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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 8, 1905)
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TIIE OMAHA DAILY BEE: SUNDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1005.
YELLOW JACK'S TROLLEY LINE
T'i r; Hajsd j Tropical Inirs'.i in Eprsad
injt, Ysllow FTr.
MOSQUITOES OhE HOST OF DEATH
Far. Established hr Prolonged tad
of Mleraaea a ail Insects Which
Harbor Them Kvolatlon
nt the Microbe.
proceed to a certain point, and. unless an-1 grm of yellow fever clrctilst-es In the
hlnod or the nick, and Is tsken mereirom
when the creature bites; In the body or
the stegomyht, which Is tha natural host
ror the yllow fever germ, tha germ passes
through changes which occupy about twelve
days, and which are essential to a con
tinuation or lis pernicious existence. Thesa
changes culminate In the production or In
numerable young", which ar conveyed In
to the blood or any person that tha mos
qulto may bite. In the person bitten, after
a period varying between forty-one hours
and five days and seventeen hours, symp
toms or yellow fever begin, which are the
expression ot the microbe's -evolution in
"Tha Role of Insects In the Transmission
of ntrenaa" Is the title of a timely paper
contributed by JT. Millard Insfeld of
Omaha to the October number of the
Trained Nurse and Hospital rtevlew of
New Tork. Dr. I,angfeld Is professor of
bacteriology in the John A. Crelghton Med
ical college and also bacteriologist or the
Omaha Board of Health. Hie paper fol
lows: The recent appearance of yellow fever
In Ijoutslana draws attention attain to
the part that a certain mosquito plHys In
this disease. It also suggests the Inquiry
why yellow rever, when It . Invades the
United States, has or late years been
confined to the southern and guir states.
A consideration of the role of Insects in
the transmission of diseases In general
furnishes 'us most excellent reasons fur
this peculiar localisation. The word trans
mission Is used advisedly, namely. In the
sense or transferring or pnsslng on of the
eanae of the disease by Insects. In contra
distinction to anch Insects as are them
selves the actual cause. For example:
The so-culled yellow fever mosquito Is not
the primary cause of yellow fever", It la
only when this mosquito harbors the rara
site of yellow fever that It can convey the
disease. It la an accessory factor only
the accidental host or a death-dealing
microbe. On the other hand, the Itch mite
is the primary cause or the disease we call
Itch," the manifestations of which are
the direct result of the female burrowing
Into the akin to lay her eggs.
The Investigations which suocessfully
solved the problem of the part that In
sects play In the transmission of disease
Incriminated not only the mosquito, but
the fly, the bedbug, ttie ant, the flea, the
tick, and probably the body louse Insects
which have the greatest opportunity for
contact with both food and human beings.
The diseases spread by these Insects make
quite a"-formldable list, a few of the more
common onea being yellow fever, malaria,
typhoid fever, cholera, tuberculosis and
Incidental to, but not less Important than
these Invaluable discoveries, are the many
other Interesting phenomena brought to
light In the course of these studies. Chief
among them is the fact tbat all animals,
both u qua tic and terrestrial, cold-blooded
and .warm-blooded, also suffer from dis
cuses conveyed by Insects. Of biological
Interest are the many curtous and unex
pected data concerning the life history, or
cycle of development, of very low forms
of animal life.
As a rule diseases communicated through
the agency of Insects are caused by the
lowest forms ot animal and vegetable lire,
the organisms being so small as to be in
visible to the unaided eye. To this class
or micro-organisms the vegetable kingdom
has given the bacteria; the animal king
dom the protozoa, fllaria and the like.
Borne diseases are caused by microbes so
minute that an Instrument has not yet
been devised to make them visible, yet
we are aware of their presence through
tests evolved from the study of forms
which the microscope has revealed.
Inserts MS Disease Carriers.
A micro-organism, microbe or germ ot a
disease is carried by an Insect either acci
dentally or as a host. In the former in
stance some portion of the insect's body
becomes soiled by disease germs, which, In
turn. are transferred to food or persons
during the creature's flight. In this way
many diseases may be carried, among them
typhotd fever, cholera and tuberculosis.
Or the Insect may Imbibe the germs with
Its food and then contaminate persons or
food with Its excrement, the germ passing
through it. Still another possibility is the
contamination of wounds either during
flight or by a person crushing the insect
and then scratching the spot where it had
let up an irritation through biting. Plague,
lock Jaw, etc.! may be conveyed In this
When the insect acts as a host for the
germ, an entirely different condition is
presented; the Insect Is not only the carrier
5f the germ, but Is an Incubator for It, as
It were, during one phase of its life history.
