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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (March 6, 1895)
VOLUME XXV -NUMBER 47.
COLUMBUS, NEBRASKA, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1895.
WHOLE NUMBER 1,295.
TT& I lt"fc I S. J? ill I ""
. VERY" .summer the
J5rc tons have
fetes and dances,
each town or ham
let having1 a. spe
cial day, and those
clays are looked
for lonjrinjjly by
the natives, for it
T i v e s them a
chance to displaj'
all their finery
and show how
they can dance
when they want
to. Besides, a 1 1
the neighboring villes turn out in
full to see what their rivals can do;
o quite an interesting time is gener
Concarncau had its clay yesterday,
oc rather it started yesterday, for the
feto lasts three days. Of course all
the coin's and big collars of the
women were all fresh, the clothes
presses were relieved of their cam
pliorous content, and sabots were all
cleaned nicely for tlic occasion, for it
is only once a year that such a chance
xs early as 11 in the morning the
town began to fill with new faces
and queer loohiii-- coifl's and cos
tumes (for each district has a dis
tinctive coin of its own). They were
arriving from the G.ire and in carts
by the dozens. It looks pretty to see
a. small cart filled with eight or ten
peasant women, each in her quaint
head-dress and pretty apron, while
one of the men peasants, with his lit
tle short coat up to his waist and hat
with ribbons dangling down his back,
drives the ass or mare. All the fish
ermen were out in their best, and
some even got a shave, for no boats
went out that day- Then all the '(()
Jishing boats were cleaned up and
The event of the day was a grand
regatta, in which the rival fishing
boats would be able to prove their
superior sailing qualities, and settle
long-standing disputes. The lonir
dyke, or breakwater, was arranged
with seats and awning, and a franc
admission charged for entrance fee.
Here were assembled all the cr-am of
Ilreton society swell peasant girls,
home "worth," it was whispered, the
immense fortune of r0, ()()( francs.
Some were dress "d in the most ex
pensive Incus an I silk i, an 1 looked
sweet, and were envied by the sar
dine factory girls and sa'lors gathered
on -the rocks oppjsite. Then their
fathers and brothers were swell, too,
for they had on all their gilt braid
and brass or irold-plated buttons, and
real velvet ribbons on their hats.
toppeu off with a nice little peacock
Many of the boats were coated with
grease and sardine oil to make them
go faster, and others were provided
with brand new sails and masts
anything to beat the others. At
given signals all the boats started,
mid were soon speeding away for the
"lies des Moutous," far off on the
Then eame the great ISreton dance,
the gavotte. All made for the Place
le Xueion, opposite th old fortified
Ville Close, where the dance was to be
held, and the two musicians secured
from 'jiiimper were on hand with
their bagpipes. Two big barrels were
lixed up with a platform and eha'rs for
them under one of the trees in front
of the big market. Around the place
were shooting galleries, hitting ma
chines, roulette wheels, cheap jewel
ry shops, and the like, and, above
all. a big merry-go-round, with an
organ loud enough to bj heard at !!eg
Miel. The musicians started up after
having been liberally filled with hard
cider, and the tramping of the sabots
SOKT OF A T110T, THEN' A HOP.
.'onnne need, sounding like a troop of
30.000 horses on the plank road. The
music sounded exactly like that you
hear in Chinatown.
Of course all we Americans crowded
around to learn the dance, which
seemed quite complicated at first, but
in fact was only a sort of trot, then a
hop, and a trot again.
The spectators formed a large cir
cle, inside of which were the dancers.
The old sailors danced as well as any
of them. The dance requires six in
each narty. Four girls clasp hands
in a line, at each end of which is a
man. The on; in front leads, as in
"cracking the whin," only they don't
crack, but just do the trot and hop.
Oil, it's beautiful! And so they keep
going round for about half hour with
ut stop, which is rather tiresome,
obut the sardine girls can't get enough
and never think of getting tired, and
only five minute-, rest between each
dance. But then cMer was plentiful
at two sous a bowl.
It was announced that the gavotte
d'honeur would commence, and all
necks were strained to see the
dancers, for it is the prize dance.
One prize is given to the best and
most graceful dancer, and another
or the one that can dance the longest
without rest. As soon as all who
thought themselves equal to the honor
had taken their positions, the band
played and away they went to win
tii prize for the most graceful danc
ing. How they did dance, and the
grace they had all the grace that
could possibly be pnt into the gavotte
was utilized. Some ideas of grace
were, quite interesting, too, remind
ing one of a cake walk, but some did
really well, considering that the aver
age girl weighs about ISO to 200
IM! I M
iruu r.m (uHittsa
'ter' - ! ' ill
pounds and wears sabots of solid
wood. But the men sailed around
with their long, lanky legs, the nice
little ribbons streaming in the breeze.
The judges looked wisely on from
their stand and took notes. At the
finish of the dance all crowded round
the judes and received the decision.
Then came the dance of endurance.
This time all gracefulness, etc., was
forgotten and the easiest way was
the vogue. Round and round they
went, the dust rising to the tramp
of the heavy sabots, the crowd cheer
ing and yelling and clapping, and
still they weuL Half an hour passed,
then one by one they began to drop
out and at the end of an hour not
over four were still at it, and they
looffed mighty weary. Then more
dropped out until two were left, and
how they went at it and how the
crowd did yell and urge them on!
