Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, August 08, 1886, Page 12, Image 12
12 THIS OMAHA DAILY BEE : SUNDAY ATGUST 8 , 1880. TWELVE PAGES. PRETTY POETIC PICTURE , Whittior's "Parbara Frietchio" Tnrncd by tbo Facts Intf > J3ald Prose. SIMPLE ORIGIN OF THE LEGEND. Tlio Kamons Mnrcli of Lee "Over tlie Mountains Winding Down , llorso nnd Foot Into Fred- crick Town. " TViltoc ! 1) ) > Ma Tim. ! TTp from I litincnil'iwft rich with corn , Clonr In Iliu caul i-uplcmber uiurn , Tlio clilfili-rod fplrcs of I'rcilurlck stnnJ Urctm-wnllcil ! ) } tlio lillla of .Mnrylnml. Ilottnit about tlioin orclmnls tirctp. Apple mid pencil trcu fruited deep , 1'nlr ru llio curdon > if tliu I.onl To ttiu eyes or tlnJ frtmlHlied rebel liordo. It Is a very pretty picture Whlltier d aws of thu miiut Maryland toxvn which his poem of "Barbara Frietchio" lias im- niortali/.cd. Independently of its asso ciations Frederick deserves to have its poet to sing of its clustered spires ntid tell how they are grJbn-walled by the xer- danl hills that help to render it so picturesque ! in their summer .sheen. No ono who has ever seen them can forgot the orchards of apple and pcajh that crown these Maryland hills. What n liiirht of loveliness , of beauty and of temptation those orchards "fruited deep" must have presented "to the eyes of the famished rebel liordo" xvhcn Stonewall Jackson's advance swept over the hill by the Union hospital nnd into the town on the Oth of September , 1802. So far at least Whittlor's description in his famous ballad is perfect. It is only when xvoeomo to the subject of the ballad , Harbara her- flclf , that the prosaio hand of fact sweeps away thu poetic creation of the singer. That Barbara Frlolehlo lived is not de nied. That she died at the advanced ago of ninety-six years and is buried iti tlio burial gi'ouud of thu ( ierman Reformed church in Frederick is al.o . true. A long life had boon hers. Ten years older than the Declaration of Independence , she had arrived at the full ago of twunty-ono years when thu federal union was formed , and yet she lived to see u "famished rebel liordo" oxultiiigly pass her door witli thu avowed purpose of destroying tiio re public shu had been taught to loyu in her girlhood and which shu continued to re vere ! u her old , old ago. If immortality came to her in the last year of her life , it xvas not undeserved , even if the inci- I1 dents upon which it was based were not Btrlctly accurate , for her tlovotion to the union continued to animate her while hho hod life. On tlintplciuunt morn ot tlio early full When Lou nmrclio.l over tliu muuntnlu-wull , Over tlio mountnliiw.wlndlnjr down , llorso ami foot Into FrudurioK town ; Forty Hms with tliolrsltvor stitra , Forty ( lugs with tholr crhtibon burs , Flnppcil In tlio inornlnK wind ; the sun Of noon looked donn und saw not ono. It requires eight hues of Mr. Whittier's verso to say that the forty flags flying in Frederick on tlio morning of the Gtn of September , 1802 , were all down at noon because Leu had captured the town , but then the pout lolls it so much better than it could bo told in more wrpfe. The in- vadingarmy had marched iI'liui Lcesburg , twenty-throe miles , since breaking camp , having crossed the Potomac at Hauling ford. The invasion was a remarkable one , being intended as ono of deliver ance. It was hoped for it that il xvould bo a highly successful recruiting expedi tion. The address of General Lee to the people of Maryland , not to speak of tlio more florid production which Colonel Bradley T. Jolinson wis--provost marshal addressed lo the people of Frederick , proves this. As such it was a failure from its beginning. There was no welcome to tno army of tlio confederacy. On the contrary , their reception xvas decidedly cooK The deliverers unexpectedly found themselves in a hostile country. General Leo discovered tlmt.his . sympathy for the pcoule of Maryland in "the xyrongs and outrages that had boon inflicted upon them by the government o 4ho United States" was misplaced , for ithov did not ! Bhoxv that they "possessed. , a spirit too lofty to submit to such a government. " All the stores xvere closed. There xvas no display .of rebel bunting. When the bauds played "Maryland , My Maryland , " and "Dixie , " there xvas no response. I Lee had come Over the mountnlns wlndlnjr down , 1 Ilovso nnd foot Into Frodorloi town , on a fool's errand , for xvhilo , to quote the language of Uradloy Johnson , "the vieto- rlousarmyof thcboulh had brought free dom lo their sons , " the benighted Mary- iandors somohowr preferred "opnrossion more galling than the Austrian tyranny. " lint xvo have brought Iho rebels into Frederick in advance of the pool , which is not surprising since Leo made forced marches over the mountain wall , xvliile Whittier moves along xvilli the ] ig-jog trot of ballad measure. Up rope old Iliirlmm Frlutchlo them , JloweJvltli \ lior fourscoroyours und ton , llrnvost of nil In Frederick town. i She took up tlio Has ; tlio 111011 linulcd down : In lior ntllo window tliu stulf all ? sot , To itiow Unit ono hci'.rl wus lo/'iU yot. I ! Mid * ho ? The pool .says she did her ' only surviving relative and lior old noigh- j bora say shu did not. The moro's tlio i pity , but tliu prose folks , xvitli their simple - , plo