In the host the microbe finds all the condi
tions favorable to Its growth and multi
plication, and, colncldentally, for the In
urease In virulence of Its specific virus.
The germ is, in this case, a parasite on the
:nsect. There exist In the world numerous
(enera of animal and vegetable life that
ilways live upon other genera as parasites;
that is to say, they live at the expense
it other organisms by sharing their food,
)T by drawing nourishment directly from
:hclr bodies. The organism , that supports
:he parasite Is called the host. Among
ow forms of life parasitism is almost the
ule. Many ot the parasites require two
tosts to successfully carry out their life
yole one host to support their baby or
arvat form, another the mature or adult
'or in. In each host development ran only
other host Is found upon which they can
continue their development, their life Is
ended. Therefore, when an Insect carries
a microbe for which It Is a host (among
low forms It 4s almost a biological law
that each parasite has a particular host
and no other) It must be regarded with
greater fear on account of Its greater pos
sibilities for doing harm. In Illustration
of this, the mosquito serves as an excel
lent example. The mosquito Is the host for
the microbes of both malaria and yellow
fever; when It bites a person sOfTerlng
from one of these, diseases It sucks up
with the blood a few or the parasites of
the dlsesse. These parasites can in no
other way get out of the afflicted person'
body and would perish If a fatal termina
tion of the Infection resulted; or they
would be destroyed within the persons
hody should he recover. Hut the few which
find their way Into the mosquito's body
produce Innumerable broods Ihnt are from
time to time Innoculated into one person
after another as long as the creature Is
active. The mlcrole of yellow revrr Is not
yet to be discovered, unless we accept that
one described by working party No. 1 or
the public health anil marine hospital
service. This party, consisting or Drs.
Parker, Heycr and Fothler, while working
at Vera Crux, Mexico, in 100-'. during an
epidemic of yellow fever, discovered In the
body of a yellow fever mosquito a microbe
that bears a close resemblance to the
malarial germ. It was found only after the
mosquito had bitten a yellow fever patient.
Hut these doctors were not able to find
the sme germ or Its antecedent In the
blood of the sick. Therefore, until this
most essential fact In the chain of evi
dence Is supplied, we cannot accept their
microbe as the cause of yellow fever.
Nevertheless, despite the fact that the
yellow fever microbe Is not known, we are
fortunately In possession of the impor
tant facts relating to the spread of the
HOUSES WITH MANY CLOCKS
A Remedy for Insomnia and a Fad
Among; People Otherwise
WARD OFF DI3EA3Q
By fortlfyina your system with a reliable
blood medicine. An alcoholic stimulant
would do f more harm
than food n1 the rec
Hon from It . i( 'A W!1
With $tomuch and
blood In good order
you can tight the
battle of life suo
all odds. Got dies
Seal boot (Hy
drastis), li a famous
remedy for dyspep
sia, and Que km a
has a direct action
In promoting the
renewal o! the
blood. Both of these are usod In Dr.
Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery In
such a way, by skillful extraction, com
bination and solution without alcohol,
that their best effects are secured
Many years of actual practice con
vinced Dr. Pierce of the value of many
native roots as medicinal agenu and ha
went to great expense, both In time and
tn money, tc perfect his own peculiar pro
cesses for rendering thera both efficient
and safe for continuous um as tonlo and
' Tha enormous popularity of "Golden
Medical Discovery " Is due both to lis
sclautitlo compounding and to the actual
me.tlninal value of the Ingredient. The
publication of the name uf toe tfiorcdl
eiits en tho wrapper of avery bcttlo
hereafter to be sold, gives full assur
ance of its non-alcvhoilo character and
removes all objection to the ue of an
rrV. The Original LITTLE LIVER
WwX5k. PILLS, first put tip by old Dr.
Kea R. V. Pierce ovfr 40 years
ago. Much Imitated, but new equaled.
LltUs pill. Little doee, but give great re
mit In a curative way In all deranga
gtenU of Stomach, Liver and Bowels,
"Common Sense Medical Adviser' will
be aan I true, pa per-bound, for tl oca-cent
stamps, to pay tha cost of mailing only,
or ciodt-bouud for Si stamp. Address
Dr. Plaraa, 0G1 iUim 6vX But
Known Methods of the Disease.