Finally only one was left. He took
the prize after an hour and a
half of hard dancing, while the musi
cians ncarlj dropped dead from loss
Then came climbing greased poles
and duck chasing jn the bay, in which
all the future Concarncau fishermen
That ended tho fun till evening,
when more dancing was to take place
in the big stone market. We had all
learned the dance by this time, and
resolved to show the Bretons what
Americans could do. So, after supper
we all strolled down to the Hallcs,
from which issued a deafening roar of
voices and thumping of wooden
sabots on the stone floor, mingled
with the delicious strains of the bag
pipes. The big market was all ablaze
with gas liirhts and filled to suffocat
ing with girls and young men going
round the old hall to the time of the
We immediately solicited partners,
but none of the girls would go with
us for some reason; so we all got to
gether and had a dance of our own.
You ought to have seen the people
stare and laugh at our attempts, but
we did not mind that and kept right
on. introducing a few American steps,
and then the people looked serious
and said: "Tres bien!" "Encore!"
and we did give it to them. We soon
had three Brittany maidens at the
end of our string and tlm girls began
to desert the sailors for us. So finally
we eaeh got a big string of maidens
of our own and led them through the
mazes of the Brittany gavotte, to the
envy of all the other girls, and then
peasants ami sailors began to hook on
behind until we each had a row of a
dozen or more and owned the place.
It was the most laughable thine I
ever saw a lot of American students
leading the native dance away off in I without suffering extreme nervous tor
Brittanv! Manv of the men trot ann-rv ture which would increase hour by
at us for taking their partners, and
hissed as we passed. "Galle Ang
laise!"' (they always call us English),
and "couchon!" But we owned the
plaee and didn't care. The girls pre
v t-y C -"
ferred us, as we were much cleaner
and better dressed than their sailor
friends. It was rather hot work
for us to tow a load of Ureton
girls after us round the hall
and dance for an hour at a
time, and I had on a big pair of sabots
full of big nails
I here were several American girls j
there, too, and they had much sport '
with some of the native girls doing
the gavotte. Mine. Sarah Bernhardt
was there, leaning against ona of the
stone pillars with her son, and seemed
quite amused at the gayety
came over especially from Big Miel to
.see the fete, and it's a wonder she
didn't take part herself, for she is
just the kind for such fun. At mid
night all the lights went suddenly
out, ending the evening and leaving
all in total darkness, and much Breton
squeezing, etc.. was done.
Since that night we have been the
acknowledged leaders of the cotillion
at Concarncau, and the sardine girls
point us out with great pride to their
friends. The whole town knows us
.fthcs or Karly I ttbnrjprs.
Some bodies were removed from
Trinity churchyard. Sixth avenue.
Pittsburg, a few days ago, which had
been interred in tho early part of the
century. One was that of Dr. Phelix
Brunot, born at Morey. France, in
173:.'. He came to America in 1777
with the marquis de Lafayette, and
fought with tho Americans during
the revolutionary war. The Brunots
became very wealthy, and an island
in the Ohio river, ten miles below
Pittsburg, still Iicars the name of
Brunot's island. No burials have been
made in Trinity churchyard for many
years. It is no v.- in the heart of the
city, and the windows of the palatial
Duquesno club look down upon this
resting place of the early Pittsburgers.
An AMrnintuc . in ipric.
"Did you know that Alderman
Rowdy was a great man to collect ani
mals?"' "No; is that so?"
"Why. yes; last week he had two
zebras, a sacred white elephant, three
lizards and a whole cage of rats."
"What became of them?"'
"Oh, he took some bromide ana
they went away." Chicago Record.
Wuntetl : C 1iiiil-.
Mr. Wearie Have you any maga
zines published in Kamtchatka or the
South Sea islands?
Newsman N-o. Won't you have
one of the American or European mag
azines? Mr. Wearie Thanks, no. 1 am get
ting a little tired of Napoleon Bona
parte. False Hope.
Flannigan Say Moike, this won't
do. Paplo say you are shwate on
Mrs. Flaherty, and she a married wo
man. Mike Phwist! Not a wurrd.
Thot's onlv so Oi can go on borrvin' '
terbacky av old Flaherty.
hopes Oi'll elope wid 'cr.
"What Ite Woul.l Do.
"You've had a hard time of it, S wig
gles. You have a right to be a cynic
and misanthrope. If I had such a
grudge against the human race as you
have I'd find a way to get even."
"What would you do, Birkenhead?"
"I'd become a dentist.'
Maine's oldest fisherman. Uncle Tim
Dyer, died at Portland a few days
ago at the age of 92 years. He worked
at the nets almost up to the day of
his death, and less than a year ago
captured, single-handed, a halibut
weighing 332 pounds.
Danelar on Skate.
Everybody has seen and taken part
in the ordinary conventional society
dances aud balls and at homes, but
ho iv many have seen, let alone taken
an activepart in, the mazy dance on
on skates to music in a covered rink?