prosaic story , are moru likely to be right than the poet , xvitli his touching verso. They eay she did not , and Ihoy wore In a position to know. Strange to say , nobody over thought lo asu thorn Do- fore a correspondent of the Lancaster Examiner puttlio question a few days ago. Once , indeed , live years after Bur- barn Frletohio's death , Thadduus Slovens drove up to thu door of what had been her home and asked Georg-j Eisslcr. n Gorman , xvho had bought tlio Friotchio homestead , for information in regard to the hcroino of Whittier's poom. The answers ho received did not please him , nnd xvhcn Kisslor told him that Barbara did not take up tliu llag thu mon Hauled down nnd sot the stall' in her atlio win dow. Slovens drovo. ollV saying , "Oh , that'll only n dumb-Dutchman , anyhow. " Up llio street cnmo tlio robot tiond , ITndor Ills ! oiicli Intt k'ft mul ritrlit Ho fit.itivoil ; tuj oldlluir : met I "IlHUI" tlio dust lirQVrn. Viuikt stui)4 fast , "l'lrol"-out bliizod the I'Ma-Muit. i-jvo iTJn It uhlvcrc-d tlie wlndovrfiwuo nnd snsli ; It rant tlio banner witu ouui nmlgus.i. How sad to spoil sopretty a talol There is only 0116 pcco.ifnt of Stonewall Jackson's entry into1 Frederick , and that was written by a Union army surgeon who was m charge or tlio hospital there Rt the time. " .lack ( on I did not got a look nt to recognize him , " the doctor wrote on the 21st of September , "though I- I must have scon him , as I witnessed tlie linssaee of all the Droops through the town. " Not a word about Barbara Friotchio nnd thisincident , Dr. Oliver Wendell llolmos , too , xvas in Frederick soon ttfl'jrxvanl , on Ids xyay to lind his eon , reported mortally wounded nt An- If tietnm. Such a story , had it been true , could scarcely have failed tu rout h hi. ; ears , and lie xvould undoubtedly Jiavo told Jt In his delightful plmpler of war rem- of Mrs.llandscliue mul her daughter , Mrs , Abbott , of Frederick. Mrs. Hand , solute was tlio niece ami adopted daughter of Mrs.Frietchio , and the Hag came to lioi * part of If-r inheritance , u cap out ol which General Washington drank tea when ho spent n night in Frederick in 1791 being itinong the Krictchio heirlooms. This Ihig which Mrs. llandschuc and her daughter so religiously preserve is torn , but the banner was not rent with seam and gash from a rifle blast. It is torn only this and nothing more. That Mrs. Frietehio did not wave the llag at .lack- son's men Mrs. Handscliuo positively aflirms. The llag waving act was done. lowover , by Mrs. Mary ! a. fjuantrell , an other Frederick woman , but Jtickson took no notice of it , nnd as Mrs. Quantrell was not fortunate enough to llnd a pocl to celebrate her deed , she never became famous. Qinok. ns It fell fiom the broken Mntf , iJnnio llurlmrn sniUcliol tbo sllkon scnrf. Pbo loaned fnr out on tlio wlnilow-slll , And shook It forth with a loynl will. "Slioot , If you inu t , thla iiray old heild. ] lut | .iiro j-utir country's tlaa , " sbo Bald. A phndiof ; n Int'S" , n Muli of ftlinme , Ov or thn face of tlio loader cntno : The nobler nature wltliln lilin stlricd To ll'o nt that womnn'sdced nnd words "Who touches n hair of yon Kray licml Dies liken ilogl Mareh on : " bo "Hid. Colonel Henry Kyd Douglas , who was with General .htokson every minute of ds stay in Frederick , declares in tin arti cle in 'tho Century that .Jackson never saw Barbara Frictchlc and that Barbara icver saw Jackson. This story is borne out by Mrs. Fnetchlo's relatives , who say , however , that during tlio occupation of Frederick by Leo's army , she wax very outspoken in her fidelity to the union cause. When she saw the boys in gray narching by her honsu shu would shake ler stick at them , and on one occasion she said to somu of them who had taken mssesiion of the front of the house : 'Get up. you dirty , lousy crowd , you jot oft"of my porcn. " This is the nearest Jarbara Friotchio ever eamu to Shoot , If you must. thlsBrny old head. As already said , Barbara Frietohio had i llag and slio waved it , not on llto Oth to Jackson's men , but on thd.l'Jtli to Burn- side's. Huro is the story' Swold by Mrs. Abbott , Mrs. Ilaiulseliiiirs dtiughtcr : 'Jackson and liis men had been iu Fred- srick and left a short time before. We weru glad that the rebels luifo gone and hat our troops camo. My mother and I ived almost opposite aunt's place. Shu nnd n < y mother's cousin lived together. Her name was Harriet Voner. Mother said I should go and sec aunt and tell her lot to bo frightened. Von know that unit was then almost ninety-six years old. When i reached aunt's place she < new its much as 1 did about matters and Cousin Harriet was with her. They were on the front porch and aunt was leaning on the oano she always carried. When .ho troops marched along aunt waved her land and cheer after cheer went up from : he men as they saw her. Some even ran nto the yard. 'God bless you , old lady , ' 'Let me take you by the hand , ' May you ivo long , you dear old soul , ' cried one liter tlio other , as tlicyarushcd into the yard. Aunt being rather feeble , and in order to save her as much as we could , Cousin Harriet Yoncr said : . 