Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, August 05, 1894, Page 13, Image 13

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Frank Carpenter Given the Trno
of Prcaant Difficulties.
Mountain * of Hold Nugget * ns HI ? as Tour
I'lftt The Kliic'A Hoard A Big Amer-
liitu Nclirnio IVIitch the Chl-
ne * i Frnatrntod.
( Cop ) righted 1854 liy Frank O. Carpenter. )
COREA , July 15. ( Special Correspondence
of The Hoc. ) I have taken a run from China
to Corel and It took mo thrco days to go
from Tlen-Tsln to the harbor of Chemulpo.
I was grounded for a time on the Pelho
river , and had a rough voyage over the Yel
low sea , but I am now In the biggest city of
this wonderful kingdom and I nm surrounded
by the queerest sights and the strangest people
ple on the face of the globe. I found the
harbor of Chemulpo filled with gunboats , and ,
nfter sailing up the river Han , I was met
about four miles from the city with a chair
from the American legation , which was car
ried by four Corcans and which was guarded
by soldiers. It was In this way I came
Into the city of Seoul. I passed through the
gates without trouble , and I nm now almost'
at homo In this Corcan world. I have a
mott efficient Interpreter , whom I call Gen
eral Pak , Ho comes of ono of the oldest
families of this country , and his grandfather
was a big magistrate. Ho has as much
cheek as a Now York plumber , and ho would
male n good newspaper reporter. General
Grcalhouse , the American advisor to the
king , ha * loaned him to mo during my stay ,
lie Is the confidential Interpreter of the gen
eral , and ho will accompiny mo In my tour
over Corea. He Is such an aristocratic lookIng -
Ing man that I always feel out of place when
I ask him to do anything for mo. He Is far
better dressed than I arn. His brand new
horse hair hat , I venture , cost $15 , and this
Is tied on under Jils chin with ribbons of
black BIOS grain sflk. Ho wears a gown of
the most dellc.ito sky bluo. This reaches
from his neck to his feet. It Is tied at the
waist with a purple silk cord , and the sleeves
of It have pockets In them so largo that they
would hold a baby. He speaks English
well , and ho Is an Invaluable man In these
troublous times. With him and a couple of
soldiers or kesoes I feel quite safe. I usually
rldo In a chair berne on the shoulders of four
men In uniform , while the soldiers trot along
at my Bide. I sometimes think that Pak Is
ashamed of mo , or that he thinks ho ought
to be- riding , too. Ho generally walks about
ten feet In advance or that much In the rear ,
and swings himself along as though he were
a gentleman of leisure If there are any
other Corean nobles about I can't got him
to help the photographer or do any sort of
manual labor. This would bo beneath him.
Ho Is very particular about my carrying
anything , and we have to take an extra
coolie along for this purpose.
I have also n Corcan artist with me , and
gtraiiKo ns It may seem I nm getting some
very fine pictures made of Corean types and
scones by this man. Ho paints aa well as
sketches , and Is considered the finest artist
of the kingdom. Ho Is noble and It Is hard
to got him to do work quickly , but his
pictures arc true to life , although they seem
strange to American eyes. He sketched
one of my soldiers for mo today , and also
made some pictures of the rebels who are
making such a trouble here. Ho gave mo a
picture of an official on his way to the pal
ace. I saw the fellow going past the door
and asked him to sketch him. The official
was dressed la a long , green gown , with
official boots of black cloth peeping from
under Its hem. He had a great belly band
decorated with gold sticking out from his
waist , nnd his horsehair cap and lingo wings
fastened to Us back , personifying ears , and
denoting that ho was always ready to listen
to the commands of the kingHo sat In a
chair upon n leopard skin , and two Corean
coolies In uniform took him along on the
dead run , while his servant ran by his side.
Behind him came ono of the king's officials ,
possibly a general of the army from the
country. Ho had amber beads around his
neck , a bow In ono hand and a quiver of
arrows at his back , while other arrows were
fastened to the crown of his hat. The
Coroans are good shots , and they still stick
to the bow and arrow , both for amuse
ment , and to a certain extent for war. The
king's troops are armed with modern guns ,
but many of the rebels have bows and not a
few of them carry tridents.
And this brings mo to the rebellion. It Is
a mighty big story , and It U hard to handle
It In a newspaper latter. I am told by those
closest to the king that the rebels did not
intend to fight against his majesty at all.
They only took up arms to oust the officials
of their provinces. They have been terribly
oppressed. Offices have been sold for years ,
and of late years the prices of these offices
have gone up , and the tenure of office has
been shoitencd. There Is ono man here
who has had this matter In charge who Is
worth many millions of dollars today. Ho
was a poor man ten yearn ago , and his
fortune has been made by squeezing. The
officials have had to pay so much for offices
that they have overtaxed the people to gat
the money back , and they have oppressed
thorn to such an extent that starvation
stared them In the face. Had the king lot
them alone and not come to the support of
Ills officials there would have been no
rebellion against him. He sent , however ,
his troops out to punish them. The rebels
defeated the troops , anil the king asked the
Chinese for some soldiers to help him put
dawn the trouble. The Japanese also sent
soldiers , nnd tlilH walled city of Seoul now
swarms with armed men. There nro guards
ovorywhero. The law against men going
out at night Is strictly enforced , and anyone
ono but a foreigner found wandering about
the streets Is liable to arrest. The gates
are carefully guarded and the walls are
watched. The Japanese have a largo camp
at the pass of the mountains between hero
nnd the port of Chemulpo , and every ono Is
excited and alarmed as to the possibilities of
a war , not only between the king and his
rebellions subjects , but between China and
Japan , The Chinese and Japanese soldiers
are by no means friendly to ono another ,
and the Japanese are ready and anxious fern
n pretext to fight. The Baltimore Is still
In the harbor of Chemulpo , and our marines
are ready to march from there at a mo
ment's notice to protect our legation and the
missionaries. The Coreans to a largo ex
tent look upon the matter ns a great joke.
