The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911, October 11, 1905, Image 7

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Inform:! lion on subjects discussed. Ad
dress 11. J. WiagK. Waukee or Des
Moines. Iowa.
Clover and cow peas, plowed under,
enrich the soil. They convey nitro
gen from the air to the earth, it is
generally understood, hut it has only
been recently ascertained hy what
process of nature this end is attained.
The experts of the Agricultural De
partment at Washington have made
scientific investigations, taking clover
as the principal nitrogenous plant.
They discovered that clover roots,
with nodules or knotty formations on
them, are rich in bacteria that make
the nitrogen. These roots disintegrate
and convoy the nitrogen to the soil.
The peculiar bacteria have the faculty
of husbanding nitrogen from the air.
These government experts report that
clover tops or green growth make
humus ami enrich the soil, after the
manner of all green manure, but the
nitrogen is contained in the nodules
of roots. Their opinion is based on
chemical tests, and is to the effect
that leguminous plants, such as cow
peas, possess the same power of at
tracting as of generating the bacteria
that secrete nitrogen. Alfalfa also is
rich with nitrogenous nodules.
Not all clover roots have nodules,
but the barren ones are the excep
tions. Trees, crops of all kinds and vege
table growth deprive the soil of the
vitalizing nitrogen, and is of the great
est importance to "rest," or restore,
the impoverished soil.
Fruit trees are benefited in growth
by fertile soil, of course, but the
fruits apples, peaches, pears, plums,
and all berry crops, are made sound
and well llavored by nitrogen con
veyed from the soil, as well as in the
The Agricultural Department offers
compressed calces, like yeast, of the
bacteria and nitrogen, from legumi
nous roots. These cakes can be util
ized according to the directions con
cisely given, and the benefit will be
the same as from plowing under a full
crop of clover or cow peas. At the
same time, clover plants and pea vines
are secondarily beneficial to orchard
soils. The green stems, roots and
leaves nu'ke fiber and open the soil,
while the nitrogen affects the subtle
alchemy alike beneficial to otherwise
rich, as well as to very poor, soil.
Selling grain and hay from the farm
in bulk reduces the profit in two ways.
It is expensive to handle and haul,
and it takes away elements of fer
tility that should be saved and re
turned to the soil. Feed hogs, sheep
ami cattle, and so market your prod
uce in the most condensed form and
in the easiest way on the hoof and
keep up the land while you are crop
ping it.
I have in my orchard four apple
frees of the crab variety. They are
large trees, nearly a foot in diameter
at the base of the trunk. They blos
som every spring profusely, but bear
no fruit. Can you tell me what the
trouble is? Any information that can
be given would be appreciated. F.
M. T.
The lack of fruit on your trees may
be due to two causes. First, too vig
orous a growth. Second, lack of fer
tility of apple blossoms. Oftentimes,
if the trees are given too much plant
food, they tend to go to the production
of wood growth, and do not store up
sufficient food to develp fruit buds.
It is more likely, however, that the
trees are of the varieties which are
infertile with their own pollen.
This trouble is often noticed where
Wock orchards of fruit trees arc plant
ed. Many varieties of apples require
pollen from other than their own
flowers to fertilize their blossoms.
The remedy to follow in this case
would be to top-graft with different
varieties of apples.
The writer has known trees that
never bore fruit, but blossomed pro
fusely each spring, and after they
were top worked with two or three
varieties, the trees came into bearing.
It is said that one more egg per
week will keep the hen. It can be
seen how necessary it is to reduce the
farm business to a science and make
each producer on the farm produce
to its utmost capacity.
No one has been able to ascertain
why a draft of air blowing through a
crack in the hen house, while a hen
is on the roost, will prove detrimental
to her health, when the same hen
roosting in a tree can have all the
feathers blown off her body, and the
latter blown into another county, with
out any apparent disturbance, except
as to location. An exchange says this
is considered to be a fact.
Drafts in a poultry house are dan
gerous, &nd no mistake.
Breezes in summer or winter will
not hurt folks or liens, if they are
active and keep in motion. Sitting or
roostur, in a draft of air will prove
dange-rous to fowls, and should be
Dot't have any drafts in the roost
ing rvm of the poultry house while
the htns are at roost. At any other
time taey may do no damage.