'Aunt ought o have a llag to wave.1 The Hag was udden ill the family Bible , nnd Cousin Harriet got it and gave it to aunt. Then she waved the llag to the men and they cheered her as they wont by. She wan very patriotic and the troops all knew 'Of icr. The day before General Heno wus milled he came to sue aunt and had a t title with her. " Tins is a very good story in itself , bti't lot nearly so good as Whittier's , with Stonewall Jackson in it. It is all that is eft of thu legend of Barbara Friotcjite ind the country will have to be satislied with it. AUctny lon through Frederick street Sounded the trend of marching ( cut. All day long that f roe Hair test Over tliu heads ol thu rubul host. F.for Us torn folds roe nnd fell On the loyul wlmls that loved It v.-dl ; And through the hill-pops sunset , llsht Shoiic over it with u wnnn zopd-nlRht. Would it wore so. The manner in which the I'riotchio legend Originated was very simpln. A Frede.rick lady vis ited Washington some time after the in vasion of 18M ( and spoke of "tho open sym pathy and valor of Barbara I'rietchie. The story was told again and again , and it never lost in the telling. Mr. Winttjqr receive ! his lirst knowledge of it fro.ni Mrs. E. D. E. N. Soulhworth , the novel" ist. who is a resident of Washington. When Mrs. Southworth wrote to Mr > Whit tier concerning Barbara , she enclosed , - closed a newspaper slip reciting the circumstances of Barbara Frietcliic's ac tion when Leo entered Frederick. Even now Mr. Whittier is not disturbed , not withstanding the prosaic turn his legend has taken , lie still insists that his poem has a substantial basifj , of faqt , "It is admitted by all , " ho says in a recent let ter , "that such a lady as Barbara I'rietchie lived in Frederick at the time of Lee's entrance. 2. That she was intensely loyal. 8. That she kept n-union Hag in her house. 4. That shu drove the rebels fro in her doorstep and waved her Hag. " Ah , yes ! but. she waved it at Burnsidu in welcome and not at Stonewall Jackson in defiance ! When Mr. Whittier wrote the poem he followed as closely as possible the account sent , him at the timu , Mr. Whittier has a cane made from the timber of Barbara's house. It was a present from Dr. Slimier , a member of thu senate of Maryland. The llag , which was hid between the covers of the old family Bible , nnd with which Barbara brietcliio gave a hearty welcome to Btirnsulo's troops , has but thirty-four stars , is small , of sill : , and at tached to a staff probably n yard in IlHrlinru Frlotchlo's work'iso'o'r. AuJ the rebel rides on his raids no more. Honor to her ! nnd let n lenr Full , for her wine , onBtonuwnU'a blcr. O vor. lUrbom Frletcblo's crave , Fliitf of Freedom und Union , wnvol 1'enco nnd onlornnd-bonuty draw Hound thy symbol of Unlit nnd law ; And over the slurs nliovo look down , On tby slurs below 111 Frederick town ! Barbara Frietnhio was born at Lan caster , in this state. liar maiden 'name was Hanur. She was born December 3. 1700 , her parents being Nicholas and Catharine Iluuor. She wont to Frederick in early life , where she married John O. Frietehio , u glover , in 1800. .She died December 18 , JfilW , Mr. Friotchio having died in 1 1'J. ' In IB03 the waters of Carroll crock rose to such a height , that they nearly wrecked the old homo ot the heroine of Whitlior's ' poem , Why Ho Will Novel- Rot Married In CJliut'oli Aaalu. Toledo Blade : "If I over got married in church again yon can call mo a goat , " said a bashful man tlm othur day. "What's the matter now ? " "Mnttor enough , " Iin reported , nnd ho scemeit to get mad whe thought of it , " 1 was married not long ago. and us my wifo's piirouts were pillars of the church it had to come oil' thorn , so they thought , Well , some repairs wuro being made in the church , so the marriage took place in the Sundny-sehool rjom. There's where the whole trouble came in. Wo stood on the platform where the suporintoudcnt'8 dc.sk stood , ami before t'.io minister got started I noticed a great many people smiling in the aivJicneo , I didn't know what to muUe of l . They all seemed to be looking over my head. I never said anything till the tiling was done , then I turned around anil looked up , What do you think J saw ? Ono of those con- fomrlod mottoes hanging right over our heads , and it said : 'Sune.r little children to como unto nn.1 Isn't that a man mad ? " THE NATURE OF COMPETITION Particularly That Practiced by the Man- of Railroads. . RUINATION AND ENRICHMENT. I'YIenilly Interests Unlit on the Dis ci imlnatlon I'lnn Cities Simil arly Treated An ISco- iionilc Kvlli 11Y I1ICIIAIU ) T. KI.Y , IMtOPKSSOi : OK 1'OMT- irxi. M'lK.vci : IN JOHN HOPKINS' UNI- viiitsrrv. I'AUT II. From J/cin > cr' M uattnc for .liiffii.'f. Discriminations in railway charge ? mean a dill'orcncc of treatment in favor of ono party or tiling and against another party or tiling , They are of three prin cipal kinds , namely : first , between places , as , for example , in favor of Boston and against Now York , or in favor of New ork and against Rochester ; second , be tween things , as in favor of wheat and against iron ; third , between individuals. Only thu third will bo treated in this place , as it is of chief importance from a general economic standpoint. To understand the real gravity of this evil it is necessary to consider the nature of competition , or tlio struggle for cxis- tcncu in the economic world. Men offer services or