They walk about In their fine white gowns ,
smoking pipes as long as themselves , and
laughing under their big blick hats at the
queer figures which the Chinese and Japan-
cso soldlcra make. They go by thousands
to the camp , and they do not seem to real
ize that the very existence of their govern
ment Is threatened. The king" , however ,
understands It very well. Ho is terribly
alarmed , and ho counsels with his officials
night after night under the electric lights of
the palace. He does no work whatever In
the daytime , and there Is a rumor that he
fears assassination nnd that he likes no
dark corners In his palace. Ills troops
have shown themselves unable to cope with
the rebels among his own people , to say
nothing of the Chinese and Japanese. They
have been defeited several times , and they
are largely outnumbered by the forcea of
Japan and China which are now on Corean
soil. The king's army consists , all told ,
ef not moro than 8.000 troops. Some of
these are well armed , and a number have
been trained by the American oillcors who
came over here to organise the army. Of
these all have left except General William
JIoE , Dye , who has been moro of an In
structor than a commander , but the officers
are generally Corean , and they are not fit
to fight the moro experienced heads of the
foreign troops.
In the meantime the king Is under the con
trol of the Chinese , and all Information
which Is sent out from hero by the Coreans
Is dictated by the Chinese. Corea has
claimed to. be Independent for come time ,
but she Is really under China's thumb , and
when LI Hung Chang of the Chinese em
bassy pulls the string she is compelled to
dance. I can't give In a few words my
reason for this statement. I may write of It
later. There Is no doubt , however , of the
fact. The catling In of the Chinese troops
without asking the consent of Japan WAS
contrary to the terms of the treaty which
exists between China and Japan. Tim Jap-
ancsc , naturally , were angry. They have
large colonies at the port of Chemulpo on
the Yellow sea , Gcnsan on the west coast ,
I'cuan on the south coast and here In Seoul
an well. They own a great deal of prop
erty , and they are the leading foreign na
tion In Corea. They will not permit China
to have this peninsula. This In ml has been
the fighting ground of these two nations In
times past , und It a war occurs now It will
be the bloodiest of Asiatic history. The
Coreans have a few Galling guns and some
cannon , The Japanese and Chinese can sup
ply their troops with all sorts of modern
munitions of war. They have millions of
dollars Invested In war material , and their
soldiers and marines are armed with the
newest and latest Inventions. As It Is now
It looks as though China would , In such a
case , have the friendship nnd support of the
king , but there Is much dissatisfaction with
the government here In Seoul , and the Jap
anese would not lack friends or followers.
The king , In fact , can't help himself , as re
gards China. He has borrowed money from
the Chinese government nnd all of his cus
toms receipts have been mortgaged to pay
the Interest on the debt. The king Is so
much In debt and so hard pressed for money
whether a war occurs or not ho Is bound
to open up Corea to foreigners. He ha * a.
wonderful kingdom , filled with enormous re
sources , and It will pay American specu
lators to keep their e > cs on the mining and
railroad possibilities of this land.
Corea Is , perhaps , the least understood
land In Asia , and It Is ono of the most won
derful countries on the face of the globe. I
paid my first visit to It six years ago , only
a short time after It had been opened up
to the world. About fifteen years ago no
foreigner could land on Its coasts , and ship
wrecked sailors wcro forced to stay In the
country , for fear they might carry news of
It to the barbarous people of Europe and
America. During my stay In It I have
traveled many miles over Its mountains and
vnllpys , and I expect to push my way , If
possible , right through the Interior of the
country to the west coast. I have visited
many of the countries of the world , but this
Is the queerest and the least known. There
Is little Information In the books of travel
concerning It. There are no guide books
whatever. It Is Ilko no other country , and
every day I hear new and strange things
about It and Its people. It Is going to be a
very Important country In the eyes of the
tnent of the American firm at Chemulpo and
will par for what he wants with gold dust
which he takes out of a pipe stem or from
a belt Which ho has bound about his body
under his clothes , Often men want to turn
the gold Into Corean cash , and It Is by no
means safe for them to have It found upon
them. The mines are worked under a su
perintendent , who probably gets n big slice
of the output. I3y the old of modern mining
machinery there Is no telling what they will
produce. At present not even blasting pow
der Is used to get the quartz , and the rock
Is broken by building n fire against It , nnd
then when It has become hot , water Is thrown
upon It , and this cracKs the quartz. Such
bits as can be gotten out nro laid on a flat
stone , and big round rocks are rollsd over
them ngaln and again to crush them , and
at least 60 per cent of the gold Is lost.
There ore no pumps , no quicksilver and no
chemicals. Such of the gold as Is gotten
comes from washing tha sand nnd crushed
rock with water In hand pans , and In the
winter the rock Is crushed and boiled to free
It of gold.
There are large copper mines In different
parts of Corea , nnd a great deal of this Is
dug out , smelted and used In the manufac
ture of brass ware. Brass U moro used
perhaps than any other metal. The eating
utensils , Including dishes , spoons nnd chop
sticks , arc made of It , and all of the wash
basins of the country are of this material.
The quality of the brass Is superior to that
which I have seen In any other part of the
world. It takes a polish like gold , nnd It
Is wonderfully bright and pure , None of
the copper Is , I believe , exported , and the
same Is true of the coal. The Corcan coal
mines , which He near the big city of Ping
Yan , about 100 miles north Seoul , so Dr.
Appenzcller , ono of the best posted mission
aries of the country , tells mo , are rather
coal quarries than shafts. The coal Is dug
from the top of the ground , and It Is taken
out at the minimum of expense. It Is a fine
anthracite , and it would bring right hero In
the capital from $10 to $12 n ton , A big
trade could bo carried on In It to the dif
ferent parts of China and the cast. As It
Is , Japan sells millions of dollars' worth of
coal every year , and the mines which I
visited last month In north China were dis
posing of from 1,700 to 2,000 tons of coal a
day. The coal that comes to Seoul , however ,
goes chiefly to the palace , and the mines
await practical men to turn their dusky
lumps Into veritable black diamonds.