W6$re the farm is distant from
manufacturing centers, it is advisable
to ed crops to stock and sell the
meet, wool ancJ dairy products, keep
ing, tip a good rotation of crops.
It is desirable, especially with the
peach and plum tree, that we have as
low topped trees as possible, so that
a large per cent of the fruit can be
gathered from the ground. To do this,
the tree should he headed back in
July. This is done by removing at
least a half of this season's growth of
wood, so as to make the tree bushy
and low topped.
We are asked by a party anticipat
ing planting out a new orchard if be
would get healthier, longer-lived trees
by planting seed and grafting the tree
where it is to remain permanently,
so as to save the removal of the tree.
Abstractly, a tree grown without
removal, and allowed to grow and
bear fruit just where the seed sprout
ed, is the best of all trees. Of course,
there is no shortening of the tap root
or mutilating of the laterals, which
always occurs in the transplanting of
a tree; but we have grown one orchard
in this way, and can speak from ex
perience that it is a very expensive
and inconvenient way. While in the
majority of cases a much longer time
must elapse before the tree begins to
bear, it is a well-known fact that by
transplanting of trees they are brought
into bearing sooner. We do not be
lieve that it is advisable for the ordi
nary farmer to attempt to grow his
trees in this way.
L.earn to live out of the garden and
cellar, instead of the grocery store, if
you expect to become a prosperous
farmer. Good food in abundance, and
of great variety, grown on the farm,
should be the first and foremost con
sideration of every American farmer.
When crickots ship and asters bloom In
all the woodland ways.
And smoke lianus low. and far away the
fields ate lost in haze;
When in the corn tlieie is a voice that
whispers: "Summer's koiic,"
And h'i' and t)iiv a led leaf glows, first
lights of an autumn dawn
Then. soft as milkweed down, on me
Is lai.l the hand of mystery.
The woodland wavers; at my feet I hear
the 'all juiiss sii;h;
A low sttert music of loijret runs through
the earth and sky;
The cieek is caiht in a net of mist
who-e silveiy meshes gleam.
And m heart beats low, and I walk as
one uilks wandeiing in a dream
For. soft as the milkweid down, on me
Is laid the hand of instery.
When we read the long spun out
articles by some horticultural writers,
when we listen to elaborate addresses
on fruit culture by certain speakers
at farmers" meetings, we cannot help
thinking of the experience of a certain
farmer who had become interested in
the writings of one of these prolific,
paid-by-the-column writers, and who
traveled several hundred miles to pay
him a visit. What did he find? In
stead of the broad fields covered with
trees and berry plants, as he had
imagined, he found a few currant
bushes grown up to grass, half a
dozen fruit trees, and possibly 100
strawberry plants the worse from neg
lect. Growing fruits at a profit and
writing for the papers or speaking at
farmers gatherings are entirely differ
ent vocations, and not always united
in the same person.
The experts have figured out that
20 per cent of the total production of
butter is lost by the old gravity proc
ess. The loss on one good cow during
a year would be 22 pounds of but
ter, and, on ten cows, 223 pounds;
which,at 20 cents a pound, would be
$45 a year. It will be seen by this
that the loss to the farmers who
cream their own milk by a gravity
process is enormous in the aggregate.
How can any business man succeed
and suffer such a percentage of loss?
What would be thought of the man
who would go on from year to year
with a hole in his pocket through
which 20 cents would drop out and be
lost every time he put a dollar into
his pocket? Some men try to console
themselves by saying that it is not all
lost the calves and pigs get the but
ter. But this is poor consolation, for
butter is dear feed, even when the
price is lowest. One cent's worth of
oil-meal will do the calves as much
good as a pound of butter fat.
Cement is taking the place of lum
ber in a number of ways sidewalks,
building material, and fence posts.
The latter alone is said to te the
greatest blessing to the farmer. The
posts never rot and can be manufac
tured at a comparatively low cost.
Callaway county. Mo., is one of the
greatest mule-growing sections in the
country- A mule breeder from that
county says that they boast of being
the banner county in the country, and
many farmers have grown wealthy
raising and trading in mules. When
a gooij mule at 3 years of age can be
sold at $175 to $200, there is money
in mule raising, and that is just the
price that has been paid for them
right along down in that part of the
state, he says. Good mules are in
good demand at fair prices the year
round, and there are few sections in
this state and Illinois where mule
growing is not followed profitably.