goods at varying rates , and each tries to underbid the other , ami that ofl'ur is accepted which , all things consid ered , is the lowest. Now this is not thu universal rule of business , but it is a very general one , and in the great busi ness transactions of our time it prevails to such an extent to bu decisive , provided these transactions are honest. The lar gest number of exceptions may be found in the remuneration for personal services , but tlio force of competition is indirectly becoming moru and more felt , and it is increasingly ( litlleiilt to escape from its control. When Mill wrote his treatise on political economy , forty years ago , he could sav that custom , not competition , fixed prices in retail trade. It is doubtful if this can now be said of that tratto in any of the large centres in Em ope or America certainly not without serious modification. In an ideal condition of tilings , such as the old political ceonomy presupposed , there are excellent sides to this competitive struggle , as it then gives a stimulus to individual initiative and ac tivity , eaeh ono trying to oiler superior services or goods , or endeavoring to do- visu methods whereby producli'Mi may bo cheapened ; and cheapened production means a saving of capital force and labor force a beuelit to the world. It , can per haps tie said with slisrht qualification that this economic struggle produces a near approximation to justice when it is be tween equals. But how is this affected by railway discriminations ? It has al ready been stated that they are not merely in favor of one , but against another , and the latter proposition is 119 important as the first. Its truth follows inevitably from the nature of competition. These favors to tlio friends of the railway power , or to those who have in some way secured an exceptional position , who have to tiso an expression becoming classic with us , gotten in "on the ground- floor , " are an external force against which all thcirconipotitorsinust contend. Their rivals enter into the struggla car rying a weight , a weight varying in amount , but at times great enough to bear down even those who would other wise be the strongest. Where competition is sharp and it is sharp in these days tor nearly all outside of rings and combina tions tlio freight on goods is frequently fur greater than the pnxlit on them , and a slignt variation in charges in favor of ono party is nil that is needed to make the fortune of that one and to ruin com petitors. It is stated that even such delay in shipment und such annoyance as a rail way can inflict on a business man not in fayor is at times sufficient to cause his bankruptcy. All this involves immense waste of economic resources. Talent in business , accumulation of capital in va rious forms , and organizations extending over a wide area , all of which ought to have been a blessing to the laboring population and tliu entire country , are annihilated. The best known example is the Standard Oil company. It received , as already stated , $10.000,000 in eighteen months in rebates. If it had done busi ness at what would have been cost for others , it would still have had that enor mous sum as profit. If it had transacted its business at such terms as would have involved a loss of $5,000,000 for others on the same amount of business , thuru would still have been an equal sum for distribution among the members of the company. It is a matter of course that its competitors weru ruined , and idle factories , old pipe lines no longer used , and business wrecks throughout the country give ovidunco of enormous economic waste. It is not to the point to urge that the quality of oil has been improving , and that thu price of oil has been declining , any more than it is to the point to urge tliu alleged ciiival- ry of the Italian brigands as a plea for highway robbery. Doubtless the mana gers of this company have not been alto gether blind to tlieir permanent interests , and may have given the public some of the advantages of improvumonts in oil production , while the enormous increased supply of oil was bticli as to force down price if the oil was to bo disposed of. It is a well-known fact that millions of barrels in reservoirs have been hold from the market in order to raisa. prices. Furthermore , it is worthy of notice that Itussian -petroleum is now a competitor of Ameri can petroleum , although the crude Itus- elan oil contains only thirty per centum of relined oil , while tlio American con tains eighty per centum. It must bo ad mitted that tltero are at times savings in transactions of business by a monopoly , but when these are doslr.id it is essential that this line of business should be made a public undertaking , in order that it may bo regulated , and that the entire public may participate in these advanta ges. What wo have to look at in this cose is the ruin of men engaged in honor ablu and legitimate business. These men form part of the commonwealth , and the body cannot thrive when its members are in a diseased condition. It must bo inquired , what would be thu log ical outcome of the extension of such methods ? What is tlio extent of these discriminations - tions ? It is such as to a fleet seriously ourmithv economic life. At the time of tlie investigation of the Now York