Agriculturally considered the country Is
very rich. Not one-twentieth of It Is culti
vated , and the fact that the officials take
world. Its people are ot their own kind
nnd General Clarence Greathonse , the Ameri
can adviser of the king , tells mo that the
land contains between 16,000,000 and 20,000-
000. This Is about one-fourth of the popu
lation ot the United States. It is. In fact ,
moro people than there are In Spain. It Is
half again as many as there are In Mexico ,
and three times as many people as can bo
cci'nted In the state of New York. These
people are scattered over a territory of about
100.000 square miles. Take your map of
Asia. Look at the northeastern part of It
and you see the peninsula ot Corea
hanging down Ilko a nose from the lower
corner of Siberia and the Chinese province
ot Manchuria. This peninsula Is of about
the same shnpo as Florida or Italy , and it
has something Ilko the area of the latter
country. It Is between 400 and 600 miles
long , and from Its extreme north to the
southern coasts the distance Is about the
same as that between Cleveland and Now
York. At no place Is It much wider than
b&twoen Now York and Washington. The
area surrounding It Is peppered with rocky
Islands , and Its lower coasts are only a day's
sail from Japan.
Whatever be the outcome of this trouble
with Japan and China It Is bound to result
In the opening up of the country , and the
character ot the land and Its resources will
bo matters of Interest. It Is made up ot
mountains nnd valleys. There are a few
large plains , but the valleys are as fat as
the low lands of the Nile , and the moun
tains are filled with all sorts of minerals.
The gold mines of Corea turn out from
$ -,000,000 to $3,000,000 worth of dust and
nuggets every year , and practically nothing
but placer mining Is done. All of the gold
belongs to the king , and I hear it whispered
that his majesty has a great quantity of
bullion stored away In his palaces. Not
long ago It was a necessity that some
money be raised at once to complete the
electric plant which Is now being put Into
the palace , and there was practically nothing
In the treasury.
Forty-seven thousand dollars had to bo got
ten or the work could not go on. The
king was especially anxious that there
should bo no delay , and ho sent to Mr.
Power , the American , who has charge of
the electric ; lighting , two boxes ot gold dust
nnd nuggets. These came from the palace
to Mr. Power's house , the distance of nt least
a mile , without a guard , and it Is a question
whether the porters who carried them knew
what they were bringing. The gold was
packed In pine boxes , and these were hung
upon a polo which rested on the shoulders
of the two men who carried them. The
only man who went with them was the Co
rean Interpreter of Mr. Power. They were
opened when they reached the house and
wore found packed full of gold dust and nug
gets. The nuggets were of all shapes and
sizes , from that of the head of a pin to lumps
as big as your fist. There were two lumps
ot solid gold of this size and another was as
thick as the palm of a man's hand and
about the same shape , U was of such a na
ture that It could not have been rolled far
by water , and It must have bon found very
near the slto of the original lode. This
gold was sent by Mr. Power to the mint at
Osaka , Japan. There was 175 pounds of It ,
and It assayed 87 per cent gold and about
10 per cent silver. U was sold to the Hong
Kong and Shanghai bank for $47,000 , and the
money was applied to the part payment of
tha electrical machinery which Is now sup
plying his mujosty with light. There Is
Uttlo doubt but that the mountains ot north
Corea ore full of gold , and a great deal moro
Is probably gotten than Is generally supposed.
The Coreau citizen has certainly no security
of property , and the possession of money al
ways brings the officials down upon him ,
and they suck at his vitals till the money
is squeezed out ot him , Every now and
then native will corns Into the establish-
the greater part of the crops removes all
Incentive to work , and the people farm
only enough to keep them alive. Almost
anything that can be raised in the United
States can be raised hero , and rlco is
grown side by side with wheat nnd barley.
There Is plenty ot good grazing land , and
the cattle are very fine , and form the beasts
of burden of the country. I don't think the
people are naturally lazy. They are strong
and well meaning. They have a fair Idea
of justice and right , and their civilization
Is by no means a barbarous one. With se
curity of property and Incentive to work
they could easily bo taught to accumulate
money , nnd If the forelgnors are allowed
to take hold of the mines and build railroads
Corea will In a short tlmo approximate
Japan In Us progress. It has been several
times on the verge of giving concessions
to foreigners , and only a short time ago
the king had agreed to such a proposition.
An American , Mr. James R. Morse , who
had spent years In Coroa and who Is the
chief partner of the American firm now
doing business hero , was called from New
York to Seoul to see the king about the mat
ter. Ho was a thoroughly responsible man
in every respect , and he had at his back
some millions ot American capital. Ho
came to Seoul , and after a time got the
promtso of such concessions as would have
given him the exclusive right to build rail
roads ever the country , to have opened up the
gold mines and to have engaged In schemes
for the general development of Corea.
The papers were all ready to bo signed
and the American left the place with
the assurance that the next day all would
be settled and ho could begin work at once.
During the night , however , either through
the Chinese or some other Influence , the
king's mind was changed , and a message
was sent to the American legation that his
majesty had decided to grant no conces
sions at present and that Mr. Morse was nt
liberty to leave as soon as he chose. As
to just how this change came about no one
knows , but China probably had her fingers
In the pic. It is said that one ot the for
eigners connected with the court demanded
that ho bo paid a big percentage of the
profits of the scheme for the Influence
which ho claimed to have exerted In get
ting the king to accede to It. This was re
fused , and ho probably got his revenge
through the Chinese. In all this trouble
which Is going on In Corea It must bo re
membered that the Chinese arc the ene
mies ot progress. They are not the true
friends of the Coroan people. They have
the upper hand , and they are doing all they
can to keep the country back. The falling
through of this scheme was a very unfortu
nate thing for Corea. Had the papers been
signed both the King and the American
capitalist would now bo on the road to
wealth. The people would have had a
largo amount of their taxes remitted , for
the king's treasury would have been full ,
and there would have been no rebellion.
As It Is now , no ono can tell what will hap
pen , but sooner or later this land will be
ono of the most prosperous on the globe.