Time is never "lost in fitting butter
for market. Bear in mind that you
are establishing a reputation which
will enable you to sell your butter
readily at all times. When the mar
ket is on the decline, poor butter al
ways gets the hard knocks.
Have you ever noticed that it is the
special crops that pay? This Is an
age of specialties.
The favorable growing weather has,
produced a very rank growth of plants
in the winter wheat fields throughout
Oklahoma and Missouri. It has been
found of great benefit to the crop to
pasture off these wheat lands during
the fall season, thus encouraging the
stool ing of the plant. The early sow
ing and encouragement to a strong
root system is believed to be greatly
to the advantage of the plant in send
ing up a vigorous stalk growth when
the spring season opens up. The
close pruning of the wheat plant, by
pasturing, after it has become well
rooted and commenced throwing out
a strong growth, has been found en
tirely satisfactory. It is the early pas
turing, while there is yet time for a
later fall growth for winter protection,
that is advocated.
The pasturing of the winter wheat
must be conducted with care and sys
tem. Sheep are the most satisfactory
grazing animals to turn on the wheat
field. They graze more uniformly,
bite off their feed with less tension, or
pulling, and they do not pull the
plants out of the ground like cattle.
Sheep are a benefit in packing the
soil, where cattle or horses are fre
quently a damage by tramping out the
wheat and cutting up the ground.
The wheat field should be protected
when the ground is wet; no kind of
stock should be permitted on it; the
ground should be comparatively dry
when the stock are turned in. It is
usually best to turn in a few hours
each day and then remove them, un
less the fields are large and the
growth such as to demand continuous
grazing, in order to keep down the
The advantage that a lot of stock
may get from a wheat pasture for
occasional grazing during the fall and
winter can scarcely be estimated,
only by those who have experienced
its value. Winter wheat districts will
find the sheep a valuable help, both in
grazing off the overgrowth in the fall,
and gleaning the stubble after harvest
Tis Nature's own picture.
Though lacking a name.
The fairest on earth
And needing no frame.
The glow of Uia scene
And the beauty o'er all
Speak of the master
And the glory of KalL
Patronize jour local poultry show.
Don't be satisfied with only one visit,
but go as often as you can, and enter
at least some of your birds.
It is claimed by those who have
used a bone cutter that the amount of
grain saved by the use of green bone
soon pays for the cost of the machine,
so that we not only save grain by its
use, but also insure a fuller egg bas
ket. The proper time for hatching early
broilers is in the late fall and win
ter, which is also the most suitable
season for incubators. The great ob
stacle to the production of early broil
ers is that the hens will not incubate
until they are ready to do so of their
own accord. By the use of the incu
bator, chicks can be hatched at any
Twelve inches is high enough for
the roosts, and all should be of the
same height not one above another,
ladder fashion. The advantages of a
low and uniform roost are that it pre
vents bunble foot and other disease
of the foot, and obviates all the quar
reling and fighting on the part of the
fowls to gain the topmost roost,
Many farmers have become discour
aged in exclusive grain raising by the
past two unprofitable seasons. These
reverses have called a halt in their
past system, and set them to think
ing. Anything that will set a fanner
to thinking will do him good. The
past season has done that effectually.
We find much interest taken in
everything that is said in the insti
tutes the past winter along the lines
of diversified farming. While farmers
were raising good crops of wheat they
could see no poetry or profit in feed
ing pigs or calves and milking cows.
It was hard to make the farmers be
lieve, while crops were good, that
there would ever come a time when
grain raising would become unprofit
able. They have met with that ex
perience, and while it may seem a
hard experience at the present, I
think it will have its good effect in
starting them along more profitable
Shredded fodder should be handled
intelligently. It will keep well when,
not put up too green or when wet
with rain. While it may be stacked
out of doors, it is best to put it in
the barn or shed.
So much 'is said about the advan
tage of fruit evaporating to make a
market for otherwise unsalable fruit
that many may think it makes little
difference what its quality may be.
The truth is that only the really good
fruit should be used for the evapo
rator. It may be, and often is, unsal
able, because of blemishes which af
fect its looks, but do not impair qual
ity. But to take green, worm-eaten
fruit and put it through the evap
orator is a mistake. Its first effect is
to discourage the consumer, making
him think that evaporated fruit is not
so good as he expected. Poor fruit is
not worth much for the pigs, but that
or othei stock is the best market
for it,
Clean seed means the reaping of a
clean crop.
