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About The Columbus journal. (Columbus, Neb.) 1874-1911 | View Entire Issue (July 30, 1884)
G iette Grafton Neb
tATES OP A1YEKTI9I1IV5.
ISSUKP EVKKY WKPXK&IlAY,
iI. K. TUKNEK Sc CO.,
Proprietors and Publishers.
S3TBusiness and professional cards
of five lines or less, per annum, five
Et? For time advertisements, apply
at this office.
EtTLegal advertisements at statute
JSiTFor transient advertising, see
rates on third page.
S3TA11 advertisements payable
1ST OFFICE Eleventh St.. ? .
i Journal ISuildiii'j.
Six month:- I OO
Three months 5
Single i(i1i; '"
VOL. XV.-NO. 14.
COLUMBUS, NEB., WEDNESDAY. JULY 30, 1884.
WHOLE NO. 742.
Ii.T. Ma:iti N. M. 1. 1' '- cm;. m. i.
Drs. MAETYN & SCHUG,
U. S. Examining Surgeons,
I.oimI Surireuii-. 1'niou l'.n-ili . ., N.
.V It. U.:oil It. A l. K. I:"-.
'n-llltali"ii in (m-i ..i ;:: ml Kiiimi-'i
T Irplmut-s :t ilii nwl i alnu-t-s.
i imi;;iii:jmv. .11. k ,
PHYSICIAN A SUI.'dEON.
JjTlMlife mtoihI iloor i:it of pOst-olhVe.
I l WII.MO.t'. 31. .,
Iir:ir of woiumi :iuil ehlMren :i spe
cialty. County jiliv-ici:m. Ollice fornier
ly ori-iiiifil by Dr.'lloiu-steel. Tvlepliwie
I.l.A ASIIItAlJC.II, 1.I.S.
On corner or Eleventh ami North street,
over Em-tV hardware store.
a rronyj! vs-a t-la w,
Ui-st:tir.-in (Jluek I'.uildiu, lltti street,
Ahovethe New hank.
tt -1. iirso.,
xota j;y p zthlj c,
IHU Slrpi-t.i Ioirs .! of Hammond llnnM",
Columbus. jVW.. -JiM-y
riilllJKS'roX A: I'OWIIKS.
JSTOlIiei- iii Mitehull IJIoek, Colum
bus, Nehr:ijk:i. 11-tf
-t u. ki:i:ii:k,
A TTOHXE Y A T LA II',
0:iie on Olhe St., Columbus, Nebraska.
V. A. MACKEN,
Forciqn and Domestic Liquors and
lltli street, Columbus, Neh.
A TTOHXEYS A T LA W.
Olliee up-stair.s in Me A Mister' build
ing. 11th M. W. A. McAllister, Notary
J. M. MACKAULAXO, 11. K. COWDKItY,
ittcrsej iti Hciirj- rir c. Collector.
LAW ANI COIiliFXTlOX OFFICE
MACrARLAND & COWDERY,
Culutitl.us, : : : Nebraska.
i i iti:;vi:it, .11. i.,
(Successor to Dr. ('. (1. A. litilllioi t)
HOMEOPATHIC 1'IIYSICIAN AXD
Regular graduate ol two meilieal col
lege. ,lli,e Olive St.. one-half hloek
north of Hammond House. J-ly
J. J. .MAIX.'IIAn,
.fuStice, County Surveyor, Notary,
Luihl and Collection Agent.
X3T Parties uVsiring survey iug done ean
Uollfy me hy mail at Platte Ventre, Neh.
i. ici -:,
llth St., opposite Lindell Hotel.
SelU Harness, Saddles, Collars, Whips,
IMankets, Curry Combs, Itriikhes. trunks,
valises, hufjjry tops, eushions, earriane
trimmings, .Ve., at the lowest possible
prices. Repairs pr mptly attended to.
Alff ;l week at home. $Ti.O0 on t lit
JvlK free. Pay absolutely sure. No
MVIv rik. Capital n..t reiUirvd.
Header, if you want buinewH
at which persons of either st-x, younjr or
old, csn make jrreat pay all the time they
work, with absolute certainty, write for
particulars to II. Ham.kt .V Co., Port
VOXTItACTOJ! FOJi ALL KINDS OF
Okkick, Thirteenth St., between Olive
and Nebraska Avenue. Ke.-ideucc on the
corner of Eighth and Olive.
A.11 Work 2tuirmiteol.
JS. MUR DOCK & SON,
Carpenters and Contractors.
Havehad an extenileil experience, and
will guarantee satisfaction iu work.
All kinds of repairing done on short
notice. Our motto i, Good work and
fair prices. Call and give us an oppor
tunity toestimateforyou. jSTShop on
13th St., one door west of Friedhof t
Co'b. store, Columbus. Nebr. 4S'J-v
o. c. sKLAJsrisroisr,
Tin and Sheet-Iron Ware !