Tho conclusion reached by the medical
board of the United States army, com
posed of Doctort Iteed. Carvall, I-azcar and
Agarmonte, submitted in 1900, and those of
a later report submitted by Major Reed in
1901, contain practically all tree facts es
sential to be known to prevent the spread
ot yellow fever. Briefly, the conclusions
are as follows:
1. The mosquito, stegomyla fasclata,
serves as the tntermediat-e host for the
parasite of yellow fever.
2. Yellow fever Is transmitted to the non
Immune Individual by the bite ot the mos
quito that has previously fed on the bipod
of those sick with this disease.
S. An Interval of about thirteen days or
more after contamination appears to be
necessary before the mosquito Is capable
of conveying the Infection.
4. The period of incubation In thirteen
rases of experimental yellow fever has
varied from forty-one hours to five days
and seventeen hours. (The "period of Incu
bation" is the time that elapses between
the mosquito bite and the onset of the
5. Yellow few is not conveyed by fom
ltes and hence disinfection of articles of
clothing, bedding or merchandise, suppos
edly contaminated by contact with those
sick of this disease, Is unnecessary.
6. A house may be said to be Inf-ected
with yellow fever only when there are
present within Its walls contaminated mos
quitoes capable of conveying the parasite
of the disease.
7. The spread of yellow fever can be most
effectually controlled by measures directed
to the destruction of mosquitoes and the
protection of tire sick against the . bites
of these insects.
S. While the mode of propagation of yel
low fever has now been definitely deter
mined, the specific cause of this d la-ease,
remains to be discovered.
The Mosqalto Theory.
The discovery that a particular genua of
mosquito conveyed yellow fever led to a
study of this particular Insect's habits. An
Impetus had already b-een given to the
atudy of mosquitoes as carriers of disease
through the earlier discovery of Ross that
another g-enus the anopheles, was the
transmitter of malaria. The study of the
habits ot the et-egomyla disclosed marked
differences between It and the anopheles.
Whereas th-e anopheles prefers densely pop
ulated centers. While on the one hand
the anopheles breeds in naturally still or
slowly moving bodies of water, the steg
omyla is domestic in its habits, preferring
open vessels in and about a household.
Therefore, while the anopheles breeds In
the open, in swamps and shallow puddlea
of wat-er. the stegomyla elects water-bar
rein, cisterns, gutter-spouts and even the
shallow vessels placed about table-legs In
certain regions to exclude ants.
It waa also learned that the stegomyla
Is not so widely distrlbut-ed as the ano
pheles, being found chiefly in tropical and
sub-tropical countries. Yet if transported.
as it often haa been by rail or boat, it
may become acclimated in any place which
supplies the conditions necessary for its
d-evelopment. And If perchance it har
bors the parasite of yellow fever, the
disease is soon spread by it and the young
It breeds. For example: Working Party
No. 1, states that while at one time the
st-egomyla was supposed to be a coast
mosquito, In twenty-eight years It has
gradually extended Into the interior Mex
Ico) to great altitudes along the commer
cial lines of communication, until now It
Is a constant Inhabitant at places with an
altitude of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, and yearly
causes epidemics of yellow fever.
Other factors In regard to the life-history
of this Insect that are of Importance In this
connection are: That this mosquito does
not bite when the temperature is below
S3 degre-es F. ; that Its eggs are not hatched
out below 68 degrees; and that an average
temperature of 75 degrees F. or higher Is
required for it to multiply abundantly. In
these facts we find the explanation as to
why a cool spell decreases the number
of new cases, and a frost kills off the di
Confined to Certain Localities.
From the foregoing, it is evident why
yellow fever occurs principally in tropical
and sub-tropical countrius. Many contrib
uting circumstances are essential In order
that the disease may gain a foothold; and
these are supplied by a limited number of
places. Particularly In the tropics, to a
lesser -extent In sub-tropical countries, the
conditions still prevail in most places which
make this pest-carrylng mosquito possible.