All Were Safe Behind This Engineer
Incident Shows Constant Watch
ful Care Demanded of the
Nan Who Drives 'a Present
Day Locomotive.
"The quick perception of a locomo
tive engineer and his watchful regard
for the safety of his train were
brought forcibly to my attention re
cently," said a traveler to the Bir
mingham (Ala.) News. "We were
speeding along at the rate of about
thirty-five miles an hour on a wide
tract of level country. It was a heavy
trans-continental train carrying
twelve cars. Suddenly the air brakes
were applied with all their force and
the cars came to such a violent halt
as to almost hurl the passengers
from their seats. The sleeping-car
porter, who was mounted upon a step
ladder engaged in turning on the
lights, was forced to an acrobatic
stunt in the middle of the aisle. The
passengers hurried from the cars to
learn the cause of the sudden stop.
Those of them who had expected a
collision when the first shock came
peered out for the other train, but
did not see one. It was just twilight
and we were out on the prairie some
miles from a station with not even a
farmhouse in sight.
"At second glance the engineer, a
big, red-faced fellow clad in blue over
alls, was seen making his way down
by the side of his train with a drip-
Romantic Girl Thai
Millionaire Aged Suitor Mad No
Bad Habits at Present but She
Recognized Possibilities of the
The old multimillionaire crooked
one rheumatic knee at the feet of the
beautiful debutante, while in the dis
tance the orchestra was playing some
leit motif from Rausmitthimsky's
sublime works, and the haunting mel
ody filtered through the tropical vege
tation that screened them from the
"Miss Youngbudde Ethel, 1 love
"But, O, Mr. Stocksandbonds, I I,"
stammered the sweet young thing,
noting, however, that her official sten
ographer and recording phonograph
were in good acoustic positions.
"Ah, Miss Ethel," the old multimil
lionaire was saying, "it is in the meri
dian of life that we can appreciate
woman's worth and her cheering, di
vine presence. All else have I
palaces, automobiles. yachts but
without you they are as nothing."
"Ah! Mr. Stocksandbonds," blushed
the debutante, "I would marry you. in
To Use "Wireless"
Vast Stretches of South America
to Be Equipped with the New
Method of Communication
Advantages to Commerce.
Among the many important instal
lations of wireless telegraphy already
in operation, or soon to be construct
ed, one of the most interesting is the
proposed line in Peru which is to be
established between Puerto Bermudez
and Iquitos, a distance of 1,000 kilo
meters (G21.37 miles). The reasons in
fluencing the choice of wireless teleg
raphy for this purpose apply with
equal force in other places in South
America and Africa, and are chiefly
the superstition of the natives as re
gards the wires and insulators and
the difficulty of penetrating the for
ests and jungles to construct an ordi
nary line. In Peru it has been con
sidered for some time of the greatest
importance to establish communica
tion between Lima and Iquitos, the
main port on the Amazon, and while
there was telegraphic communication
across the Cordilleras, the wires did
not extend beyond Puerto Bermudez,
which was accordingly made the start
Brought to Light
Discovery Interesting to Archeol
ogists Made by Accident at
Glasgow. Scotland Specimen
of Exquisite Carving.
A curious discovery was made the
other day at the foot of the High
street, Glasgow. The second house
from the Tolbooth Steeple is "Hop
kirk's Land," which contains the shop
where David Dale, the great eight
teenth century philanthropist, estab
lished himself in business in the yarn
and hosiery line. The building, of
seventeenth century erection, remains
much as it was in Dale's time. For
many years a cellar beneath the house
has been little used, but a few days
ago a shelf which had served its day
was cleared away, the support of
which turned out to be Dale's long
lost sign a wool pack carved in wood
and gilt There was another eigh
teenth century hosiery business in
Glasgow which displayed the swing
ing lamb the Golden Fleece of old
Spain, which was borne on the ban-
Shah and Suite Dreaded the Darkness
Radium Exhibition Spoiled by
Childish Fright of Persians
Absenceof Light ProbablyHeld
Suggestion of Assassination.
There was an element of humor in
the interview which took place in
Paris between the shah of Persia and
M. Curie, the French scientist His
majesty had expressed his desire to
see the wonders of radium, so a tele
gram was sent to M. Curie asking him
to present himself at the Elysee pal
ace hotel.