Job-Work, Roofing and Gutter
ing a Specialty.
J3JShop on Eleventh Street, opposite
lleintzS Dm:: Store. 40-v
LAND AND INSURANCE ACENT,
His lands comprise some tine tracts
in the Shell Creek Valley, and the north
ern portion of Pl-tte county. Taxes
paid for :ion-rosidcnt. Satisfaction
guaranteed. '20 y
Ol.IJ.tllltJ.S PACKING CO..
COLUJfJiUS, - NZB.,
l'aekers and Dealers iu all kinds ot Hog
product. ea:?h paid for Live or Dead Hogs
Directors. K. II Henry, Pn'st.; John
Wiggins, Sec. and Treas.; L. Gerrard, S.
CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER.
Plans and estimates supplied for either
frame or brick buildings. Good work
guaranteed. Shop on 13th Street, near
St. Paul Lumber Yard, Columbus, Ne
braska. .- Omo.
VOTICE TO TIIACIIKRS.
J. B. Moncrief, Co. Snpt.,
Will be in his office at the Court House
on the third Saturday of each
mouth for the purpose of examining
applicants for teacher's certificates, and
for the transactton of any other busiuess
pertaining to schools. 567-y
S:e:c:::r:t3 Qcmrl & 2eoini Tcrisr i-Haltt;
liKANHKK (.aKKRAUll, 1'l'Cs'l.
(Iv.o. W. Hui.st, Vice Pros' t.
JULIUS A. liEKD.
EUWAKO A. CiK KHAKI).
J. E. Taskkii, Cashier.
Bank of Iepogitf IMcouBt
Collections I'roniptlj made oh
274 ..I. DKKItKUT,
IKA H. ItKICCI.K.
ISTPrompt attention given to Col
lections. JSTPay Interest on time deposits.
3TInsurance, Passage Tickets and
Real Estate Loans. "-W
WHOLESALE AXD RETAIL
FLOUR AND MD STORE!
BOLTED i UiBQLTED 111 MEAL.
AND KOITli KINDS OF THE BEST
WHEAT FLOUR ALWAYS
OX HAND. '
J2TAII kintU or FRUITS in their soa
?on. Onlers jiroinptly tillod.
11 tit Street,
Coin ml him,
COFFINS AND METALLIC CASES
AND DKALKR IN
Furniture, Chairs, Bedsteads, Bu
reaus, Tables, Safes. Lounges,
&c. Picture Frames and
JESTJcpoirtJi of all kinds of Upholstery
C-tf COLUMBUS. XEB.
for the working class
Semi IU cents for postage,
and vc will mail you free
a royai, valuable dox ot
sample goods that will put you in the way
of making more money in a few day than
you ever thought possible at any lui.
iiess. Capital not required. We will
start you. You cau work all the time or
in span time only. The work is univer
sally adapted to "hoth sexes, young and
old." You can easily earn from .ri0 cents to
$." every evening." That all who want
work may test ihe business, we make
thi- unparalleled olFer; lo all who are not
well satislied wc will send $1 to pay for
the trouble of writing us. Full particu
lars, directions, etc., sent free. Fortunes
will be made bv those who give their
whole time to the work. Great success
absolutely sure. Don't delay. Start now.
Address Stinson & Co., Toftland, Maine.
A WOKI OF WARNIIW.
JTARMEUS, stock raisers, and all other
. interested parties will do well to
remember that the "Western Horso and
Cattle Insurance Co." of Omaha is the
only company doing business in this state "
that insures" Horses, Mules and Cattle
ajaint loss by theft, accident, diseases,
or injury, (as also against loss by lire and
lightning). All representations by agents
of othcr'Companies to the contrary not
withstanding. HEXRY GARX, Special Agt,
l.Vy Columbus, Xcb.
33x.it a, Grand Success.
RP. BRIGHAM'S AUTOMATIC WA-
ter Trough for stock. He refers to
every man who has it in use. Call on or
lcac orders at Georire Yale's, opposite
Livery and Feed Stable.
Is prepared to furnish the public w'th
good teams, buggies and carriages for all
occasions, especially for funerals. Also
conducts a sale stable. 44
State A Monro Sts.,Chlcago.
far 1M3, 1UO caff. 219 EngraTlafi
or lutnuMPU. ssju, up, but
IPompou, EpuWU. Csp-Iaat
SubJl. Dram Jw S hufi. uJ
iUk. Saadry Daa4 OauU. Kfahiaf
liaunus aba luiajai luntUM aaa u
ardm for Antuu oasjaj U4
f Carira Haa Umte,
National Bank !
Paid In Capital,
Surplus and Profits,
OKFIOKRS AND D1UKCTOKS.
SAM'LC. SMITH, Vice Pres't.
