superior to curs, and its superior
ity is uue largely to three things: First,
the great care exercised in breeding fowls
for quality of flesh; second, the admir
able methods of fattening; and, third, the
attractive manner in which the birds are
dressed when offered for sale.
As regartls the varieties best ndanted
tor eaoie iowis mere is neitner time nor
space to enumerate them. In a general
way it may be said that birds which have
the most meat upon the breast and not
upon the thighs are best for fattening.
liirds that have been well fed from the
time they are hatched require but little
preparation for the table. Tho period in
which fowls may be fattened varies con
siderably with the variety of bird, but
three weeks is the time usually allotted
tor tne "latterung process" in France.
Iresh sweet Indian barley, oats and
buckwheat meal, mixed with skim milk.
in which a little fat of some kind has been
dropped, makes admirable fattening food.
Any of these meals are good when fed
separately, but Beale advises a mixture of
equal parts of each, to which a little f.u
has been addetl just before stirring up
witn milk, lie thinks, and many of oui
foremost breeders believe, that it pays to
oou tne milk with which the meals are
mixed. This food is best civen to the-
fowls while warm. Such special feeding
snows In the unusual fine color of the
flesh of the birds when dressed and iti
succulent sweet flavor. Birds are most
quickly fattened in confinement. "When
practicable place in pens sufficiently large
for moving room, but no more. Observe
scrupulous cleanliness in the pens and
provide clean water each day. Remember
that the birds must fast for at least twelve
hours previous to killing them. This is
an important point.
As has been intimated, French poulter
ers lay great stress on the dressing of the
poultry after it is killed. They pluck the
birds immediately, and while animal heat
still prevails the carcasses are placed on
snapmg Doaras" wit n tneir backs up
ward, inc bird is kept level by blocks at
either end which support the neck and
rump. while the bird is Warm it is ma
nipulated, first by bending in the rib
bones, then pressing the knee into the
back, forcing the breast inwards and
laaienmg tne legs over tne breast so
as to keep it in its place. A wet cloth is
fastenetl tightly down over the bird and
around the bottom board. The second
board is placed above this. By the time
the bird is quite cold the flesh is firm and
the whole appears attractive.
How to Shoe Kefractory Mules.
anoeing reiractory mules is a some
what hazardous operation, and as most
mules are refractory when approached
within convenient distance of their nimble
heels any arrangement that assists to
make their shoeing easy and safe is to be
SnOEIXG A REFRACT0IJY MCLE.
The cut represents a device illustrated
and described originally in The Black
smith and "Wheelwright. Take two pieces
of spring steel 1 3-4 inches wide, and long
enough to make a good sized pair cf
Lames, bend them to fit a collar nnd
punch holes in the top to let a strap pasa
through to fit different fIzos of collars.
Then take a piece of 1 1-2 inch iron or steel
(i inches li.ng, rivet it on the flat side of
th hame, bfiid in a circle to clear tho
collar, and shut a I) ring in the cuds, one
on each hiwnv as shown in the cut. Tio
in the ring a strong il 1 Inch rope on tliu
tidt) opposite to w hero you are to work;
pass the ropo around the fetlock to the
other riii;, and tie to suit yourself.
Hook an open link on the ropes so tho
animal cannot get his other foot through
theui, and you have him in your power.
When you raise the foot to drive, the
rope will be tightened, and he cannot
fcicii you either in driving or clincl
After apples have leeu carefullv picked
and properly parked away in barrels thrrr
is still danger of their failing to keep
well unless home intelligence is shown iu
the method of Coring the barrels anil
their contents. More failures occur from
keeping apples too warm than any other
one cour.se. This fruit requires to be
kept as cool as is practicable without freez
ing. A frequent change from cold to
warm is fatal to the keeping quality of
any fruit, and especially to the apple. Let
the temperature be a uniform one and as
low as possible without freezing. It is
no longer considered essential to store ap
ples in an absolutely dry place. On the
contrary, there arc advocates for storing
this fruit in cellars where water stands,
the argument beinsi that the fruit keen
fresher ami is not liable to wither.