"Your name and your great discov
ery are known to us in Persia," said
the shah, after the manner of an
"Arabian Night" potentate address
ing a magician. "I wish to see this
famous radium, which is described as
having the most marvelous powers."
"Sire," replied M. Curie. "I can sat
isfy your curiosity, but not here, for
the light is too strong. In order that
yru may properly see the brilliance
i ping torch in hand, peeping under the
coaches as he moved slowly on. He
was intent upon finding something,
and from the earnestness of his
search one would have been led to
believe that he had lost his watch or
his pocket book. 'What's the trou
ble?' called out a curious passenger,
himself on the ground and, like the
engineer, looking under the cars. 'A
little bolt dropped out of the eccen
tric of my locomotive, and if I had not
stopped when I did the machine would
have torn itself to pieces and perhaps
wrecked the train,' was the reply of
the railroad man. T must have that
bolt, as I am without another to take
its place,' he continued, and going on
with his search, he was rewarded by
finding the coveted piece of steel. It
was picked up under the trucks of the
last sleeper, thus illustrating what a
quick stop had been made. Gathering
up-the bolt the engineer returned to
his locomotive, and, crawling under
the iron monster, hammered for a few
minutes and then scrambling out, an
nounced that he was ready to proceed
on the journey. The passengers who
had watched the operation climbed
aboard again and we were off. The
incident seemed simple, but, as I have
said, it served to illustrate the quick
perception and the keen caution of
the man who had the safety of sever
al hundred human lives in his hands."
Knew Her Business
deed I would, but for one thing against
you your personal habits."
"But," protested the old millionaire,
with dignity, "I have always consid
ered myself and so have my friends
as a very criterion of morality and
clean living. Unlike the worthless and
poverty stricken young rakes of these
days, Ethel, I am not only fabulously
rich, but have absolutely no bad
"That's just it, Mr. Stocksandbonds;
that is just why I must refuse you,"
said the girl, in a tone of infinite sad
ness. "Impossible!" gasped the aged- mill
ionaire. "Do you mean to say that you
would admire bad habits in a hus
band?" Dreamily, sadly, the romantic young
debutante pulled to pieces a red, red
"Tell me," persisted the suitor, "why
you would wish to see me dissipated."
"Why, er er, bad habits shorten
life, you know," murmured the maid
en. But then, reflecting that she could
easily drive him to drink after mar
riage, the romantic girl accepted the
suitor. New York Herald.
Through the Jungle
ing point of the wireless system. A
contract has been awarded to a Ger
man company to provide the appara
tus, and this will give it a virtual
monopoly of wireless telegraphy in
Between Puerto Bermudez and Iqui
tos the plan is to have three inter
mediate stations and ultimately to ex
tend the line to Manaos on the Ama
zon and then down the river to Para,
thus affording direct communication
between the Atlantic and Pacific
coasts. There already is a cable up
the Amazon, but the service is fre
quently interrupted, and in the upper
water the swift currents would have
rendered the laying of such a means
of communication impossible. As
wireless telegraphy has proved suc
cessful at sea, between islands, and
over large tracts of land in Alaska,
it is interesting to have a practical
demonstration as to whether equally
good results will be achieved in actual
practice in the impenetrable forests
of South America. If such is the case,
there will be, without question, a
wide application of the idea, as it will
put within reach at small expense dis
tricts otherwise quite isolated.
18th Century Sign
, ners of the great Duke of Alva when
' invading the Netherlands. Both signs
are remembered, but if the lamb has
been made into kindling wood, the
wool pack is now in safe keeping, al
though it is considerably the worse for
having rested on the flagged floor of
a cellar for sixty years, and the gilt
is now only discernable in parts. The
carving of the wool pack has been
done by a master hand, and it would
be a good object lesson for wood carv
ing students who are endeavoring to
revive an almost lost art. The lamb
sign for the hosier's business is very
old, and has reference to St. Agnes,
who suffered martyrdom in the year
306 when only 14 years of age. The
saint has been usually depicted by ar
tists with a lamb by her side. In days
when the common people of England
could not read printed signs, the first
man in a town or village to sei up
business in yarns and hosiery adopted
the lamb sign. A competitor would
choose the wool pack.
of radium I must show it in a room
which is dark entirely dark."