Canada probably is the only place on
the continent where such a scene can
be witnessed. Every afternoon at the
skating rinks are seen graceful young
girls, accompanied by stalwart, athletic-looking
youths, dancing to the music
of a military band. It is impossible to
describe the grace, ease and apparent
lack of exertion with which these cap
tivating young women go through the
most intricate figures. Theon-looker
is completely mystified and watches
the scene as if in a trance. The skirts
seem to emit sweet melody as they sway
to and fro. Every twist and turn of
their lithe young bodies is bewitching
to the'beholdcr, and he gazes on the
scene until he becomes dizzy with
emotion. At last it is over, and, as he
gives a sigh of intense enjoyment, he
descends to earth and votes ball room
performances insipid in comparison.
To sit down in a chair with an ob
ject is to jump into a ticket of tempta
tions. A vacant hour is always the
devil's hour. When time hangs heavy
the wings of the spirit flap heavily and
slow. Then it is that a book is a strong
toivr. nay, a very church, with angels
lerking among the leaves as if they
were so many niches. Reading helps
to make conversation harmless, by
making it less petty and censorious, by
furnishing us with other topics than
our neighbors' faults and foibles. It is
very hard for n person who does not
like reading to talk much in company
without sinning. Furthermore, a taste
for reading often hinders our taking
the wrong side in practical questions
which are mooted in the world, but
bear upon the church. It does this
either by the information it has en
abled us to obtain on the subject itself,
or 03- making our instincts accurate
and sensit ve through our familiarity
with right principles. l'aber.
COT A BABY BOY NOW.
Happiness In a Southern Sinn's florae
Toll's About the Keil FlaR of
Danger at tho Railroad Cros-
InR Warning to America's
"For twenty-sis years I have used
tobacco in preat quantities and of late
years took to ciparette smoklng'writes
Mr. W. E. Simpson of Leconipte. L.a.
"I want to go on record that tobacco
has robbed me of many years of life and
a great deal of happiness. I realize it
now as 1 compare my feelings and my
condition with that of a year ago.when
I was a tobacco saturated cigarette
fiend. Many and many n time did I
try to quit smoking myself into etern-
i Ity, but I could not put through a day
hour till finally, to save myself as it
Feemed, from almost flying to pieces, I
had to light the little, white pipe stick
and swallow the smoke. One day I
read In my paper "Doi t Tobacco Spit
and Smoke Your Life Away," just what
I was doing, it came to me like the
warning of the man who waves the red
flag of danger at the railroad crossing,
and said that No-To-Bac was an abso
lutely guaranteed relief from tobacco
slavery. I did not believe it, but Iilte a
drowning man grasping at a utravv I
commenced taking No-To-Bae. The ef
fects were magical, it destroyed the
nerve craving, and desire for cigarettes.
Two boxes, would you believe it, made
me well anil strong. I have gained
mcntrlly, physically, in vigor and man
hood, and with the brain free from the
nicotine and a breath no longer be-
fouled with tobacco smoke I am so hap
py to-uay to write Ao-To-oac old it all
a year ago, so the cure is time tested
and tried, not only in my own case, but
several of my friends who have been
"We have a baby boy now. My wife
and I feel that all this happiness start
ed from the time when I first used No-To-Bac,
and in evidence of our appre
ciation and in order that the memory of
the happiness may be perpetuated in a
living form, we want to name our baby
boy after the man who wrote the line
"Don't Tobacco Spit and Smoke Your
"Xo-To-Baclspopularhereand all our
druggists sell it. Hardly a day passes
but somebody asks me about No-To-Bac,
so 1 don't want you to hesitate to
use these lines in any way that you
think will make known to suffering hu
manity the happiness that there is In
store for the many men with nicotin
Ized brains and weakened resolutions.
If they will only make up their mind to
save tne waste ot vital power to say i
nothing of the money now going up in
smoke and out in tobacco spit."
Firt Screw Steamer.
The first screw steamer to cross the
Atlantic, the Great Britain, was com
menced in 1S30. and floated in 1S-J5.
Her length over all was 322 feet, her
depth "2 feet, and her displacement at
a load draft of IS feet, 3,G1S tons. Her
first voyage from Liverpool to New
York betran July 20, 1S45. and occupied
nearly fifteen days, the average speed
during the run being nine knots an
hour, says the Chicago Inter-Ocean.
After remaining on view about a fort
night in New York harbor, the return
passage to Liverpool was successfully
accomplished. Voyages back and forth
were made with satisfactory results
until the autumn of 1S40, when, on a
very dirty night, in the month of Sep
tember, she was stranded off the const
of Ireland. There she remained for
eleven months, through a tempestuous
winter, until she was finally floated in
the following autumn and taken to
Liverpool for repairs.
Irrigated Frnit Land.
Bid you fee the fruit in the Idaho Ex
hibit at tho World's Fair! Nothing
flner.first premiums and all rained on irri
gated land. It's sure, it's abundant, it's
I rofitable. it's your opjiortunity.
Tho country is new, the lands are cheap,
and the eastern market is from 500 to 1.500
mies nearer than to similar lands in Ore
gon. asliington and California.
Advertising matter seat on application.
Address E. L. Loniax, G. P. & T. A., Oma
The Origin of the Whigs.