Surface drainage, lack of public water
supply, which means cisterns, rain-barrels.
water-buckets to hold the day'a sup
ply of drink-water; inefficient or no sew
age system; a large indigent population,
none too cleanly In Its habits; these arc
all important contributing factors In that
they offer convenient breeding places for
this pestilential mosquito. Add to these
conditions a mean high temperature, and
the mosquito, once Introduced, multiplies
rapidly and becomes a permanency. Then
only one Imported case of yellow fever la
necessary to create what physicians call an
endemic focus. Given a town In which
there are lacking the public Improvements
above described, this town may never have
bad a rase of yellow rever within Its bound
aries, yet. it only remslns for a ship or
far to bring one female parasite-harboring
mosquito, and the trick la turned the seeds
of an epidemic have been sown on fertile
soil. To recapitulate:
Yellow fever confines Itself to certain
localities because the conditions thera are
favorable to tha propagation of the yellow
fever moaqulto; that yellow fever is con
veyed from the sick to tha well by a moa
qulto, tb stegomyla fasclata; that tha
"Forty clocks In one house Is not by any
means uncommon," said a New York clock
msker. "In some private residences the
time pieces exceed even this number. Al
most any house of fair size will have from
fifteen clocks up to twenty or thirty."
With forty or more clocks In operation
It ran be Imagined that a rare treat may be
In store for the restless guest at his
friend's country place. As he tosses sleep
less on the pillows of his strange bed the
hour of 12 approaches.
Suddenly the slow, sweet tones of the
chimes of the great clock In the dining
room break forth upon the silence In glo
rious melody. Scarcely have the chimes
died away, followed by the deep measured,
deliberate strokes that mark the hour, than
another clock hursts forth upon the scene
with its message.
This time the hour Is announced In rather
a saucy, emphatic manner one stroke
banging after the other like shots from a
rapid fire gun, the entire twelve consum
ing little more time than one stroke of the
big clock. Then from another room In the
opposite side of the house comes the faint
and barely distinguishable notes of a bar
of mutilc that Is still another time piece's
way of demonstrating that the midnight
hour has arrived.
These notes are closely followed by a
f.rand chorus of rings, bangs and tinkles
as the score or more remaining time pieces
whirl Into action.
Silence more Intense by contrast follows
this unexpected and somewhat startling
outbreak upon the night's quietness, which
Is again undisturbed save by the occasional
striking of the quarter and half hours.
The guest's sleeplessness disappears In the
perfect silence that follows the charming
"How are so many clocks kept In good
running order?" repeated the clockmaker.
"Easily enough. No one In the house Is
supposed to touch or wind a single clock.
That duty Is left to the clockmaker.
"I spend one day each week winding
clocks. In one house alone in this city
an hour and a hair of my time each week
is taken up in winding the clocks. Of
course I regulate them, too. And If there
Is any slight repair to be made, I attend to
"This constant and careful attention Is
economical In the long run When a clock
maker attends to your time pieces you may
be sure the work is done thoroughly. For
he Is regular in his work, and regular wind
lng means better time.
A lady in Tarry town has more than
forty clocks In her summer home. I make
a trip one day each week up there through
the summer season to keep her clocks in
good shape. She is a great lover of time
pieces, and has many rara and beautiful
specimens, and never tires of adding
new clock to her collection.
"Many people buy clocks Just the same
as they do brio-a-brac, and the number
they already have never seems in any
way to affect their purchase of new ones
that may strike their fancy. There Is an
old saying that there's always room for
another clock, and I guess that's about
"No room seems to be complete without
one, and as some residences have nearly
a hundred rooms, it is easy to understand
how one house may contain forty or more
clocks and yet not have the appearance
of a clockmaker's store, as one might at
"We now have clocks that suit the laziest
and most forgetful person down to the
ground. These are Imported, and run for
400 days with one winding.' Anybody ought
to be able to remember to wind a clock
In that time, and this Btyle of time piece
seems to be meeting with great favor, for
we have recently sold a great many of
them." New York Sun.
VAST COST OF EDUCATION
Why America Leads the World in Intel
MILLIONS SPENT IN TRAINING MILLIONS
lastraetlve Review of Kdaeatlonal
Progress la All Parts of tha
Coaatry an the Moaey
Money madness Is the besetting sin in tho
United States, according to all the rest of
the world. And It may be true that here
and there an American does like to make
a dollar how and then every day, pos
sibly. But the grand passion of people of the
I'nlted States is for education, not 'Money.
With them the education microbe has done
Its perfect work. In their efforts for mental
training Americans lead the world. The
latest official and trustworthy figures, the
only ones, in fact, are furnished oy the
nited States bureau of education. Its last
report deals with the school year of 1902
13. When the report was closed the total.
to be exact, wss 1S,187,91.