The shah, whose nervousness Is
very well known, did not take kind
ly to the idea of a dark room, and
called his grand vizier, who suggest
ed drawing the curtains of the room,
but M. Curie persisted that blackness
was necessary. Thereupon the shah
called M. Paoli, the French detective
protector of royalties, who assured his
majesty that there was no danger. So
the party descended to the under
ground apartment in the hotel known
as the safe room.
M. Curie began expounding the
properties of radium, and then gave
a signal for the electric light to be
switched off. Immediately a panic
seized the shah's suite, and all cried
out in Persian and in French, "Light!
Light!' Turn on the light!" The elec
tricity was switched on again, and
the disappointed savant was forced to
show his radium in a lighted room.
London Chronicle.
Journal Job Printing
Styles are always up-to-date.
Work is guaranteed.
Prompt delivery.
Seasonable prices.
If we haven't it we will order it We can save business
men money on printed forms; we can get engraved
cards ior society people;
Journal Sale Bills bring
bring business.
Columbus Journal 60.
i jm& SAlMi
eu is the tsaasatlsi at aUFai
9. The gearal erejadlee agalast Keaay.Mlxed
a im met iaas mess ei
S. AUumiMUtmMntmxmumAtmtmmTHICICPASTB.
Mtaesl paint maker tbea Olmtcs
sum at "eU" yea have te lake
. Wheyaba7Rcaa-3flxedPatat.yaeiMrrtheKea4j.Htaetf
rvm snee nr uus caanca u,"
price far the fresh, pave raw ell
8. There la a palat whiw
aleteax content with the arefis
that aay 14 year eld hoy eaa bUx
hath heaghs aeparately tram the
gallest far sralloa. no more, lea,
yea have am abwolately pare Haamd eU palat that has east yaw
at least 23o less Una aay "High Grade' fceadyHlxed Pali. Aw
hoaeat price for hath palat aad all aad year ewa prrsaaal haew
edee ef Its parity aad darahUlty.
. s. This palat Is Klaleeh laease IslsJi Which Is
Um of staadard. asnnlwr aad DVRARLK'rmlmrm. It
patat-aV Jast the goad old
together ready far yea te thm
Without Change of Cars
Chicago- Milwaukee & St. Paul
For Time Tables rnd Special Rates see Union Pacific
Agent, or write
F. 1. MSN, Bm'I Western Age?, 1524 Fmaa St.
rhe Only
Track Railway be
tween the Missouri
River and
Fast dailv train service
Pacific & North -Western Line from ooints in
Nebraska to
Six trains a day Omaha to Chicago, without
change. Two trains daily between Omaha and
bt. f aul and Minneapolis.
G he Best
For rates, tickets
roagems union
Chicago &
Kansas Southern Railway
"Straight as tfee Crow Files"
Along Its line re the tnest lasda. suited for rrowicjr amsll rrsln. corn.flsx,
cottoa; fsreosunercUIsppleaaapesch orchards, for other fruits and ttt-
nes; xorcoauiercuuesntsioupe. potato, tomato ana reserai trues nrms;
for sugar cat and rice cnltlTatloa; for merchantable timber; forralslag
horses, mules, cattle, hogs, eheep, poultry and Angora goats.
Writs far Intsraatlen CeneernlM
Mas Celeny Locations. Imarsvei Fares, Miser! Lanes. Rice Lsses sai TIassff
Lanes, sas ier espies sr -csrrsni
lice Seek. K.
Cheap round-trip homeeeekers' tickets oa sale first and third Tuesdays of
, each month.
. D. JlUXlOJf, TraT.
P. B. Oas'Lll, TraT.
better styles at lower prices.
crowds. Journal Letter Heads
every sallaa eff this
his ward far Its eerily-.
er iroaiir4Wii
ta yew Meal 1
sera STOP, wl
a the palat al
this easfe aad the 1
local dealer. Simply stir together.
aad aotalasr else, aad TOU
tisae - tried palat materials,
dowa with the pare raw oH.
via the Chiracm. I ImVm
and East
of Everything
and full Information apply
racmc K. K. or saaress
North - Westeni Ry.
M4 the Bead.
dealer's htrres,
are raw ml
tt snts. Business ussertsniuee.
C.S. FrsH I