Hop- burn committed H was found that special rates were the rule , und the regular tariff existed only for the weak anil inexperi enced. Notorious is the contract with Schnellkonf nnd Matthews , millers of Buffalo , New York , which enabled them to continue business when other millers were obliged to suspend operations. A vivid light is thrown on the true charac ter of the agreement by one clause in tlds contract , which reads as follows : "Provided , however , and this agreement ismadn upon the express understanding and consideration that said second party [ i. e. , Messrs. jclioellkopf and Matthews ] shall regard and treat this agreement as confidential , and will use. all reasonable precaution to keep tlio same secret. " Not long ago a merchant of Baltimore nttempteiT to do a comparatively small business in the purchase and sale of cot ton , "J thought , " said ho would . _ . . U. J-i5L jd .3fe. * J not attempt any business so largo that I could not keep it under my own imme diate supervision , and would thus be able to eflect savings impossible to the largo dealers who arc obliged to rely on agents. These small economics were to const ! ' lutes my profits. " With this in view ho went south to the cotton regions , but what was the result ? His calculations were sound until it camoto the shipments of cotton , when lie found that ho could not obtain the rebates given to the largo dealers , and was obliged to retire from the liuld of competition. Because of hcsc discriminations in this 1m o of busi ness it is confined to ten or n dozen houses. It is asserted in favor of the pools , or railway combinations , that they prevent discriminations ; but Mr. Hudson l.as shown that they do not affect the most notorious examples of discriminations , nnd one of tlio slirowdcst business men il lias been my pleasure to know explains the practice of railways during the ex istence of a pool thus : "If you go Into a freight office , and are unknown , there is ono general rate for freight shown you. You may argue and plead as long sis you will , and enlarge upon the great amount of freight you expect to send , and tno advantages which will accrue to tlio railway from the formation of a connection with you , but it will be quito usuless ; the sehcdulo rates will be maintained. Are you , however , an old friend whoso secrecy and discre tion can bo trusted ? Then it is n. different matter. You are taken aside- into a little room , tlm doors aru closed , and no one knows what is said , but you will doubt less leave with contentment expressed on your ootintenaneo. " Thissamugontlomnn informed me that he could not understand how a certain Chicago dealer could put goods on the market which had been sup plied by himself , at figures much lower than his Chicago competitors , until by accident ho discovered that this Chicago merchant received u special secret 'rate. The uncertainly ami inequality of rates produce in many quarters a kind of pa ralysis in our economic lifts. Individual initiative , energy , and activity give place to a feeling of helplessness and prostra tion. In speaking of railway charges and dis criminations , Mr. Charles Francis Adams , Jun , , said , in 1830 : "In regard to these things 1 consider the existing system nearly as bad as tiny system can bu. Studying its operations , as I have long and patiently , 1 am ready to repeat now what 1 have repeatedly said before , that the most surprising thing about it to mo is that thu business community sustains itself under such conditions. " Another abuse closely connected with this is the management of railways for the oulsjdo interests of managers and their friends. This takes at times the precise form just described. It can bo readily understood that the interests of a railway director as a dealer in coal can far outweigh his in terests as an owner of railway stock , so that he may be well content to forego dividends on his shares for the sake of special rates. Hero there is a dou ble robbery. The stockholders are robbed und business competitors nro robbed by those who are faithless to their trust as managers ot a public highway. But this is only one form of this kind of robbery. Directors may have interests in various corporations , as freight trans portation companies , express companies , sjeuping-car companies , and may sacri fice to these external corporations. The Hepburn committee found the Erie rail way covVrcd in this manner with barna cles. cles.Another Another abuse of moment is the pecul iar methods of construction companies , whereby men in their capacity as rail road officials enter into contracts with themselves in another capacity , and reap a rich harvest from tlie harmony between the two parties to the contract. Tlio abuse of railway power in stonk- watering , and the present and still graver oyils for the. futtir.o . .inthe. . im mense empires of land owned by rail- waysmustbo passed over with a bare ref erence to the fact of their existence Still moru serious are Ihorimornl evils connected with corporate management. Under this head effective essays might bo written with such titles as"Corruption ) no Harm. " "Lying no Sin"Theft no Crime. " No one feels this moru keenly than the upright business innn , It is use less to deny any part of-this impeach ment , for proofs