Atlanta Constitution ,
In ancient days of chivalry ,
When women dared not have a right ,
She Idly sat , with folded hands.
To wait the coming of her knight.
nut now , since Freedom spread its vvln a ,
bhe's taken on another way ;
St.e hustles 'round like all possessed ,
To speed the coming of her day.
Cook's Imperial. World's fair "highest
award , excellent champagne ; good efferves
cence , agreeable bouquet , delicious flavor. "
Poverty's Pinch Growing Moro Severe Among
the Oblldror J "the Czar ,
Graphic Portrayal ofitlin Condition of tlio
, Jtuasluu I'rimnnti ! ? lnjr thu Authur
of "Tim I.xllonHystcm of
hlbrrln. "
In forming a judgment as to the economic
condition of tlio Russlan _ peasant wo are not
forced to rely solely upon * the direct evidence
of observers. Indirect evidence of equal If
not greater weight Is furnished by tlio food
ho consumes , tlio taxes that ho pays or Is
unable to pay , and the nature of his domes-
tla environment as shown by statistics cf
Illness and mortality.
The food of the Russian peasant consists
almost wholly of breadstults. It Is esti
mated by the best Russian authorities that
health and strength cannot be maintained
upon a less quantity of breadsttiffs than
tv > eiity-slx ounces a day per capita or G93
pounds a year. In view of the fart that con
victs In English prisons are allowed thirty-
six ounces per day of bread , vegetables and
meat , twenty-six ounces of breadstuffs for
the Russian peasant would certainly scorn to
bo a low enough estimate , but It can easily
bo shown that the per capita consumption of
the Russian people Is much below even this
modest allowance. The gross average
product of breadstuff's In European Russia
Is now about 49,610,000 tons per annum.
Of this gross product 13,530,000 tons are re
served for seed , 6,194,400 tons are fed to
llvo stock , 1,136,520 tons are consumed by
brewers and distillers , and 7,973,680 tons are
exported. It these Bums be deducted from
the gross annual product there will bo loft
for the subsistence of 105,000,000 people about
20,475,400 tons per annum , or .190 pounds per
capita Instead of the 593 pounds , declared by
experts to be the smallest quantity upon
which health and strength can be main
tained. Hut the Russian peasant docs not
actually get the 390 pounds to which ho
would bo entitled It the food surplus were
equally divided. The wealthier class of the
population consumes , of course , much more
than Its per capita share , and the amount
loft for the peasant Is estimated by Russian
authorities at 288 pounds a jear per capita
Instead of the 593 pounds needed to main
tain his health and strength.
The Increase In the export of Russian
breadstuff- * from an average of 2,305,500 tons
per annum In 1S66-70 to an .uerage of
7,973,680 tons per annum In 18SS-9J is re
garded by superficial observers as an evi
dence of Incieaslng national prosperity ; but
Russian political economists have ngaln and
again pointed out the fact that It Is an evi
dence rather of progressive national Im
poverishment , for the reason that the In
creased export Is not the result of Increased
production , but rather of' Increased and In
jurious self-denial oi ) thp part of the pro
ducers. The peasants , "in order to p.\y their
taxes and meet the Interest on their loans ,
are forced to sell to speculators a large pert
of the grain that theyflhqmsjlvos should eat ,
and the speculators send labroad. . Ihe Im
perial commission recently appointed to con
sider the decline In tfti prices of agricultural
products ( Senator Pleve's Commission ) ic-
ports that the incrpasoii expert nf food
stuffs Is not accompanied with ft correspond
ing Increase either In the area umlar culti
vation or In the Intensity of culture. It Is ,
therefore , an Increase made possible Cnly
by a relative decrease Jithomo , totHUmpUan.
It Is obvious , I tliinK , , , that 'f ' tne Russian
peasant sells grain that 'he actually ncids
for food and lives upon" half the ciuai.tity
that ho ought to consume , he must ba forced
to do so by dlro necessity ,
But the economic condition of the Russian
peasantry may be shown In another way.
Every one who Is familiar with the Russian
method of collecting taxes and who knows the
nature of the penalties Incurred by the de
linquent taxpayer must be aware , I t'ink ! ,
that the average Russian peasant pays his
taxes promptly If by any possible effort or
sacrifice he can do so. He knows very well
that a failure on his part to meet the de
mands of the government will be followed
by the seizure and sale of his property , and
that it may even result In his being flogged
by order of the cantonal court. If , under
such circumstances , he falls to pay when
called upon. It Is simply because payment Is
out of the question , and the extent to which
his taxes are In arrears , serves , therefore ,
as a rough measure of his economic condi
tion. It appears from the official report of
the minister of flnanco * that on the 1st of
January , 1893 , the amount of Imperial taxes
In arrears was $58,428.621 , not Including
local taxes nor the Indebtedness of the peas
ants for food furnished them from the pub
lic storehouses , which now amounts to $200-
000,000 more. In seven Russian provinces ,
viz : Samara , Kazan , Ufa , Nizhni Novgorod ,
Slmbrlsk , Orenburg and Tobolsk , the taxes
In arrears amounted to twice the annual
assessment and In Samara and Orenburg to
more than four times that assessment. The
financial condition of the peasant far.mers In
some parts of the empire would seem to be
almost hopeless. The province of Kazan.vvlth a
population of 2,209,000 , has an Indebtedness of
$10,000,000 , of which $0,500,000 are Imperial
taxes In arrears , while the province of Si-
mara , with a population of 2,600,000 , has an
Indebtedness of more than $28,000,000. It is
extremely doubtful whether peasant families
whoso vvholo annual budget does not exceed
$320 , and whoso combined earnings amount
to less than $1 a day , will ever bo able to
cope successfully with such mountains of
Indebtedness. They might possibly do so
If they wore properly nourished and If their
working strength was maintained at Its
normal degree of efflcacy , but a population
that is only half fed and that Is consequently
quently weak and spiritless as well as dis
heartened can hardly be expected to bear the
heavy burden of current obligations and at
the same tlmo bring up arrears.