It was in February, 1S34, that James
Watson Webb, of the New York Cour
ier and Enquirer, hit upon the title of
Whig for the national Republican
party brought into existence by the ad
i ministration of John Qnincy Aciams
and led by Henry Clay. The name was
i suggested, as Webb averred, writes
I Noah Brooks in the February Serib-
i ncr's. by :he act that the party was j
! pledged to res.st arbitrary government, j
j as the English bigs resisted royal i
I tyranny. It was songht, though, un
i successfully, to brand the Democratic-
. Republicans with the odious name of
i -. . . .. . . .
tones. " J ne lories, saut L lay. were
the supporters of the executive power,
of royal prerogative, of the maxim that
the king can do no wrong:" the Whigs,
he added, "were the champions of lib
erty, the friends of the people." What
more appropriate d stinction than this
could be mnde between the Jackson
men and the followers of the great
HIS LAST BE 1R HUNT.
( GENERAL MILES' ADVENTURES
' ON THE PLAINS.
lie Was on the Right Trail, llut a
Conple of Cowboy Got In Ahead of
Him A Black Boar as Sarac as a
Cinnamon or SllTrtip
In an even, low-pitched voice, that
veteran major-general of our army
and famous Indian fighter. Nelson A.
Miles, related to me, a few days sinco.
some of his latest experiences in tho
far West. Of all the great huntsmen
who have gono out into the wilds for
big game and made names for them
selves among the Nimrods of the
world, General Miles is tho most re
nowned, writes John Paul Hooock . in
I had the pleasure of being out on
two hunts last year, for prairie chick
ens in Nebraska and for bear in Now
Mexico. There are wild turkeys and
quail in New Mexico in abundance,
but I was after bear. Hunting tho
silver tip and tho cinnamon bear in
the Rocky mountain country corre
sponds as nearly as possible to tiger
hunting in India. There is peril as
well as pleasure in the sport.
"An English gentleman named
Stephens, a personal friend of mine,
has a ranch down in New Mexico, 150
miles from any railroad. There was
a party with me, one or two of them
New Yorkers. That whole country is
a jumble of mountains, peaks heaped
on peaks, with deep valleys and pre
cipitous canons in between. We left
the railroad at Fort Wingate, and
traveled south through the San Fran
cisco and Tulerosa mountains. When
wo reached tho Stephens ranch we
were about 10,000 feet above the sea
level, and in tho thick of the wilds.
As 1 have always l)cen a devotee of
naturo for her own sake tmmarred
by man. uncut by machinery, and un
dimmed by coal-smoke in short, as
nearly as possible in primeval condi
tions. I was delighted with my friend's
"We had a merry welcome at the
ranch and were soon prepared for our
ihst bear drive. I had only a few
days in which to enjoy myself, and I
did not wish to lose any tim. Mr.
Stephens has a pack of liear-fightcrs.
as they are called, down there, which
are admirably adapted for the pursuit
of bruin over the rocks, along tho
cliffsides, and through canyons so
dismal that even a bear might le sup
posed to want to avoid them. Many
of these bear-fighters are half hound
and half shepherd dog. Some aro
long-eared bloodhounds and some
English staghounds. Others have a
decided strain of the fox terrier in
them, and theso little beasts would
surprise anybody who had never seen
them at a bear's heels by their
bravery and sagacity. They all hunt
well together, and when on a bear's
trail will not notice even a do?r bound
ing by, while at wild turkeys and
hares they would not even look up.
They track tho liear until they get to
close quarters and then light him to a '
standstill. Of course it is as much as j
a dog's life is worth to run in on a '
bear at such a time, and tho bulldog
frequently pays tho penalty of stupid
savagery in just that way. Ho
charges and takes a hold he will not
let go, while the fierce old cinnamon
or silvertip will speedily hug him to
death and throw his lifeless carcass to
one side. Not so tho fox terrier,
Jhese little fellows are game to the
backbone, but light with intelligence.
They exasperate the bear until he
once more takes to flight, when the
dogs nip him at the gambril joint of
the hind leg and try their best to
hamstring him. If they once suc
ceed in biting through the tendons
which interlace and cross there tin;
bear's leg is useless to him.
"At first wo got after two or threr
bears, but the tracks were old and
thev got awav. The dos coul 1 not
find them. Finally tho pack chased i
a tremendous silvertip up the monn
tamside and finally wore him almost
out. L'p the steep declivities they
pursued him. and across the ridge
four or live miles right into a cow
boy's camp. And what do you think
happened thon'J The cowboys rope 1
that bear, lassooed him fairly and
squarely, and made him a prisoner in
the center of the camp without firing
a shot. Th.;y knew we had started
him and proposed to show us what
they knew about boar-hunting with a
rope. When they had him well
secured they cut the liear's throat
witn a small knife. I couldn't help
laughing when they called out to no.
pointing to their quarry: "General,
there's your bear!"
Two days later the same pack
drove a black bear up a tree and I got
a shot at him. The cinnamon bear
and silvertip bear are no more savage
than a black lear at certain times es
pecially if sho has cubs She will
kill anything living that doesn't get
out of her way, if she can. I had a
11-months old fox terrier with me that '
didn't weigh more than thirt- pounds
and yet had whipped a badger in a fair
fight. Wiien the b?ar had lieon treed
I got a crack at him with mv express
rilie an 1 put a fifty caliber ball in his
right eye. He tumbled straight to
tho ground with a era-di that raised
the dust, and scarcely struggled after
he fell. It was in an open forest of
scattered pine where riding was pos
sible. I had to lcavo shortly after
ward, coming out of the country by j
the way of Socorro
i ne party got
four or five bears. I heard, after I had
to leave them."