Itch, of every kinel cured in MO min
utes l.v Wool ford's Sanitarv Lotion. T'se
no other. 1 his never fails. 1' . u. I tick e
Sc Co., elruggist. I'luttsmouth.
nel of .in
Mi.) ! re
: .: I : I ii: l:'t in
in e. I : i mie I mix
isir:tt i iiv. del s
THIS GOOD OLD STAND-BY
accomplishes for everybody exactly what isclalmed
for it. One of the reasons for the great popularity of
the Mustang Liniment Is found in Its universal
applicability. Everybody needs such a medicine.
The Lumberman needs it in case of accident.
The Housewife needs it for general f am Uy use.
The Cannier needs it for his teams and his men.
The Mechanic needs It always on bfc) wock
The Miner needs It in ease o emergency.
The Pioneer needs it can't get along without It.
The Farmer needs It In his house, his stable,
and his stock yard.
The Steamboat man or the Boatman needs
It In liberal supply afloat and ashore.
The Horse-fancier needs It It is his best
friend and safest reliance.
The Stock-grower needs It It will save bim
thousands of dollars and a world of trouble.
The Railroad man needs It and will need it so
long as his life Is a round of accidents and dangers.
The Backwoodsman needs it. There Is noth
ing like it as an antidote for the dangers to life.
limb and comfort which surround the pioneer.
Tho merchant needs it about his store among
his employees. Accidents will happen, and when
these come the Mustang Liniment is wanted at once.
Keep a Bottle In the House. 'Tis the beat ot
Keep aBottle in tbe Factory. Its Immediate
use In case of accident saves pain and loss of wages.
Keep a Bottle Always in the Stable for
use when wanted.
At the St.Touis Fair.l:r.".hfa 'p by rO".TrV3
S3, t1? Sir Il'eharS 2nd. 1- i i;VELTX3 -CVtLc.-J
:ton. or.ov:: i-'i i-r.z. tl cvc -ti
jirchibsld. IlcrdnuciOv'ia -Tjhfad. Send for priccf
end catalogue. ,j. II.V.TI h.
; i . Colooy, JliJoraoa Co.. T; inini.
fR OYAL PStWJJ Vj
This ji('v.'( r : ever v;.rs.
I .'. r i f!ivf 1: ;tid v. iw!cs(i;;ii
miciea! ih::n iln- (.w,it :-.r kii
1(1 in eii;i; : i: in; v, ii li 1
ft. sliort v fn hi ;il :;iu or J'l:
'Ut l.v in is ) y i. 1'
"o..ltK'.V;u --I. .:-' V.jl'i.
r-n ,-V. V:
n n . i f t fy N
m iiSiri ii
b'y-ffii WPy 3
FiHST PS!2E .iIHF0ED lim
Towel?, Quilts, Tablo
1 J nli.Tt'l
Ojien work bordered and
i t r:i of m ii
t ;c. euc
(a el i.
a o u u k . .m nam
JN)c (J ult
JSIurei 1 Is
i s lJ
wide, and L'J loiip-, r-
l.lo, usually mid at
extra irood value.
;.) well worth
i. ."(, 2.00, u.00
At 17e. or 0 for
II At 2oc, an
III At .r0c are
........ r ... r
tens l.ineu culls ami collars at
One Door E. 1st ITatlenol Bank
Stale ii k Herald.
O. Dovey & Son.
8 (S few
YGM pleqsiii'G ii
Ever broug&tL to tZii.sjpXarJkct
and shall be pleased to show you a
W ool Dress Goods,
y and Underwear,
Blankets and Comforters.
A sp lendid assortment of Ladies' Alissses' and Children
CLOAKS, WRAP.-J A:,'D JEIlrKVS.
uded to o;;r line
J71ooi Oil Glotls,
s heavy and fine hoots and
your inspection. All departments
Covers and Handkerchiefs.
a, mzo r.fx.io, at L'Ucj each.
lv notted Fringe, m7.j 25c.
Knotted Frino-e. nize 21x43,1 r.fh
knotted fringe, n'zc MxiS, ZOa
;.;i) t arii.
S 1 at
. ts-11 lit
! eve I rj:ere
L0!) are drrid d bar
re od vnlnc at
oc per xv'A,
E. G. Dovey & Son.
1 sqyiqjr lc
; me new pattern,
ttts qrjd lirs.
shoes, al.-o in f.adkv Mi-ses and
Ul U U U U V4
B AH n IPX 1
a complete line to which we INVITE
l-'nil aud Coinil
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