There Is one other class of facts which
may bo made to throw light upon the eco
nomic condition of the Russian peasant and
that la the class which Includes statistics
of sickness and mortality and Information
with regard to the nature of the peasant's
domestic environment. The abnormally
high rate of mortality which prevails In
Russia has long been regarded by physi
cians and political economists as a conclu
sive proof of widespread popular suffering
and privation. The Russian death rate Is
not only twice that of Great Britain , but It
exceeds , by more than one-quarter , the
death rate of all non-Rhsslan Europs. The
annual reports of the Russian Medical de
partment show that tha rate of mortality
for the empire as a whole ranges from 31
to 37 per 1,000 , and that In the thirteen
central provinces of European Russia It
reaches 62 per 1.000. In r the year 1893 there
wore 128 uyczds , or districts , In , the empire
where the number of deaths exceeded the
number of births , and where , consequently ,
the population was actually dying out. Ac
cording to a report made by Dr. Kkk to the
St. Petersburg Society of Physicians In 1886
the average duration of human llfo In Rus
sia Is only 29 years , while In Germany It Is
37 years , and In England 53. Reasoning
from the experience oftwestern , Europe , It
might , perhaps , bo supposed that this high
rate of mortality Is due to the santltary con
dition of the over-crowded tenement houses
In the Russian cities , and that It falls ,
therefore , mainly upon the poorer class of
the urban population ; but such Is not at all
the case. The researches of Dr. Kkk have
called attention again to the fact , previously
noted by the Russian statistician , Yanaon ,
that the average rate of mortality In Rus
sian cities is considerably lower than In
the adjacent country , and that the excessive
mortality shown by Russian vital ( statistics
fall * chiefly upon the agricultural popula
It may , perhaps , bo contended that tha
victims of thla high rate of death are for
the most part children under 5 years of age ,
and that If a given number of Adult Rus
sian peasants wcr computed with on
number of ndult poaiants from western Ku-
rope the Inferiority of the former , In point
of health and strength , would not be no
ticeable. Hut this contention IB not sup
ported by the facts. It Is true that 58 p r
cent of all tha children born In Russia die
before they uttnln their Clh year , but It docs
not , by nnr means , follow that the 42 per
cent who survive nnd who finally reach the
age of maturity re sound nnd well. The
unfavorable conditions which prove fatal
to the 5S per cent who die , affect also the
health and strength of the 42 per cant who
live , so that n largo proportion of them are
physically defective or unsound oven In the
first Hush of early manhoml.
From Russian conscription statistics It
appears that out of 423,000 young men sum
moned annually to render military service
In Russia , 67,000 , or nearly 16 per cent , are
rejected on ncount of various physical defects
and disabilities. In some parts of the em
pire the proportion of unsound or defective
recruits Is much larger even than this. In
the province of Smolensk , for example the
province where the economic condition of
the peasants Is declared to bo "most lament
able" the number of recruits found to bo
unfit for military service In 1891 was 2,012
out of 9,507 , or nearly 22 per cent. In the
Prl-Vlsllanskl region , which comprises the
Polish provinces , the average number of re
cruits condemned by army surgeons In IS'10
was 20 per cent and rose In some places to
33 per cent ,
In order fully to appreciate the signifi
cance of these figures wo must bear In mind
the fact that conscripts In Russia are not
drawn from the vvholo number of males ca
pable of bearing arms , but only from young
men who have just attained their majority ,
and who are supposed , therefore , to bo In
the prime of their youthful vigor If 16 to
33 per cent of the joung In this selected class
nro found , upon examination , to fall below
the normal standard of health and strength ,
the physical condition of the great mass
of the population cin readily bo Inferred.
Prom this necessary brief and hasty sur
vey of the present economic status of the
Russian peasant farmers. It clearly appears ,
I think , that a very largo number of them
some tens of millions at least ore being In
sufficiently fed , Inadequately paid for the
work that they do , disproportionately taxed
and reduced generally to a condition which ,
If not hopeless , Is at least extremely grave
and critical. GEORGE KENNAN.
Oregon Kidney Tea cures Dackachr
Ue. 25 cents. All druggists.
Intmostlnj ; Facts Dniltiroil from Kxtrnnlte
Investigation' .
Some very Interesting facts In regard to
the pay of preachers In the United States
have been collected by Mr. II. K. Carroll for
the August number of the forum. The ex
tensive Investigations matlu by the author of
the article , covering as they do the records
of all the chief denominations , show , as
might have been expected , that the salaries
paid by the city churches are much higher
than those paid by rural churches , and that
the average earnings of a clergyman are
considerably larger In the northern than In
the southern states. On the whole , says the
New York Sun , It seems that country min
isters make as good a living as country doc
tors , and are better off than country school
teachers ; while those urban salaries which
are regarded as prizes of the profession are
higher than those of college professors , or
than those of Judges of the federal and most
of the state courts
The salaries of bishops are considered sep
arately by Mr. Carroll , for the obvious rea
son that their average Income exceeds that
of the great body of the clergy , just as the
average income of the bench exceeds that of
the bar. In the Protestant Episcopal church
the pay of bishops varies from $3,000 a year ,
with $300 for official and traveling expenses ,
In the case of the episcopal heads of mis
sionary jurisdictions , up to $12,500 , with an
alowance for house rent. There Is only one
salary of the latter size , however. Another
Episcopal bishop has $9,750 and a house , one
has $6,500 , two have $6,000 each , three
$5,000 each , and one. In the central west ,
only $3,300. It appears that , In most cases ,
a house is provided gratuitously , and often
an allowance of $1,000 or less Is added for a
secretary or f * expenses. The conclusion
reached by Mr. Carroll Is that $5,000 maybe
bo taken as the average salary of an Episco
pal bishop Te pay of Catholic bishops Is
estimated at from $3 000 to $5,000 a year ;
archbishops , on the other hand , receive about
$10,000. To each of the sixteen bishops of
the Methodist Episcopal church , north , Is
given a salary of about $3,500 , plus $1,500 for
house rent. As they are Itinerant , their
traveling expenses are considerable , but
these are defrayed Independently of their
salaries. In the Methodist Episcopal church ,
south , the bishops receive but $3,600 for all
purposes , Including traveling expenditures as
well as house rent and salary. There are In
the various denominations , including the
Roman Catholic church , about 240 bishops ;
their average Income Is $5,000 , which Is con
siderably moro than that of college presi
dents , whose average earnings are only about
$3.000 a year.
