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About Hesperian student / (Lincoln [Neb.]) 1872-1885 | View Entire Issue (June 13, 1884)
THE HESPERIAN STUDENT.
U ,' I
over, without n nation, mid speaking every tonguo they
novor coiiBo to bo distinctively Jews, never coaso to look
toward Jerusalem for their Mflsslnh.
G. W. HOTSFOIID.
Th Philosophy of Herbert Sj)encer : Spencer endeavors
through his theory of '-organized experiences" to avoid the
weakness of empiricism, on tho ono hand, and of trans
scendcntallsiii,J on the other, by tho nssumption ns tho
basis of ln philosophy of tiuths at oneo empirical and
transcendental. The persistence of force is not, as ho
asserts, an axiom, but ah induction from experience.
Tho same may be saidjof Ihe continuity of motion, and (lie
and tho in.lestructibilily of matter. Ho sayt that a system
of philosophy mustiest upon some truth which transcends
thought; but his c' oice of a first principle is arbitrary
We cannot afllrnt that our conception of mal'cr is derived
from that of force. He Ib al first an ngiiosllc, his abso
lute is utterly unknowable. Hut he afterwards predicates
presislonce and eausidliy of it, and flnnlly identifies it
with gravity. The absolute thus becomes clearly known.
Spencer has no philosophical ground for his assumption
of an infinity and eternal energy. Tho hypothesis of an
indefinite homogeneity is inconsistent, His Evolution
theory is accepted by those who reject its foundalioh.
It explains all ch-ui'jes excjpt thoio classed in "sit per
organic,' Whether in this field science is possible is
yet an open question.
H. W. OLMSTED.
Shakespeare' sFatalism: .The English diama, like Hint
offancieiit Qiccce, had its origin mid grew up in a religions
atmosphere, and assisted largely in shaping tho culture
of English society. Tho drama of Shakespeare lo the
outgrowth of three hundred years of progret.8 and with
him reaches its highest statu of pi'iTcoci on. Shakespeare
in tho production of both comedy ttud tragedy accom
plished what was never done by a single mind. He
goes on a step f.irlh r a id i i hi-t I u sH pUys WiM es both
comedy and tragedy, blending tho two together
in u form true to nature and to the experiences of life.
Macbeth is told by the Witches that he "shall be Thano
of Cawdoi and herearter king." When a part of llieir'proph.
ocy comes iruo Macbeth accepts the rest amt proceeds
to make iijrenl Duncan is murdered and he heats himself
proclaimed king. Thusplacbelh illustrates a des'iny
woikcd out by human hands and uccep'ed by the human
will. In Hamlet it is dill'i-rent. Hamlet is Shakespeare's
ideal of an inflexible destiny, which cannot be changed
by human agencies and which makes oven Hnmlci will
obey and work out its provision. Hamlet doubts the di
vine call to bo an avenger; hence it was destined ho
should wiiitand llio wholo train of punishment belaid at
once. Divine providence in the end prepares the way
and Hamlet is at last lead to strike the blow Tho aven
ger falls too, "but in suoh a uiannn, as to levcupon us
the hallowed Bctise'tluit llighls of angels sing him to iiis
rest." fFinully, none can sum up Shakespeare's futalistic
philosophy whiohho preached so well as himsolf from
liia own test:
'There's a destiny that shapes our ends,
Uough-how them how wo will,"
From Uoicley to Wordsworth: Tho Engll hmmi is in
clined to Imilato. Beginning with Cowley Evgluud
forced upon her writers a French education. Hence,
thotondciicy of tho 18th century was towords polish at tho
oxpenso of thought. In poetry there was a contradiction
of its Into essence, tho soul of it was subordinated to its
outward purls. Hut it had a nobler mission, truo genuius
always leads, truo beauty and elegance of expression
exercised a most potent influence they satisfied the in
tellectual needs of the' age. But the reaction came.
The Englishman could not stand aside unmoved when
great revolutions ueic every where'taklng place. (Again ho
finds originality al home. The individual has risen in the
social balance the lower classes have come to tho front.
The poetry of tho ago steps forward ustlie "champion of
humanity." The universal chord in the human heart
responds to the note that it sounds Wordsworth, as i
representative, as tho interpreter of nature comes from
her "inmost temple," makes her beauties live, breath
and fool. Tho Bard of Rydal Mount is too much tho
poet of principles rather than of action to satisfy the de
mands of the picsent age. It need?, more of tho spirit of
of him whoso "life was passion put into action." What
charms io Wordswoith is "The happy lone of medita
tion slipping in between tho beauty coming and the
beauty gone." Ho is but one of Hie orignal minds of tho
age, and of him, as a representative we would say:
"Iilcsslngs bo with him and eternal praise
Who jjlvcs us purer love and nohl or cares."
K. O. LKWIS.
Conservation of Energy: To tho last hundred years has
been reserved tho privilege of making tho moat' wonder
ful advancements in physical sciences yet known to the
world. The hitler part of the eighteenth century was
marked by the discovery of the indesliuolibilily of mat
ter giving lo aralylieal chemistry it great impulse.
Tho succeeding half century calls fot Hi the more won
derful diicovery ot that unique theory of tho conserva
tion of energy, it asserts that nature in a wholo posses
cs a store of energy which cannot be increased or dimin.
The piinciple forms of energy us heat, light, electricity,
lnignetium and chemical afiinily are ever being trans
formed fjoih one lo Ihu oilier. n this traimformalions
work is performed and a certain amount of
energy is changed into heat at a low temperature. This
loss of available energy ia replaced by the sun, which is
our chief source of energy. Tho energy of fuel, light,
winds, wnteis and food is duo to solar heat and light.
The energy of the tiede tends to check tho emth's rota
tion. If the universe be delivered over to tho undisturbed
action of its physical laws, a complete cessation of its
natural processes will finally set in ; if tho sun loses his
high temporal uro together with his light, the life of man;
anjmals and plants must cease, and fie universe fiom
that time forward would bu ooudenino l to a slate ot
The Palludinn exhibition this year was like the one
given a year ago in that it was much interfered with bj
bad weather. At the close of the oxorcises tho lower bail,
way of the east wing of the Capitol was crowded by anuii.
comfortable mob of ladies. The gentlemen were all out
side the door yelling for hacks and runningout along tho
sHc-walks and ,to the mud in order to engage a con
veyance befor- any other unfortunate could get ahead ot
them. Several tried to secure some kind of a mud-cart
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