But even this vast total does not take In
11 the Americans who sre striving eagerly
to Improve their mental condition, some of
them with every ounce of energy they have
left after doing their day's work each twen
For, entirely outside the lft.oon.ooo, en
tirely unnoticed by tho statisticians, come
he students enrolled for Instruction by the
famous Chautauqua university, the sn.ooo
who are regularly taking the Young Men's
Christian association courses, and the stu
dents of the correspondence schools, whose
ubscrlbers number thousands.
I nele gam's Edneatlonnl Problem.
This country alone, of all the countries
In the world, has manfully attacked, and
for Its own preservation must accomplish
the herculean task of operating constantly
educational mills of such magnitude that
they can accommodate 18,000,000 pupils and
students from almost every race on earth.
The pupKs of the "common" primary
schools, Including tho city evening schools,
make up 1B.7&0.000 of the grand total of be-
ween 18,000,000 and 19,000,000 composing the
American school army, as shown In the
latest educational reports. This 15,750,000
are put through our edticatlonal mills with
out the cost of a penny to themselves for
tuition, and In many states for books, even;
each community paying the cost of Its
own schools in the main, the federal gov
ernment educating only about 29,010 Indians,
In round numbers, and ,2,500 primary pupils
Now, what about the other millions In
the educational army? Well, rather more
than 1,000,000 are swallowed up by those
primary schools that are supported by pri
A Million for Higher Education.
Broadly speaking, considerably more than
1,000,000 of all the students who go to school
In the United States are Intent On some
degree of the higher education. This is one
In every eighty of the whole population
(allowing that the 76.000,000 of 1900 have
grown to 80,000,000 In 1906), by all odds a
larger proportion than can be shown In the
high schools, preparatorj schools, colleges,
universities and professional schools of
any other nation now or ever In history
dwelling on the crust of the earth.
Not to imitate the pages of a gazetteer
too closely, here are the exact figures
showing how this army of higher educa
tional students, in America Itself larger
than the army of Japan In Manchuria,
was divided tip when the latest official
figures were made:
High) schools, acadamtes ajid pre
paratory aenariments ttKis.412 rjetnr
public hlsih school students) 77ft MT,
Universities and colleges proper.... 126.8S4
rroiessiunai scnoois (lav, meatcine,
aivinuy, eicj 61,N71
Normal schools 64,114
PRATTLE OF THE YOlXCSTERi.
"How old are you, Mabel?1' asked tha In
"I'm 7 and five-twelfths years," answerei:
Mabel, who has a great liking for fractions
Dorothy was accustomed to having her
eggs broken Into the cup before they came
to the table. One morning she said
"Mamma, why can't I have my eggs cooked
with the hulls on, same as you do?"
"Why, Johnny, what's the matter with
your face?" queried the anxious mother of
a small boy, whose countenance looked like
a railway map.
"Oh," answered Johnny, "Sammy Hlggln
said he didn't like my face, so he fixed It to
';Ia, may I go out and play with Willie
"That's the son of the politician, Isn't Itr
"I dunno whose son he is. ma, but he'
tha only boy on the street who says I can
lick him an" don't make me prove It."
Horatio G. Herlck of Lawrence. Mass.
took a lively Interest In the schools of hi
home town. Shortly after Garfield's death
Mr. Herlck visited one of the schools and
made an address upon the life of the states
man. He asked: "Now, can any of you
tell me what a statesman Is?" A little hand
went up and a little girl replied: "A states
man Is a man who can make speeches.
"Hardly that," answered Mr. Herlck, who
loved to tell this story. "For instance,
sometlm.es maks speeches, and yet I i
not a statesman." The little hand again
went up and ths answer came triumph
antly: "I know; a statesman Is a man
who mukes good speeches."
True love says nothing and swaps kisses
A swelled head Indicates a contracted
It Is easier for most people to be poor
A knot will not come untied if It would
rather knot than not.
Give a woman a chance to show oft and
she will make good.
Some men make friends and some others
make them tired.
Pride holds a few people up and throw
a good many down.
No, Alonxo, a man of grit doesn't neces
sartly have a sandy complexion.
Speaking of unnatural mothers, what'
the matter with the Incubator?
Many a woman leads a dog's life by hold
lng the other end of the string.
A man who Insists on having everything
bis way will have trouble thrust upon him.