Turning to the pay of ordinary clergymen ,
we find that In one of the Protestant Episco
pal dioceses In an eastern state four churches
give their rectors $10,000 apiece , together
with n house ; another $9,000 , and four $8,000
each. Three-fourths of the churches In the
same diocese pay less than $2.000 each. In
an Illinois diocese three c crchcs pay $6,000
apiece , one $5,000 , one $4,000 , and three about
$3,000 each ; but other salaries range from
$1,000 to $1,500 In the Presbyterian church
the average sclury of a pastor Is between
$1.000 and $1,200 a year , but there are eight
or ten pastorates which pay $10,000 a year
or moro ; six of these are In New York City ,
and one of them gives Its preacher $15,000 ,
besides the use of the parsonage. In the
Southern Presbyterian church , on the other
hand , the highest salary Is $4,500 , and there
Is a descent from this ilgure to $100 , or oven
less. The average salary of Congre
gational ministers Is $1,047. The high
est salaries are paid In New York
and Brooklyn. Ono Congregational church
In the former city gives $12.500 , three In
Brooklyn give $10,000 each , others In Brook
lyn pay $8,000 and $7,500 ; In Boston two
churches pay $7,000 apiece. Materially
lower are even the highest InoDm&a obtainable
by Methodist ministers. There Is , apparently ,
In the Methodist Episcopal church , north ,
not a single Instance where saliu-y and house
rent together amount to $7,000 , and there
are but thirteen churches which pay be
tween $5,000 and $6,500. In the 115 richest
churches the salary ranges from $3,000 to
$7,000. Outside of the cities the Incomes
of Methodist ministers range front $2,500
downward , many a place paying only $500
\vltli a house. In the Methodist church ,
south , few pasters receive as much as $4,000
a year , and none obtain more than that sum ;
the average Is not above $500. The earn
ings of Baptist preachers are , as a rule ,
very small. In one northern city a Baptist
salary of $10,000 Is paid , and In the same
place five other Baptist ministers receive
$5,000 each. In New York and Brooklyn
not moro than four got as much as $5,000
apiece. In the couth $4,000 Is about the
highest salary paid , and that Is given only
In Baltimore , Louisville and Atlanta. Among
the Lutherans the largest salary recorded
IH $6,000 , and that only In a single Instance ,
there are not very many salaries amounting
to $3,000. But It Is the custom of the
Lutherans to provide a parsonage , and the
perquisites are relatively large , In some
oases exceeding the salaries. The pastors
of the Dutch Reform church are well paid ,
qulta a number of them getting from
$5,000 to $10,000. It Is stated , dually , that
some Jewish rabbis receive as much aa
$12.000 In salary , besides perquisites.
The statistics laboriously compiled by Mr.
Carroll should put an end to the current
notion that preachers are , as n class , under
paid. There Is no lack of prizes In their
profession , and they are sure of a support
commensurate to their merits ,
An Intorcitlng 1.utter Which biiuuks tor
LOVEVILLE , St. Mary's Co. , MO. , Juno
15 , ISO * . I have handled Chamberlain's
Colic , Cholera and Diarrhoea Remedy for
the past year. It gives the best of satis
faction to my customers. I received an order
last week for four bottles of the remedy from
a man residing sixteen miles from my place.
Today I received a letter from him , stating
that It has saved the lives of two mem
bers of his family. An old gentleman here ,
who has suffered two years with diarrhoea ,
was permanently cured by this remedy , He
can now do as much work as any man of his
ago. I could mention other remarkable
cures , but the Remedy will show for Itstelt
If tried. D. Love. 25 and W-cont bottle * ( or
ale by druggist * .
Second Annual Convention of the United
States League.
Instructive Array or SliitUtlciU Truth * ,
Opinion * nnil experiences .MorltR of
the herlnl niul I'ermum nt 1'laiu
ItosoUHUms mill Ollllccr * .
fifty delegates representing fourteen
states constituted the second nunual conven
tion of the United States League of Local
Building and Loan associations which held
a two days' session In Buffalo , N. Y. , the
last week In July. The business of the con
vention was education and consultation nn
Interchange of Ideas and experiences , und
discussion of wajs und means best calcu
lated to promote thrift nnd home-getting
tluough co-opcintl\u effort. Although the
mental fenst was attractive In Itself , the
Buffalonlans broke In upon tha repast with
pleasurable relaxation. A reception and ban
quet gave the delegates a preliminary fill of
Queen City hospitality , and It supplemented
later with nn excursion to Niagara Tails.
President Scjmour Dextcr's opening ad
dress was a rovlow of the history
of building and loan associations .In the
United States. Ho sketched their progress
from 1S31 to the present time , and reminded
the assembled delegates that they repre
sented 5,600 associations , with an aggregate
capital of $150,000,000 and 1,500,000 shire-
holders. The alms of the National league
nnd the reasons for Its existence , ho de
clared , wcro to piomote the Interests of the
loctl mutual , loan .mil building associations
In the states , territories and District of Col
umbia ; to promote the enactment In nil the
states nnd territories of such laws as will
secure the Just and safe management of
sach asboclotlons for the mutual benefit of
all shareholders therein , and us far as pos
sible prevent the use of such associations
of their good name for speculative purposes
or for the profit of one class of shareholders
at the expense of the others , to devise nnd
promote the adoption by nil local building ,
loan nnd saving associations of systematic ,
equitable and safe methods of conducting
their business , and to encourage and stimu
late the building nnd owning of homes by
the people of the United States.