(ieneral Miles has killed about all
., . . , . A. ... I
the tug game that the once magnih-
.. e ,. , .. , .? .,
cently supplied continent of North i
, - '.J , . ,, . , , .,
America afordef. Buffalo, bear, elk.
deer and antelope have fallen in num
bers to his rifle. Turkeys, ducks.
pcaQ, quail and prairie chickens
galore he has knocked over. Nor
have the big brook trout of the glori
ous West failed to feel his fly. He
has taken them in the upper waters
of the Yellowstone. Columbia and
Willamette rivers, and far uj in tho
Kalamath. where there is said to bo
the best trout fishing in the world.
There the brook trout grows to a
weight of ten pounds.
1 he Honest Client.
A San Antonio, Texas, lawyer was
appealing most eloquently to the jury
on behalf of his client, who was being
tried for larceny. Even the prisoner
himself was moved to tears, and was
wiping hi8 eyes with a handkerchief.
when his attorney turned and asked
the jury to gaze on the honest fea
tures of his client, and say if they
could believe that it was possible for
a man with such an honest face to bo
guilty of theft. Suddenly tho lawyof
paused, gasoed for breath, and ejacu
lated: "Well, I'll bo bio wed if tho
blankety blank scoundrel hasn't
swiped my pocket handkerchief."
ICE CREAM SODA IN LONDON.
Has Only Been Itscentlr I lit rod .-.ceil, But
Ha J'eciimo a Crazj.
"Tho ice cream soda craze, tthich
American women have had so badly
for" the last few years, has broken ctit
in London," said a traveler1 recently
returned from abroad. "It hasn't got
a firm clutch on tho English women
yet, but it is growing rapidly, and I
expect that in the course of a. few
years it will materially aid in tho dis
appearance of tho lieauttful English
complexion for which women of tho
old country arc famous. An Ameri
can confectioner is responsible for the
production of tho ice-cream soda in
London. Before ho settled in a place
in upper Regent street tho deadly
mixture was practically unknown in
that city. The few English women
who had been to this country and
tasted it here of course knew what it
was, and they lost no time in patron
izing the confectioner.
"The great mass of women, how
ever, looked aghast at the combina
tion of strawlierry syrup, live soda
water, and ice-cream. Those who
got up enough courage to tackle it
were not sorry that they had dono so,
and the result was that it soon !
camo necessary for other confectioners
in the neighborhood to get soda foun
tains and learn how to mix tho drink
in order to hold their trade. There
are now half a dozen or more places
in London where ice-cream soda is
sold, and all day the fountains are
surrounded by women. The scene
reminds one very much of any one of
our uptown confectionery shops on a
hot afternoon. 1 export it will not be
very long before the English women
will Income as devout worshipers at
the ice-cream soda shrine as are our
American women at the present day.
Heretofore the chiaf diversion of the
English woman out shopping has been
to eat ices and cake and drink choco
late, but I predict the entire disap
pearance of tho fashion in a very
short time. Ice-cream soda has never
failed to get a deadly clutch on the
women of any country where it has
settled, and it will bo funny if it does
not make a complete conquest of the
V c-lMtcr' lloy Piilol.
" 'Fame!'1' echoed Mr. Watterson.
"I never hear the worl that 1 do not
think of Daniel Webster's story of the
time he met an old gentleman in a
railway car, and learning that he was
from New Hampshire, thought he
would draw him out a little about tho
old home state. A little more con
versation showed that tho stranger
eame from Mr. Webster's native town.
Here was an opportunity not to bo
" 'Did you over hear of the Web
ster family there?" asked the statesman.
" 'Oh. yes: I knew Ihem very well
The old man and I were great friends.'
-AiiTHen viii ejin nrnbible f.ll
. me what becamo of tho boys?'
-Well. E'okiel became a big law-
j yer tho biggest lawyer, I guess, in
' all New Hampshire. The girls, too,
turned out well.'
Von don't sav so: and wasn't
there a boy named Daniel0'
The old man pondered a minute
befor; he answered.
'Now I come to think, there was
a boy mm ;d Dan'l, but he went
down to Boston yeas ago. and no
one an't heard of him since.' " Kat?
n OfTens'vB Coil.
Some time ago a tame long-ha'rcd
'oal lonneU P ol l: logular crew
of a l':l's 'n"ov stoamur on seivic; be-
iv, ecu u i ugiisii pori. an i a conii-
' nental one. After a tint ; t!r; cus
, toms authorities discovered tha' it
' more a faiso coat, many tiin"s too
i large for it. The goat's own hair
, was clipjKjd very cios. around its
ho !y were packed cigars, lace. etc. .
and then the false co.it was skilfully
1 pnt on and fastened by hooks and
eyes. Notes and Queries.
The ostrich farming business in
California is neither a rosy success
nor a dreary failur -.
There are 2.0J3 lobster traps aroun 1
and about Mon began is and. Maine,
and they are all making money.
A herd of wi'd cattle has been
roaming Via mountains between
Rogue riv r an.l the south fork of the
Empqua in Oregon for twnty years,
and it now numbers in the neighbor
hood of .-.00 cattle. They are wild as
deer an. I difficult to approach. The
pract cal harm they work is that gen
tle cattle belonging to farmers are
enticd off and join this wild' band.