Enjoy life today. Tha joys of yesterday
are past and those due tomorrow may fall
It doesn't take the average man long to
tell all ha really knows, but ha never gets
through telling what he thicks ha knows..
CWcayia Ksws. .
pptl pil jfef pfcf
ibad LlSaJ ib&si.
OPENS A COAL
Coal Direct From the MINES TO THE CONSUMER
DY THE POUND, TON OR CAR
Watch the Prices Tumble
Department Store Prices on Coal and Green Trading Stamps Every Time.
There Are Two General Grades of Bituminous Coal on This Market
The first grade is from the best
mines of Pennsylvania, Ohio and
Wyoming; sold by regular dealers
at $0.50 to $7.40 per ton.
Against this we offer
The second grade includes good Illi
nois, Iowa and Missouri coal, the qual
ity most commonly in use; sold by
regular dealers at $5.75 to $6.50.
Against this we offer
A CHEAPER GRADE-Bennett's Block, $4.75
THE MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED COAL YARDS IN THE CITY
Twelfth and Chicago Streets and Illinois Central Tracks.
This department is opened at the urgent request of many customers,
and we are prepared to give the buying public an opportunity for a liberal
saving on this most important necessity COAL.
All Coal is Weighed on City Scales and Attested by City Weighmaster
and delivered to all parts of the city.
"S. & H." GREEN TRADING STAMPS EVERY TIME.
ORDER AT COAL OFFICE-MAIN FLOOR.
iii Pill lim BPI Hll Sll
aiaJJi tgUlSaj) iTTisitoial ffifeaaIaj; &-iUi;,anj
That part of life covering the eleven
years beginning with the age of 15 and end
ing with 25 may properly be considered
the "college age," and, roughly speaking,
the number of persons Included in these
ages in the L'nlted States when the last
census was taken was 15,000,000. Extending
the college age limit for those who may
linger over' professional and post-graduate
studies to 27, the total would be about
18,000,000. Besides the million and more
students In these high schools, colleges
and professional schools, there are about
150,000 young men and women (137,979 In
1903) attending business schools, and more
than 60,000 studying art, music and other
subjects In miscellaneous schools a total,
ray, of 200,000 in round numbers who are
training themselves solely to earn a living
and without the slightest pretensions to
any aim at srholarshtp.
An Army of Teachers.
More than 600,000 men and women from
college presidents down to plain school
ma'ams and schoolmasters are kept busy
as teachers throughout the school year. The
public school teachers alone numbered 449.
287 in 1903.
Everything in America, say the critics of
America, must ultimately be figured down
to the basis of the dollar. It is In order,
then, to say that the totul cost of carrying
on the public schools In the country Is more
than tJ60,000,000 a year (almost exactly that
In 1903), and that the yearly expense of run
ning the colleges and universities Is rather
more than one-tenth as much rlning above
127,000,000 in ;903. The yearly expense of
carrying on all the other schools In the
country has not been computed.
But there, is no doubt that the total, Is a
good deal more than 300.0il0,000, a sum so
big that the wealth of a Rockefeller even
would quickly melt If It were put to the test
of meeting it as a yearly payment.
Including the students In the professional
schools, and the faculties as well as the
students In the colleges and universities,
the division of the population which may
here be lumped as college students num
bered about 187 000 whe: the last educational
report was got out. At the opening of the
college semester this fall It must number
more than 200,000, or, to make a military
comparison, only a few thousands less than
the entire military force of Great Britain
and Ireland In time of reace.
The Vnlted States leads In number of col
leges and universities as well as students,
there being more than 600 in this country, as
against less than loo all told In Great
Britain, Germans; and France.
Presidents and Tbelr Work.
But, on the other hand, the best of our
universities, our old established seats of
learning In the east, like Yale and Harvard,
Princeton and Columbia; our newer fabu
lously endowed western universities, like
Chicago and Inland Stanford; our great co
educational and stste universities, like
Michigan at Ann Arbor, Wisconsin at Madi
son and Pennsylvania at Philadelphia; our
Johns Hopkins and our Clark; our smaller
colleges and universities dating hack to t lie
early days, vital with tradition and scholar
ship, though never rich or boasting students
by the thousand, such as Bowdoln, Virginia
and Williams, and scores and acores of
others, these earn in Its own way may
hold up their heads with the best of the old
Our college presidents as a class, con
sidering their number, probably are as In
fluential with their fellow cltlsens as any
other rlass whatsoever. The names of the
most virile among them are names that ths
world will not soon forget. Indeed, not to
lshed, those now tn the harness make up a
group of men who stand upon an extraor
dinarily high level.