"There are certain fundamental truths nnd
principles to be always remembered , " said
the president. "You cannot create some
thing out of nothing. You cmnot pay out
more money than you receive. Since the
building and loan association deals only
with Us own shareholders , It cannot piy to
one member that which It does not receive
from another. When It sccUs to make large
dividends on Its shares It must make Us bor
rowers , the homo builders , pay largo Interest ,
large fines on default , nnd ictaln an undue
share of the profits from the withdrawing
shareholders. Thpre are three principles
which must be followed to make this co
operative movement successful and enduring.
They nro safety of funds , equality ot bene
fits and simplicity of mo'hods. The last
year has been ono of the severest In the
history of the nation In the testing of the
strcnth and soundness of methods In financial
Institutions. It Is with congia'ulatlons ' and
pride that I point to the record made by the
5GOO associations during the last year. So
far as I am advised , you can count on your
fingers the number of local associations that
have pissed into the custody of a receiver
during the last year. No class of share
holders , depositors or Investors In the nation
have suffered as light a loss upon their hold
ings or deposits as holders of local building
and loan shares. "
The liveliest debate In the convention oc
curred upon the relative merits of the serial
and permanent plans. The serial plan com
prehends the Issue of shares at regular In
tervals , all shares In one. Issue being carried
to maturity on an equality , and maturing
together. The system Is nearly as old ns
the association movement In the United
States , and Is in most general use at the
present time. The permanent plan Is com
paratively new. It Is an Ohio Idea , and has
reached Its greatest development In that
state. In substance , the permanent plan
means the Issue of shares at any and all
times , nnd makes the account of each share
holder Independent of any other. In the
serial system , perslstance Is rewarded by In
creased profits In the permanent. There Is
no Incentive to perseverenco other than In
creased dividends or compound Interest.
Mr. Charles R. Price of Now Bedford ,
Mass. , was the chief champion ot the serial
system , and was vigorously supported by
Judge Seymour Dexter of Elmlra , N. Y. ,
president of the convention. The advocate
of the permanent plan was Mr. K. V. Hay
maker of Defiance , O , deputy Inspector of
building and loan associations In the state.
The papers of Messrs. Price and Hay
maker went Into the details of the respective
systems , the merits ot each being urged with
much force. The sentiment of the conven
tion favored the serial plan , and for that
reason Mr. Haymaker was subjected to a
lively cross fire. Ho disclaimed perfection
for the permanent plan , but contended that
It. possesses many points of excellence which
render It far superior to the serial plan.
On being informed that dividends are de
clared annually , as a rule , under the perma
nent plan , Mi. Eldridge of Boston declared
the permanent plan was laigely for the
benefit of the well-to-do , who found It a
convenient way to Invest their surplus
money , being free to deposit and withdraw
at will. Ho said building nnd loan asso
ciations were established chiefly for the
benefit ot the people who could not afford
to run bank accounts , and thought that
the permanent association was a thing which
was hitched to another line than that which
was Intended for building and loan associa
tions. To this Mr. Haymaker replied that
the Ohio permanent associations had Ini
tialed the Almighty , and are no respecter
ot persons. He thought the moio money
that could bo got hold of by the associa
tions the moro im that association would bo
In the community.
Judge Dexter thought the permanent ,
under the present system , was a savings
bank , pure and simple , and that was what
they ought to call It. It was likely to cause
a stagnation of funds , and It was merging
a straight , cUan , pure building nnd loan
association Into a savings bank. "Upon the
lines which you are operating In Ohio , " said
ho , "you have no right to ask that state
to exempt you from taxation. "
"An association with $2.000,000 assets , "
sild Mr Haymaker , "can do moro good
In a community than any four with $5,000-
000 as ; ts , such as yours In I'lmlru. "
"Yes. " replied Judge Dexter , "but that
$2,000,000 divided among ten soclotlos will
do a thousand times moro good than If
hoarded In the cash box of a single society ,
for It will como closer to the people. "
Mr. Haymaker held his ground remarka
bly well Though subjected to a lively cross-
examination from all sIdeB , his prompt und
pointed replies showed that ho was loaded
for all comers. The plan which ho success
fully championed ho detailed as follows.
"In conducting an association upon the
permanent plan persons are permitted to
subscribe for stock at any time. Each
stockholder's shares are treated as sep
arate seiles , and an account Is kept with
each member of the dues paid In by him
and of the dividends to which ho Is en
titled at each annual or semi-annual dis
tribution ot profits. Pev/ associations In
Ohio today exact uny membership fee from
persons subscribing for block , but the
charge of a nominal sum , usually 25 cents ,
Is made for a pass book , and this Is the
only remnant of the old practlco of de
manding an Initiation fee of so much a
shore. The practlco of compelling non-
borrowing members to keep up
their regular dues by Imposing * a
finfor each delinquency Is fast
disappearing. They are permitted to
regulate their payments according to their
convenience , to pay less or more than the
regular dues or to coa e payment alto
gether. Stockholders very soon learn that
their share ot the dividend depends upon
the amount ot their payments , and In those
associations which , are liberal to their mem
bers many pay far in advance of their reg
ular dun , mut the ilellmnient member Is
the exception rather than the rule. The
associations nlso accumulate and maintain
n reserve fund for the pajr.icnt of contin
gent loan's. The shareholder U nlso per *
fnlttod to nllow his money to remain with
the association \mt I such time after Its
maturity as ho shall have need for It , By
'allowing a member to withdraw his stock
nt any time docn wny with lint dreaded
experience ef the sorhls of hiving lo meet
and pay off nn entire scries of stock at one
time. The entire plan Is simple , logical
nnd reasonable. It mnltcs cieh stockholder
practically Independent of his fellow. Each
member Is rewarded In tha exact proportion
to the economy nnd self-denial which he
practices and the filthfillnesis In which ho
Keeps tip his required pigments or the en-
tciprise with which he pa > s nitre limn the
required sum. When the member falls or
ceases to pay he Is not punished for the default -
fault , but his dividends do not Increase ,
but remain nt the same figure each dividend
day until he aqiln resumes his payments. "
The growth of building nnd loan aasocla-
tjons In the states ot Pcnns > lvnnla nnd Now
York formed the thcmo of pipers prepared
bj Mr Michael Brown of the former nnd
Mr. William M. Bloomer of the latter state.