lie on every hand ; and our popular heroes aru becoming dis- houest _ and successful adventurers. Even ministers of Uio Christian religion can be found to whiten their characters , and present them in tlio light of public benefactors ; and did not the people of New YorK a few years agojproposo to erect a statue to a man who tended his life a convict ? Did not thatsame popula tion recently gaze with a kind of admira tion upon men who perpetrated a successful robbery , and plundered the city of New York of several millions of dollars ? Yes ; wo are rapidly supplying interesting and dramatic material for the future historian , who will therefrom paint startling pictures for the instruction and amusement of his readers. There are many things which the rail way advocate will urge in favor of our railways. He will endeavor to show that rates are lower in America than in Europe ; but there are three things ho will fail to mention in his comparison. First , our railways have been built at a low cost , owing to inferior quality of construction , aim still more owing to'the cheapness of right of way often , indeed , costing nothing in a now country , ana to the level and otherwise favorable sur- facu of our country. If wo estimate tlio average1 cost of our railways at $35,000 per mile , it is a generous figure , whereas the European railways with which comparison is made will probably average $140,000 per mile. Second , no attention will bo paid to the fact that terminal charges constitute a largo part of freight expenses , nnd that these are lower with us per mile on ac count of our long distances. Third , you will not bo informed that quality of ser vice is a vital element in reasonable charges. What probability is thuru that your freight will bo shipped promptly , that it will move rapidly , and that it will arrive in safety ? , What percentage of fruigjit is injured or destroyed in a coun try like Germany , and what in Amoiicat Comparisons are difficult in freight charges ; in passenger charges easy. No ono disputes that charges for passenger service uro far higher in America , and there can scarcely bo a doubt that , when all elements are properly considered , freight charges will bo tound relatively lower elsewhere , and particularly in Bel gium and Germany. The charges now under consideration ant the rates for the ordinary average shipper between two average points. After all , the vital question in the com parison is wliethur rates are as low as they ought to bo with us , and the enor mous waste in our methods shows that they cannot bo. But the question of low rates is a minor ono. The low rates which wo do enjoy are not frequently established at the ex pense of thu owners of railway property , and there is cause for regret when people ple do not obtain a return on legitimate Investments. Unless wo arc a nation of paupers , wo desire these to receive a re turn who invcbt their means in railways. Are they not a part of the commonj wealthy And do wo not desire the pros perity of tlio common wealth ? Still more vital is tlio question of eco nomic liberty , which , as our first article has abundantly shown , is involved in the problem of the railway , equally vital are good morals nnd political integrity. It has not boon thought necessary to dwell on the inestimable benefits which our railways have brought us , for this is a too familiar topic. Tills now moans of communication and transportation lias added to tlio material resources of tlio country , has brought man near to his That the best five cent Cigar manufactured , is on sale in this city by Kuhn & Co. , 15th. and Doiigias. Field & Farnsworth , 2115 Cunning * st. Jno. W. Bell , 820 S. 10th st. W. J. Whitehouse , N , W. Cor. 16th and Webster. Jefferson Square Drug Store , 16th and Chicago , Is the well known . , ; T m ( None genuine without Vullcnciti Cigar Factory's name on label. ) You can get more cigar and a better cigar for 5 Cent , than any other cigar ever manufactured. It has stood the test in this city for more than a year , and al smokers -who know it prefer it to any other , j. sk , , for it of any of the above dealers , I .ere 1 , Ornate , 307 * i "Write for prices and terms. Orders by letter , postal card , telegraph Telephone 656 , will receive prompt attention. fellows in all pans ot the world , and has thus promoted n beneficent kind of inter nationalism , while it has at the same time strengthened national Loads ; it has facil itated the spread of knowledge , and in many ways tended to the ethical eleva tion of the race. Wo must regret that Us beneficent features and its ideal demo cratic character have not been still better developed , while for the good it has brought we should remember in profound gratitude the devotion to the welfare of humanity of Watt , of Fulton , and of George Stophcnson , and of a Jong line of scientific investigators and discoverers wiio preceded them and prepared the way for them , and who since their time have continued tlieir labors. Many of these Worked without hope of pecuniary reward for the love of their kind. These are our true heroes. To our railway kings wo owe nothing. More than ample compensation have they received for such doubtful services as they hnvo rendered. MRS. MACKAY'S ROMANCE. Fioiu Ijoiif ; Island nnd Poverty