It is prono.s -d to round them up and
Som years ago a tame long-haired
goat formed part of the regular crew
of a p issenger st amer on service be
tween an English port and a conti-
, nental one. After a time the customs
J authorities discovered that it wore a
false coat, many sizes too lrge for it.
j The gat'.s own bar was clipped
very close: round its body were
'..-.. ,.,.-, ,u, .., tii. llll.ll w,
fajMj cmt was sk5Ilfllll . pnt OI1 !in(1
vif.lrf! nlf n i-c lmi.i .C- i nil tlii.r, , li
fastened by hooks and eyes.
I ! T f fi tn it'in iz1 atwl; nt. tlin rncii1f
, ,., ,"',- ' t u
of recent exploration have been
f, , , , , . ; , ,-f ,
found to be richer in animal life than
. t i , , ,.
was formerly supposed. As the re-
suit of a year's investigation bv the
British association, through its com
mittee, has been found that of birds
there are seventy-eight species, of
wh'ch fifty-seven are peculiar to this
group. All the land and fresh-water
shells ar peculiar and of a thousau I
species of insects, 700 are not found
Deer forests are expensive luxuries.
On the Genquoieh and Glengarry for
est, so long rented by Lord Bitrton, j
the yearly outlay for all purposes is
10,523, and during the last twentj-- f
one years and no less a sum than 221.- !
D02 has been spent upon it- On J
Guisaehan forest, the property of j
Lord Tweedmonth, there has ba n an ,
annual outlay of 10,000, on that ,
rented by Mr. Winans 13,077, and on
the duke of Portland's forest of j
Langwell and Braemore 1,000 a year, j
SOME COMPARISONS WITH
THOSE OF THIS COUNTRY.
flow Ouf Railways are Regarded State
Ownership and Management of Rail
waysPoints of Similarity Between
Australia and the United States Rail
way Bnlldlna; Comparisons of Kama
and Victoria The Earn Ins Capacity and
State Railways In Australia.
Frohi Journal of Political Economy.!
"Industrial discontent in Australia
has not manifested itself by burning
hundreds of freight cars in one night,
nor have the strikes which are common
there been directed specially against
the railways, as has been so notably
the case in the United States. Here
the safeguards which aro thrown
around property seem to be less effec
tive in proportion to the importance
and wealth of the corporation in con
trol. Whatever the cause may be, our
railways arc regarded as legitimate
prey by all classes, from the millionaire
shipper who demands passes in consid
eration of the great amount of traffic
which the road carries for him at cut
rates, or the politician who makes the
same demand on the gronnd of "influ
ence," or levies blackmail by threaten
ing vexatious legislation, clown to the
striker who demands increased wages
regardless of the financial condition of
the road, or his riotous supporter who
loots and burns cars with a vague no
tion that nobody but the railway suf
fers. Even the government officials
here seem to regard railway property
as less sacred than the property ot
other corporations and individuals.
This feeling may be partially due to
the disregard of law and the rights of
others which the railways have shown
in many ways. From this and other
causes has arisen a demand, which the
recent strike with its far reaching con
sequences has done much to strength
en, for a closer government control or
even for ownership nnd management of
railways by the government.
"This change is advocated by a school
of social agitators who favor an exten
sion of the functions of government in
all directions. They are sup
ported by a large body of unthinking
people who see evilb in the present reg
ime, who look upon the railways as the
worst offenders, and who do not real
ize the far reaching consequences of
the proposed movement.
"Those who advocate the nationaliza
tion of the instruments of production
are want to cite, in support of their
position, the success of state owner
ship and management in Prussia. Aus
tralia, and other countries. But what
they call success is not always so dem
onstrated. Our socialistic friends say
that we must not inquire too closely
into the pecuniary returns, but look at
results in the large, the effect upon
men, the increased prosperity and hap
piness of the community in order to de
termine the success of any system or
enterprise. Unfortunately they offer
no means by which these points may be
ascertained. Who is to determine
whether the well-being of the commu
nity has been increased or diminished?
Is not ability and willingness to pay
the safest and surest test of the im
provement? If a railway really in
creases the prosperity of a community
is not that prosperity manifested by in
creased ability to pay for the services
of the railway? Many kind of expen
ditures are made, and rightly made,
with no expectation of a return in
money. But an individual or a well
regulated community does not sink
wealth in railways or other objects
whose purpose is wholly utilitarian,
unless a definite return is in
sight. Years may be necessary to
realize this return, but in pro
portion to the time of waiting must
be the greatness of the profit finally
realized. True, the ground may be
taken that the means of communication
are a necessity of modern life which
should be furnished by the government
with no special regard to income. Or
one may go so far as to say that they
should be entirely free to all, expense
being paid from the general treasury.
As this would require a doubling of all
our taxes, that is the payment of an
other billion dollars annually, the tax
payers are not likely to entertain such
a proposition for a moment. It remains,
then, for the government, if it takes
control of the railways, to manage them
on business principles, and make them
pay their own way, or come as near to
it as possible. Any light which expe
rience can shed upon the problem is
increasingly desirable in proportion to
the demands for and the probability of
public ownership and control in this
"Experience there is an abundance.