O.T. IIOKK, Cathicx.
.1. W. KAKLY,
AV. A. MCALLISTER,
Foreign and Inland Exchauge, Passage
Tickets, anil Real Estate Loans.
J. E. NORTH & CO.,
Rock Sping l
L'iirbun (Wyoming) Coal..
Eldon (Iowa) (!oal
..$7.00 prr Ion
... G.0II "
.. 3.5U "
Blacksmith Coal of best quality al
ways on hand at low
North Side Eleventh St.,
Improved and Unimproved Farms,
Hay and Grazing lands and City
Property for Sale Cheap
Union Pacific Land Office,
On Long Time and lot:'
jJSFFInal proof made on Tiinhcr Claims
HomestcatN and Pre-emption-..
JSTA11 wishing to liuy lands of auy dc
Kcriitiou will please call and oxamiui
my list of lands liefore looking else where
U57"A11 having lands to sell will please
eall and give me a dcseiiption, t'Tin ,
I3TI a'so am prepared to injure prop
erty, as I have the agency of several
lirsTt.class Fire insurance companies.
F. AV. OTT, Solicitor, speaks German.
NAMIIE-L C SMITH,
;0-tf Columhus, Nebraska.
BECKER & WELCH,
SHELL CREEK MILLS.
.MANUFACTURERS ANI WHOLE
SALE DEALERS IN
FLOUR AND MEAL.
OFFICE, COL UMB US, NFB.
SPEICE & NORTH,
General Agents for the Sale of
Union Pacilic, and Midland Pacific
R. R. Lauds for sale at from 3.00 to S1U.U0
per acre for ash, or ou five or ten years
time, in annual payments to suit pur
chasers. We have also a large and
choice lot of other lands, improved and
unimproved, for sale at low price and
on reasonable terms. A Iso business and
residence lots in the city. We keep a
complete abstractor title to all real es
tate in PIttc County.
All kinds of Repairing done on
Short Notice. Baggies, Wag
ons, etc., made to order,
and all work Guar
anteed. Also sell the world-famous Walter A.
Wood Mowers, Beapers, Combin
ed Machines, Harvesters,
and Self-binders the
Shop opposite the 44TatteraU," on
Olive St., COLUMBUS. 26-m
BmcKsnutii ana waeon HaKer
The Next President of the United
States to the People.
He Reviews the Prominent Questions
of the Day.
Favoring the Continuance of a Strong
And ClaimiHg that It Has Not Injur
ed Oar Export Trade.
He Shows Wherein It has Benefited
And Declares Free Trade Disastrous
to the Workingman.
Our Foreign Relations Favor Our Do
He Favors Closer Relations with Oth
er American Powers.
Notes a Growing Reconciliation Be
tween North and South.
His Views on Civil Service Reform
Hormonism, Currency, Public Lands
and Shipping Interests.
A. Free Ilnllot the Malccuard
Augusta, Me., July 15th, 1SS4.
Tho Hon. John Ii. Henderson and
othcTfl of tho committee, etc., etc.
(iK.vtlkmen: Iu accepting the
nomination for the presidency ten
dered ine by the republican national
convention, 1 beg to express a deep
sense of tho honor which is conferred
and of the duty which is imposed. I
venture to accompany the acceptance
with some observations upon the
questions involved iu the contest
questions which may affect the future
ot tho nation favorably or unfavora
bly for a long scries ot years.
In enumerating the issues upon
wfjich tho republican party appeals
lor popular support, the conveu;iou
has been singularly explicit and feli
citous. II has properly given the
leading position as to the industrial
interests of the country as allrcted by
the tariff on imports. On that ques
tion the two political parties arc radi
cally in contlict. A!most the lirst act
of the republicans, when they came
iu power iu 1801, was the establish
ment of the principle of protection to
American labor and to American
capital. This principle the republi
can party has over since steadily
maintained, while on the other hand
the democratic party in congress hap
for fitly years persistently warred
upon it. Twice within that period
our opponents have destroyed tariffs
arranged for protection, aud since the
close of the civil war, whenever they
have controlled the house ol repre
sentatives, hostile legislation lia been
attempted never more ronfpicunus
ly than in their principal measure al
the late session ot congress.
THE TAKIKK QUESTION.
llcvenuo laws are in their very
nature subject to revision in order
that they may he adapted to the
changes and modifications of trade.