to Cal ifornia and luxury. Some time ago , says n writer in the New York World , a romantic nnd inter esting story was related to mo concern ing the American bonanza queen , Mrs. JSlackay. Years ago , comfortably situa ted in n modest homo nt Morthport , L. I. , lived a cozy little family of three father , mother and little daughter. For a timn all went happily along , until the hus band and father was taken ill ; then came dark days in the cottage , and n sharp struggle for life was each day nnd hour enacted. Then came a lull , kind friends walked gently about with troubled faces nnd a solemn liiinli , and that indefinable something which always accompanies dcatli seemed to say that all was over , all suffering had passed away , and the moral remains of tlie father lay calm and quiet. Mother nnd daughter wore soon to begin a Jong , bitter struggle for bread in a great world nlouo. Across the coun try whirled the Hying train. On , on it rushed , panting , pulling , snorting for days till the journey ended nnd California was reached. Among those who left tlio train was a black-robed woman and a fair , little girl. Alone m n strange land. Then followed weary days passed in fruitless search for work. Life is not BO easy after nil to be gin nnuw in a strungu place and without friends. Steadily the small stock of money grows smaller ami smaller until , with nil its ghastlincs , starvation stares ono in the fncu and there is no alternative - tivo but to beg. So this mother and daughter found the sunny land of the West not quite so bright as when viewed from afar , and thus it happened that the fragile child stood upon a corner asking alms. alms.What was there in the childish bounty nnd appealing loolc of this little waif that fo touched the heart of n passing rich man ? Ho stopped and questioned the little ono , and then followed her to her lonely homo , and there from lior mother learned their sad story. "Pity is akin to love , " So says tlio proverb , and in this case it proved to bo n near relation. Now comes tlio most romantic partot tlio story , and the part most like a fairy tale. Fortune showered her favors upon the two strangers. The first friend they had found proved to bo the wealthy Mr. Mackay , and in a sur prisingly short time the little Kva had found a generous , kind father , and with the mother it was "on" with the old love , on with tlio now. " With the widow's wccils wore laid nway all traces and signs of that part of her lifo in which poverty and trouble formed so large a part. It wasju-st a btop from poverty to dazzling wealth , and in nil the following years Hie lias over hold tlio brimming cup of fortune to her lips , enyly , thought- lussly , and has yet to lind the dregs which lie calmly at the bottom of the crystal liquid. 1 wonder if the Princess Colonna will over relate the story of her early child hood to her own wee son ; or will it re main as u ucvor-to-bo-rcvcnlod-sccret which If GENOA , THE CITY OF PALACES , A. Genoa Fete Unveiling the Statue 01 Zing Victor Emanuel. SIGHTS , SCENES AND INCIDENTS. Priced Opern Scats Tlio and Queen The Regatta and Evening Illumination. GnxoA , Italy , July 19. [ Correspondence once of tlio BKK. ] The day has passed in ' such confusion and' ' excitement thai ono may well xvonder : whether Genoa was built for any other-purpose than to serve as a beautiful fair ground , or lo xvcar people and horses out loiling up ami down ils sleep , picturesque streets. I have n dim recollection that at 11 a. m. the long croxvded train from Milan whirled us into the stalion of this "city of palaces , " and dcpo.sitcd"Us ffl a"Sliflb- caling croxx'd on the platform of the do- pot. Kind friends rescued us , and taking carriages xvo xvcre driven rapidly to the monument of the Into King Victor Kninn- nol , xvhieh his son , xvitli great ceremony , had unveiled Just half an hour previous. Our disappointment al being too late for tlio inauguration xvas still greater when xvc found that Pagani , one of the two sculptors of the statue , had reserved seals for us in the pavilion next to the ono occupied by the royal family and suite. After examining ihe monument , which Is AN IMMBNSK KQUV.STlUAJf S'JV.TUn , xveii executed in bronze , xvo drove through the streets tosoo the much talked of decorations. Kndlcsa evergreen xvreaths. garlands , lings , banners unit arches bewildered the eye. and from every balcony -and xvinduxv xyax'ed the rioli'fringcs and scarlet draperies of the cushions on the railingH. People fairly hung from the eaves of the houses and xvo all felt quite repaid for our watching and xvaiting xvlieu xvo suxv the king and queen , preceded by the senators and ministers of state pass before us down Iho Via Itoma , xvhilo tiio people phoulcd and cheered frantically , and the thrco great iron-cladKin Ihu harbor fired a salute , that made the surrounding hills and mountains echo for tlie nest quarter of an hour. In the afternoon xvo walked through some of the NAltltOXV DAItK VAESUS CAM.F.D BTUHKTS , for which Genoa is so famonn. Some are scarcely three feet wide , and often very steep , 'and the houses on each side are from six to niue Htorio.s high. No ray of sunlight over penetrates tlio darjc booths or stores on thu ground Jloor , and it is little xvoudor that , the- people look