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About Hesperian student / (Lincoln [Neb.]) 1872-1885 | View Entire Issue (June 13, 1884)
THE HESPERIAN STUDENT.
cubic bonnuso ol iv wnnt of business ability. Laborers
tliri: turn to Irado unions. Though not strong enough
to opposo'organized capital, they unlto to force onpltnlists
to accede to. their demands. Lnboruninns destroy nil
mutual interest nml rcgnrtl between employer nml em
ploye. They uim to rniso wages, hut u universal riso of
wngeB Isnomlnnl in lta advantages. The'intercst of the
laborer demand maximum production, to accomplish
which education is necessary. These arc prevented by
Strikes, and by the rules of the unions, which tend to low.
er the ability of the laborer. Competition though slower
will gain more than can be gained by 'strikes. Competi
tion lias built up modern industry and it alone can carry
it towaids perfection. Labor must obey the universal
lnv of supply and demand. There i nothing radically
wrong with theexistiug relations between labor and cap.
itnl.- Labor will reap its highest and duo rewnrd'uhen it
becomes educated and when competition is absolutely
W. 1'. SUI.MVAN.
The Place of History in a College Curriculum: Hlsto'ry
assumes a prominent place in the struggle be' ween the
friends ufclnssical and scientific studies. For, while it
is a record of the past,' it is- (the science of t'io future.
It illustrates the princip'c3 which control the prog
ress of mankind, ami assumes u position in connection
with higher education, wit out which ibis must icmain
iucffictivc mid incomplete. Thai, the impoitance of his
torical study depends upon the style in which it is writ,
en and uponthejmanner in which it is taught. The aim
of the historian should be to extract the philosophy of his.
tory, to direct our judgment of events and men, to trace
the connection Of cau.vs and effects and to draw from'oc
currcnccs of former times lessons of moral and political
The separate parts of history should be combined
into a whole to ascertain the way In which they are con.
uec.'fcd. The historian should ascertain the laws by
which th" facts were governed. The knowledge of
past events is valuable only as it leads us to form a 'just
cclculationjfor the iulu'rc
i 'Tiio study of history is necessary for a politician
or statesman. It unites us wilhRihc generations to
come, and helps us ta avoid the rocksMhat wrecked thuBu
nations which have gone before us. It strengthens
the love of virtue andjereates an abhorcuce of vice.
No study is better to discipline tne mind. Though
it has been neglected in the past, its value has at last been
recognized, not alone by the leading colleges of foreign
countries, but by our own; by-Harvard, Michigan, John's
Hopkins and Cornell. A separate chair of Ameris
enn history should be established in every college in this
country. The government of a nation can not be
understood without its history.
"W. II. MCIITY.
The Reform of the Civil Service. "Without thcjlwin safe
guards of representative government and trial by jury as em
embodied in the Great Charter it is not easy to see how our
civilization could be maintained. Representative govern
mentitbclf has been weakened by the ever present ulcer of
corruption, but I would ask you to notice the work ic
cently done by the civil service reform. Many had
known of the amount of time consumed by membeis of
Congress in the distribution of patronage, but few had
reflected on the' tendency to the usurpation of executive
powers by the legislative body a thing subversive of the
Constitution. Is it not asignitlcant fact 'that thla.lms
been remedied, that reform though opposed, progresses?
In tint jury system, the judges and his assistants, cor
responding to the executive, havo been winning power nt
the expense of the jurois, Now justice is h"ld to besuch
.only so long as It is regarded in that light by the lower
orders; this fact may bu seen when a mob cuts through
, nil .technicalities. Stringent laws Intended to govern the
selection of jurors are made only to be disregarded, ami
'the prejudice which rules in their selection may be seen
even in our own count'. Excellence of trial by jury do.
pends upon the same conditions as the excellence of free
govcrnmen' the voluntary sacrifice of all intelligent cit
izensln'tho ciupulou; discharge of their duties. Only
through patient reformers can the system be reola'mcd;
and as to (he possibility of reformation it can only be
said that as a demand for reformation lias eVer hitherto
mated a reformer, we may hope that the nineteenth cen
luiy will 3 el witness a complete renovation of the jury
.Institutions an Organic Growth; "History is past
politics and politics present history" is Freeman's inan-
nor ol saying th.it inMilutions never die.
7 lie organic sliuclure of institutions is most cleariv seen
in .those of England since ihe growth has been miuo nat
ural and less subject to outside iniluunco.
Through England local self Jgovernmcnl, courts, offi
cers, foims of trial, tcrrllorialdivision and legislatioB
' may he traced to lite old Teuton ic race. The descent of
'tliejuty from procedure by pat ty proof,' through tho in
' quisitibn and' assize, can be clearly seen. The House of
L-mls is Mil the continuation of the old Witehngemoi
through" the intervening forms of the Nonnnti council,
(lie council of Feudal Barons and the Estates.
' The American institutions arc not artificial but spring;
from oid ioo'.s transplanted into new soil. Thetowu
' meeting in New Euglnnd to day is identical with the old!
Evolution in History is no longer a theory but, by
applicitiou of tho comparative method, may be proved
as conclusively is any thing in science.
J. II. IIOLMK3.
The Wandering Jew: While the highest civilization
of the world is found among Arau nations, the origin of
nil its phases may be traced to Semetic peoples. To the
Jews especially do wc owe many of our modern charac
teristics. Throughout all history their inlluencc has
been n marked feature. It was from fie coast of Pales,
tine that went forth the founders ol Curlhngc, afterwards
Rome's most dangerous enemy. It was tho Jews who
had to be wiped out as a nation before they could be
subdued; it was the religion of the Jews that iuvcstedjthe
failing power of Rome with new strength. They also it
wub who kept alive the Hade and the learning of Europe
during thc'middlc age, and to them are duo.many of ihe
great enterprises attributed to others. In all changes
and conditions it has been their fate to have their
thoughts and their deeds attributed to others; this is
shown by their position in society since the destruction
of Jerusalem while their religion lins been that of Europe
and their wealth, unbounded. In all their changes how-
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