Mr. Brown stated there had been 250 socie
ties organized In Pennsjlvnnlu since 1891.
The average membership for each society
Is 21908 The average Income for each so
ciety Is $35.054. nnd the avenigiponso ot
running each society Is $30' * OJ , average sal
ary account was $ . ' 61 Them ro about 75,000
women In that state who hold stuck In the
associations , which Is valued at over $30,000-
000 Commenting on these figures , President
Dexter said Pennsj hnnla just the kind
of societies which mnko u sun-ess of savings
und loan associations They have many as
sociations with small numhcis of shares und
light expenses "I'ho expenses for running
the associations In Pcnnsvlvanla , " said he ,
"during the Hit jour , for handling the many
millions , wcro $100.000 less than the ex
penses of the national associations In Now
i'ork state for handling $3,000.000 "
Regarding New Ynik Mr. Bloomer sild
then ) were lilt associations In the state ,
with n membership of iSJ.G'ii , of which 31-
117 wcio vvnmon I'ho assets of the societies
are $11,409714 , nn Increase of $1,224,571 over
the preceding ytir They were operated In
1S92 at nn expense of 2 per rent of the re
ceipts , as against un operating espenso of 10
tier cent bj the so-railed national : ! The rate
of operating expenses In 1893 was about tha
same In 1SOJ they had loaned on bonds nnd
mortgages $10,250,000 , and In 1891 this
amount had been Increased to ever $30,000-
Mr. Julius Stern of Chicago , counsel ot
the Illinois Statu leigue , delivered an ad
dress upon the necessity for nnd the Justifi
cation of the exemption of building nnd loan
associations from taxation. "Notwithstand
ing all the feather-headed talk about labor
and capital nnd their relations to each other
at the present day , " said he , "thero Is one
thing true. The creation of capital Is the
first step on the road leading fiom barbar
ism to clvlllzitlon. Exemption laws nro as
old as the laws creating taxation , and It has
long been the custom to exempt church and
educational property It must bo conpcdcd
that It Is good morals and economics for u
government to foster home-owning nnd
thrift. That a loan association Is a pure
co-oporatlvo measure is the basis for our
plea for exemption "
National associations came In for a vigor
ous drubbing. President Dexter devoted n
good portion of his address to an exposi
tion of their int-thods , their unequaled pre
tenses nnd ban en realizations. Mr. E. E.
Phclps dealt with the nationals In detail.
Ho said statistics had proved that the aver
age llfo of the national association was 2.5
years , as against 6 3 years for the average
local association "But , " he declared , "they
make hay while the sun shines. The great
grandstand play which they make does Us
business well , nnd proves again the old state
ment that the American people Ilko to ba
humbugged. Nothing tends to the destruc
tion of thrift more than the loss of the small
savings. " He further said ono of the great
est dangers from these national associations
VVT.S the dense Ignorance of the general pub
lic concerning building nnd loin associa
A largo number of papers wcro read , dealIng -
Ing with the mlnutla of association work ,
and nro of Interest to these chiefly engaged
In active management.
Among the resolutions adopted'was ono
recommending1 the employment by associa
tions of only men skilled In ical estate val
ues on committees to examlns property for
loan purposes , and that perfcns serving
on such committees bo paid.
As a means of arousing Interest In the
work , the convention recommended the
naming of a building and loan association
day , to bo properly observed throughout the
United States.
The constitution was amended so that
the clues of any state league shall not ex
ceed $100 per annum.
The officers chosen for the ensuing year
nro : Mr. D. Eldridge of Boston , president ;
Mr. Julius Stern. Chicago , first vice presi
dent ; Mr. R Bader , Cincinnati , second vlco
president ; Mr. E. B. Llnsloy , Three Rivers ,
treasurer ; Mr. John Hourlgan. Albiny , sec
retary , and Mr. W. L. Finch , Cincinnati , as
sistant secretary. The executive commtttco
Is composed of one member from each state
league In the national organization.
The convention of 1895 will bo hold at
an' WIVK.
Town Topics.
The trials I nm having with my gentle
manly wife
No mortnl could endure them very lonir.
And so I have concoUed these few simple
rules of life ,
Ao we find them formulated In this sonir ,
'Till the humble bee Blmll humble be nnd
Kiovel at my foot ;
'Till men's vests lire out from shoulder
blades before ;
'Till thp cubic oars shall atop blockingup
the busy street
Shu slmll never wear my waistcoats any
When a half dozen car fares nnd a dollar
Seem us much to her In shopping as two
dollars ,
Wo will have a common drnwer for her
outing' HhtrtH nnd mine ,
And likewise for our cuffa nnd for our
When the butterfly fchnll flutter by no moro
from llovvor to tock ,
And every field In nnd luihcH lies.
I will trimt her with the llguiea of the
combination lock
That Intervenes between her nnd my tics ,
When the wnnlmnn scornH to take a bribe ,
the turnip to take a ball ,
And rko the buoyant duck to take u
mvlm ,
She mny wear her husband's yachting cap ,
lilH pallor hat nnd all
Or ncuily all that appertains to lilin.
When the nndertnkcr overtakes the last of
mortal men ,
And for burlul makes him nettle In ad
vance ,
I decline It yes , I Bvvear It that then , and
not till then ,
Can she wear my Sunday go-to-nicetlng !
Oregon Kidney Tea cures nervous head
aches. Trial size. 25 cents. All druggists.
With the adv.mtnKcs nf ,
South Dakota. Is "ro to become a big
1/a in toll you what they are and why
a dollar lnvot > ti'd In
ndgomont , S. D.
real rstatu now will double Itself Insldo
of two years ,
Ixt $100 und upwards. Kusy monthly
WritH for Pamphlet , 1'rlco List , I'lat ,
and rofurencus free
The Hilgeniont Company , Omalu , Neb ,