But how much of it is really helpful to
"It may be worth while to note the
points of similarity between Australia
and the United States, for it is only
when conditions are similar that the
same results are to be expected. Both
are new countries of great natural re
sources, with a scant population com
posed of English speaking people with
all the customs, traditions and enter
prise belonging to that race. Both have
self government with noclasses orclass
legislation, and no great vested inter
ests to modify or control their develop
By taking the best and most popu
lous section of Australia and comparing
it with one of our western states of
similar size and population the most
hopeful results may be expected. In
area, population, and general condi
tions, Kansas, more than any other
state in the Union, seems to resemble
Victoria. They are about the same
aije. Victoria became a constitutional
government in the same year that the
Kansas-Nebraska Bill concentrated the ,
attention of Nortii and outh upon
Kansas, but a considerable population
had already been drawn to Australia'
by the gold discoveries. Even before
the discoveries tiic population of Victo- I
ria was nearly one hundred thousand, ,
and had increased to tiiree hundred
and twelve thousand in the year that
Kansas began to be settled a number
not reached by Kansas until fifteen '
years later. The following table shows
the growth of population in the two
Year 1S.70 1W1 JTO ls4) iMrf
Victoria 76,152 .t.'57,M7 7i.,.7.fJ sW;7 II.:a.-" '
Kansas 107.3G :;i,::o jVX), j,j;7,iM
The railway building also began
earlier in the Australian colony. From
1S45 to 1S60 the railway question was
there discussed, and the experience of
England, France and Belgium studied, j
A few private lines were built, butcap- ,
ital for them could be secured only by '
a state guarantee of interest. Even ;
then the opportunities for investment
were so great that the guarantee of six ,
per cent did not attract sufficient cap-
ital, and the colony finally deeided that ,
the only way to get the necessary rail- .
ways was to build them. j
During the period of this discussion,
however, Kansas, through private en- '
terprise, had been supplied with fifteen i
miles of railway, while Victoria had j
secured but two hundred and seventy
four miles by 1S70. Since that year j
Kansas has developed faster and se
cured railroads much more rapidly than
Victoria has been able to do with all
her borrowing. The mileage has been
as follows: 1con
Year 1K0 1n0 Jf2J
Victoria 274 1.II9 ij
Kansas J.501 WOO -V4
In the five years from lS5Sto lSt'.2 the
Victorian government had incurred
a e'ebt of over S3S,000,000 to open
oulv 2J4 miles of road, an average
expenditure of $130,000 per mile, t'rorn
lSti to 1S70 the expenditure in build
ing railways ranged from S300.000 to
f, 000,000, with an average of SI, 341.
OOOpervear. Yet the 10,700.000 ad
ditional expenditure opened only sixty
miles of new road, thus bringing the
average tin to $177,000 per mile. ince
1S7- the building has been more rapid,
and the expenditure has ranged from
54,000,000 to S10.000.000 per year, bring
ing the total expenditure upon railways
tip to SISU'.O-N.'VW in 1JW5- The cost
per mile has declined greatly, and at
present averages about C1.4'-'.". some
$2,000 less than the average of the
United States roads as returned by the
companies, but it is well known that
the returns here are above the actual
'Kansas railways arc returned atS47,
437 per miie. $27,100 of which is bonds.
As the stock of the purely Kansasroads
is largely wnter, and gets no dividends,
it can hardly be counted as partof their
cost. It is "safe to say that the Kansas
lines have cost less than half as much
per mile as those built by the govern
ment of Victoria but the latter are
built more substantially. The differ
ence, though, can hardly be so great as
the difference in cost.
"The amount- of useless building,
if building far in advance of
the population, or the possible needs of
the community be called useless, has
been great in both states. Both have
many miles of road which do liot pay
operating expenses, to say nothing of
interest on capital. In Kansas this ex
cessive building has been latgely due
to the rivalry of competing companies.
They build branch roads to secure traf
fic for the trunk lines, and, taking the
system as a whole, they manage to
make expenses and pay interest, if not
too seriously interfered with by hostile
legislation. In Victoria the excessive
building has been due to political con
ditions. Each new line must be
voted by parliament, and naturally
each member tries to secure a road for
his constituency. Such conditions
make log-rolling almost inevitable.
Mr. Speight, the chairman of the Vic
torian Kailway commission, gives the
following statement: '"1 he railways of
Victoria have hitherto been made on
the principle that if there is a certain
amount of money available for con
structing railways it should be fairly
and equitably distributed over the
colony.' Acting on this principle lines
have been built through territory
where the population consists of one
sheep to three acres. The whole policy
has been to build without expectation
of early returns. As England furnished
the capital and the colony at large was
responsible for the interest, the check
upon useless building has been reduced
to a minimum.
Just here an important difference be
tween useless building under public
and private management should be
noted. Shall the whole people be res
ponsible for the mistakes of their rep
resentatives, or shall each company
pay for the blunders of its ollicers? In
either case experience proves that
building is likely to be too rapid.
Under state ownership there is no limit
to the amount expended so long as the
state's credit remains good.
The managers of railway systems in
the United States arc probably as ready
to build new lines and devclow new
territory as the legislators of Australia j
are, but they are guiueu uy oincr prin
ciples than the desire to distribute the
benefits of the new road equally to all
sections of the country. They may
look a long way into the future and
build branches which, at present, do
not pay either by their own traSlic or
by what they furnish to the main line.