sickly and yellow , and scorn to rush Jo" the open squares and market places as pHi'ii t\ \ possible These Hireetis are much cleaner , however , than one xvould fancy they might , bo , Ihanks t'j the stringency of Ihu sanitary laxvs and the vigilance of the city commissioners. A XT.ItY DUOIJ , I'ARAION , peculiar to Genoa and the vicinity is Ihat of "bonneting" tlio horde.A very largo , broad brimmed Efraw liat , such uu the peasant men wear , IB trimmed with red or green ribbons and bound close to the Head of the patient animal , the side strings being tied under the jaws , 'J wo holes are cut for the card , turn the tout- cnscmblo is very funny , especially xvlion tlio poor boast is lltllo more tlinn an animated bundle of bonus. A company of thorn rnmlnds ono of traveling scare- croxvs , Al ! o'clock xvo drove lo the IIAT1IS OK I'KOM ANII OOUIGUASt'S , nnd dined at the lalter place in a pretty garden overlooking the sea. A band of street performers , xvltlj | i rns and gui' tars , ri-calcd us xvilli thu national and native Piedmont airs , The viuxv from Coriglianus of Iho beautiful HAituoit or ( HKOA : , xvlth its back ground of hills and muiin tainsl each surmounted by a picturesque fortress and covered xvith olive grovus and gardens of magnolia and oleander trees is inconceivably beautiful at any time , and when , as at present , the city is so gaily decorated and the ships , steam ers , and barks lying in the harbor so covered with bright pennons , flags-.and ; , fffiy canvasses , the sight is one ' ' ' "y * TO UK LUN < ; iu.MiMBr.Kii : : > . e'or the two ovt-ninsrs of the 18th or ipth three hundred thousand fruitcs , or sixty thousand dollars have been oxnemlod in Genoa , lor decorating and in lire- works , and to-night the illumination has been beautiful. Archesof dillerentcoloi'K cross tlio streets at intervals , brilliant palm branchesformed with colorcd glass cups , bend oraeefully fronV'tlio ' houses , and fancy designs in gas jots and innum erable Chinese lanterns turii'"niglit ' into day. The Uarbicre di Seviglia was given to-night at the Carlo l dice opera hoiibo. The king and queen were present nnd little attention was paid to the artists during the lirst part of the performance. The house was jammed and the lowest price for a scat of any kind was twenty- Jive dollars. Thasini , said to bo the greatest tenor liviiig.and the basso Happ , were much feted , the king and queen leadi.ig the applaiiEn. " July 20. This morning the king visited" many of the manufactories and public buildings , and the queen the asylums and hospitals. Everywhere they arc re ceived with the greatest demonstrations of affection and loyalty , and thn appear ance in the distance of thu scarlnl and gold livery of the royal cqinpngcs is a signal for prolonged shouts nnd much clapping. At 2 o'clock this afternoon , it being ( Jueen Marguerite's names-day , she went to high mass at the cathedral and remained kneeling at tlm altar dur ing the ceremony. She was dressed in a handsome gray traveling suit and made n beautiful picture as tlio soft light from the caudles fell on her bent lii'iiii and folded arms. On leaving the cathedral wo drove to STUIII.A , a bathing place , only an hour distant by carriage from Genoa , nnd after bath ing ( it being the time , apparently , for the general afternoon plunge ) , wo had din ner out-of-doors , in thu most magniliccnt oleander grove in the vicinity of Genoa. The trees weru between thirty ami forty foot high and covered with ( lowers. Wo returned to the city nt 7 p. m. for TUB 11KGATTA AND CKOWNINO ILLUMI NATION. Our places wo had engaged previously "Solunta " of the on board the , ono man-of-war lyimr about a quarter of u milu from the quay. Three of thcsu great vessels were arranged on each Side of the harbor , ono before the other. And at8tho : ! ! ( ) royal barge passed liolwuert" them , and was stationed at thu cud of tliu two lines formed bv the whips. Thu king and queen stood in the pavilion waving , while the six bands , one on board each vessel , played the national air. Her majesty was drowsed entirely in while , with her favorite pearls uroMiid- licr tliroat. and a rich white mantle over hcrhhoiildors. When the king'gavo ' the command for the regatta to commence , every gun in the harbor Jired asnlntw. thnt fairly made one's teeth < tiattorJ,7vq ! , , white boat * shot from thu starling point at tlio wlinrf and as their crews , sailors of the royal lluet , roy/i'd swiftly toward the , goal near the king's lia'rjrn" , the , shouts nud erica \\c-re deafening. Tliero were live races in all , and then llio fire works commenced. They made u very , poor display , and Iho only tiling thut caved thorn trom universal coiidomnalion was an oxquhito imitation of the bomitl- Cathedral of Milan. It burned for nearly ten minutes and was greatly admired. The illumination of tlio harbor , yossoh and city was magnillcent , and every fortress on the Kurroundng | lulls and mountain tops was brilliantly lightod.i thcjr dark outlines markr.d by lnun.u.i < i | . bio candles. M midnight thi ; royal party landed , and an hour later th < S folu Jf/Ui ) / ended. I forgot to mention that 1'agiini and Ilaiv.agnl , Iho two sculptors of the monument , to Victor Hmanuol , dlnt'd ' with the king Monday ovt-niiig. MIHIAM OUASU.