Unlike the colleges and universities of the
old world, more than half of those in tho
new are privately endowed, there being
about twice as many Btudents In the pri
vate as in the public universities In this
Tha College Girl.
The most truly distinctive feature of
American college life la the American col
She la nearly 45,000 strong, exclusive of
the normal students. She flocks by herself
In colleges established and conducted espe
cially for her use and behoof by the thou
sand, and In coeducational colleges along
with her brother, her cousin, her sweet
heart and other young men by the tens of
thousands. It would be hard to say whether
the "co-ed" or the distinctively woman's
college girl Is the more desirable product.
In some quarters it is thought that the
problem of college education for women
has been solved best at Columbia and Har
vard, where they may take the same
courses of study, wholly or In part, un
der the guidance of the same faculty as
the men. Somewhat similar schemes are
In force at Brown, the Western Reserve
and Tulane universities.
Nevertheless, the strictly woman's colleges
like Vassar, now forty years old; Welles
ley and Smith, ten years younger, . and
Bryn Mawr, founded only twenty years ago,
but likely to last a century, are flourishing
like veritable bay trees, and so are the big
The woman's college presidents make up
a small class, but their Influence Is out of
proportion to the'r numbers. Two of them
are men, curiously enough, but the others
are women. Miss Thomas of Bryn Mawr,
Miss Huzard of Wellesley, Miss Woolley
of Mount Holyoke and the rest of thein
are surely Impressing a strong personal
Influence of the young women students un
der their direction, and so, indirectly, upon
the world ut large.
Not only a very lurge percentage of Btu
dents are earning their way through, as
Hf-lf-i tllant and as Independent' as any one
on earth, but the average of devotion to
study is as high today in the colleges of
the I'nlted States as It ever was In all the
history of college education, either In
America or elsewhere.
Western Colleges Forging Ahead.
The shifting of the college attendance
within the last few years has been remark
able. Of the fifty-four colleges and uni
versities, each of which has an attendance
of 1.0(io or more, thirty-five are located
In "the west," a surprising statement to
many, no doubt, but perfectly true. If the
old eastern boundary of "the west," the
Alleghenies, be accepted. Moreover, the at
tendance at some of these new western
colleges and universities Is much larger,
in comparison with the older eastern uni
versities, than most folk suppose.
Harvard, with 5.393 students, still leads,
and Columbia conies next, with 4.8SJ; but
It is a western university Chicago, with
4.580 that comes third. Then comes the
Northwestern, with 4,007; Ann Arbor, with
4,0u0; the University of Minnesota, with
1.900; the University of Illinois, with 3,594;
Cornell (eastern), with 3.423; the University
of California, with 3.400, and the University
of Wisconsin, with 3,151.
Pennsylvania has only i,692. only a little
more than in excess of the f,2 in at
tendance at Washington university, St.
Louis. Yale also falls below the 1.010
mark, the number being 2,9. while the
University of Georgia (southern), with 2.491,
has nearly twice as many as famous
Princeton, Willi Its 1,373, and the University
of Nebraska, with 2,513, lacks less than 100
of doubling tha Princeton figures.
The University of Texas, of which many
easterners have never heard, almost equals
Princeton in attendance, with 1.348, and In
land Stanford, with 1,4U. has about 1'
more than Princeton, Other figures Just
as surprising might be given, hut they are
as nothing to the figures that will be
needed to represent the future growth of
the universities of the west. Chicago Inter
were owners, had a Washington forty or
J mention those .w hoso work has t-eeu. Ha-J mure jearl ago
Leaving ll owa
Ocean I.laer Earned Washington.
The North German Lloyd haa departed
from 1's cuHtom of calling a new ship after
a European monarch or bis family and
will christen its latest leviathan after ths
"Father of His Country." Announcement
of the decision tn rail a 17,00u-ton vessel to
t built the Wsshington wss made recently.
The construction of the Wsshington has
been Just begun at the Tecklenburg ship
yard". Hremerhaven, and it will be com
pleted late In 1907. It Is ths first Instance
In which a big Una has used tha name
Washington. What waa known as ths
Bremen line, of which the Ruger Brothers
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I ...... .