But a system which builds many such
lines soon finds itself in a receiver's
hands. Thus the self-interest of the
owners and managers offers one check
to extravagant building. They must
not go beyond what their system can
carry, while Victoria goes beyond the
ability of the entire railway system of
the colony and saddles the deficiency
upon the taxpayers.
If Kansas should put all her rail wa3s
into one system, let the good ones pay
the losses of the poor ones, remit the
$1,00,000 taxes they pay, and give
them a bonus of one or two million
dollars a year, she would be doing pre
cisely what Victoria does for her rail
way system, although, with a larger
territory and almost as large a popula
tion, the southern colony lias but one
third as many miles of railway. The
farmers and shippers of Kansas are not
slow in making complaints against the
railwaj-s, nor have they been free from
legislation which the railway men call
confiscation. The party now in control
demands government ownership, and
if this is to be secured by confiscating
the existing roads, thereby wiping out
all interest charges, the farmers might
jra'n something by this, provided they
kept the management up to its present
etlieiency. But if they took the roads
at their bonded value, wiping out all
the stock, and undertook to pay 4 per
cent on the bonds, business and rates
remaining the same as at present, they
would find themselves confronted with
a deficit of $."..0 o.os.n. no part of which
could be assessed upon tho railways.
Or to put it in another way, ihc rail
ways of Kansas do their business in
that state at rates which leave them,
after operating expenses and taxes are
id. 1.30.1.000 winch is Jess man s
per cent on their bonds
on their stock.
In Victoria the taxt-s which have
been paid to keep the railways running
amount to almost $3.".0(i..oj), an aver
age of $1,000,000 a year since the first
road was opened.
If this amount is saved to the people
of Victoria in lower rates tiie showing
will not be so bad. It is. therefore in
c.rdcr to make a comparison of rates on
the two systems. I nfortunatcly the
returns made by the lai.way commis
sioners of Victoria do not enable the
compar'son to be made in the
way that would be most telling
or most desirable from the standpoint
of the public They do not give the ton
mile or the passenger mile rates nor do
they separate the train mile earnings
of freight and passenger trains. The
train mile income and expenditure may
be as good a unit as any from the rail
way managers' standpoint, bnt it does
not afford the public the information
which it wants. Besides there is a
great difference in trains, particularly
when the passenger and freight train
mileage are lumped together,
fro hi: co.snxri.P.
Several articles which are an outcome
of .Julian Halph's voyage to China, un
dertaken in the interests of Harper's
Magazine and Harper s Weekly, will be
published in the Magazine during the
summer months. The first of the series
will be entitled "House-boating in Chi
na, and will appear in the June Har
per's. In all there will be three arti
cles or more, amply and beautifully
illustrated from drawings by C. D. Wel
don. who accompanied Mr. Kalphtothe
interesting points in China which are
Colnmbns - State - Bank J
pays Iitmst n Tlw DcwslS
lata Lias oi Eeal Estate;
mttm ik siain ei
0 , CUaac Kw Tark am afl
mil t iranm : tickets.
BUYS GOOD NOTES
iai Ua Hi Cutemsn vka thay Nsd Hal
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:
Leander Gerrard, Pres't,
B. H. Henry, Vice Prest,
M. Bruoger, Cashier.
JonN Stauffer. G. W. Hulst.
Authorized Capital of - $500,000
Paid in Capital, - 90,000
O. H. SHELDON. Pres't.
H. P. II. OEIILKICII, Vice Pros.
CLARK GRAY, Cashior.
DANIEL SCU RAM. Ass't Cash
II. M. 'Wmsi.ow, II. P. H. OEnLiucii.
C. II. Sheldon. W. A. McAllisteh,
Joxas Welcu. Caul Rienke.
B. O. Ghat,
Henry Loseke. ,
Geo. W. (i alley.
A. F. H. Or.iiLnicn.
J. P. Pecker Estatb,
Banket deposit; Interest allowed on time
deposits; buy and sell exchange on United.
States and Kurope, and buy and sell avail
able securities. We shall bo pleased to re
ceive your business. Wo solicit your put
ronaga. .. ..Tina .
First National Bank
A. ANDERSON, J. H. OALLET.
President. Vice Pres't.
O. T. ROEN. Cashier.
JACOB BlUXZf. HZM1XSAQATZ,
StateveBt af the Cratltfoa at the Close
ef Bisiaess Jaly 12, 1898.
Loans and Discount !, 241.467 5?
Real Estate Furnltura and Fix-
turea 18,ni 01
U. S. Bonds I5,2X 0)
Duo from other banks.. ...137,878 31
Cash on Hand 21.867 68 59,. 43 63
, $333,m w
Capital Stock paid la I 60.000 00
Surplus Fund 80,000 0)
Undivided proflta,,...... 4,576 00
Circulation .. ........... 13.5'X 00
Deposits.......... 2 j, 1 19 37
Total..... ....,.... ... ..a333ilw 35
Collins : and : Metallic : Cases !
tW Repairing of all kinds of UpJiol
10 FBBTABVD TO FCBNISH ASTTQINO
KBQUXaxo or a
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