The republican party is not contend
ing for the permanency of any partic
ular statute. The issue between the
two parties does not have reference
to any specific law. It is far broader
aud tar deeper. It involves a princi
ple of wide application and bcniliceut
influence, against a theory which we
believe to be unsound in conception
and hurtful in practice. Iu the many
tariff revisions v. hich have been
necessary tor "the pa3t twenty-three
years, or which mav hereafter be-
I come necessary, the republican party
has maintained and will maintain the
policy ol protection to American in
dustry, while our opponents iusist
upon a revision which practically
destroys that policy. The issue is
thus distinct, well defined and una
voidable. The coming election may
determine the late of protection for a
generation. The overthrow of the
policy mentis a iargc aud permanent
reduction in the wages of the Ameri
can laborer, besides involving the loss
of VAbt amounts of American capital
invested in manufacturing enter
prises. The value of tho present rev
euue system to the people of the
United States is not a niattor of
theory, and I shall submit no argu
ment to sustain it. I only invite at
tention to certain facts of official
record which seem to constitute a
In the census of ISiiU an effort was
made, for the first time in our history,
to obtain a valuation of all tho prop
erty in the United States. " The at
tempt was iu large decree unsuccess
ful. Partly from lack of time, partly
from prejudice among many who
thought the inquiries lt.reshadowcd a
new scheme ot taxation, the returns
were incomplete and unsatisfactory.
Little more was done than to consoli
date the local valutation used iu the
Stales for purposes of usee-smeut, and
that, as everyone knows, differs wide
ly from a complete exhibit of all the
In the census of ISM), however, the
work was done with great thorough
ness the distinction between ''assess
ed" value and "true" value being
carefully observed. The grand result
was that the "true value" of all the
property iu the Slates and Territories
(excluding slaves) amouuted to four
teen thousand millions of dollars
($14,(J00,(XX),0!0 ) This aggregate was
the net result of the labor and the
savings of all the people within the
area of the United States from the
time the first Itritish colonist lauded
in 1007 down to the year 1800. It
represented the fruit of the toil ol
two hundred and fifty years.
After 1SG0 the business of the coun
try was encouraged and developed by
a protective tariff. At the end of
twenty years the total property of the
United Slates, as relumed by the
census of 1880, amounted to the enor
mous aggregate of forty-four thous-
and millions of dollars ($44,000,000,
000.) The great result was attained,
.notwithstanding the fact that count
Jess millions had in the interval bceu
wasted in tho progress of a bloody
war. It thus appears that while our
population betweon 1800 and 1SS0 in-
kcrcascd sixty per cent the aggregate
property of the country increased two
hundred and fourteen per cent
showing a vastly enhanced wealth
per capita among th.epeople. Thirty
thousaml millions 6? dollars ($:O,UO0.'
000,000) had been added during these
twenty yearc to the permanent wealth
of the nation.
These results are regarded by the
older nations of the world as phenom
enal. That our country should sur
mount the peril aud the cost ot a
gigantic war and for an entire period
of twenty years make an average gain
to its wealth of one hundred and
twenty -five million dollars per month
surpasses the experience of all other
nations, ancient or modern. Even
the opponents of tho present revenue
system do not pretend that in tho
whole history of civilization any par
allel can be found to the material
progress ot tho United States, since
the accession of the republican party
The period between 1800 and to
day has not been one of material
prosperity only. At no time in tho
history of the United States has there
been such progress in the moral and
philanthropic field. Religious aud
charitable institutions, schools, semi
naries aud colleges, have been found
ed aud endowen far more geucrously
than at any previous time in our his
tory. Greater and more varied reliof
has bceu extended to human suffering
and the entire progress of tho country
in wealth has bceu accompanied aud
dignified by a broadening and eleva
tion of our natioual character as a
Our opponents find fault that our
revenue system produces a surplus.
But they should not forget that the
law haB given a specific purpose to
which all of the surplus is profitably
and honorably applied tho reduc
tion of the public debt and tho conse
quent relief of tho burden of taxation.
No dollar has been wasted, aud the
only extravagance with which the
party stands charged is tho generous
pensioning of soldiers, sailors and
their families an extravagance which
embodies the highest form of justice
in the recognition and payment of a
sacred debt. "When reduction of tax
ition is to be made, the republican
party can ho trusted to accomplish it
iu such form as will most effectively
aid the industries of tho uation.
OUK FOKKKi.V COMMKKCE.
A frequent accusation by our op
ponents is that the foreign commerce
of the country has steadily decayed
under the influence of the protective
tariff. In this way they seek to array
the importing interest agaiut the re
publican party. It is a common and
yet radical error to confound the
commerco of the country with its
carrying trade an error often com
mitted innocently aud sometimes
designedly but an error so gross
that it does not distinguish between
the ship and the cargo. Foreign
commerco represents the exports and
imports of a country regardless of the
nationality of the vessel that may
carry the commodities of exchange.
Our carrying trade has from obvious
causes suffered many discourage
ments since 1800, but our foreign
commerce ha in the samo period
sleadily and prodigiously increased
--inci eased indeed at a rale and lo
an amount which absolutely dwarf
all previous developments of our
trade beyond the sea. From 1S00 to
the present time the foreign com
merce of Ihe United Stales, (divided
with approximate equality between
exports and imports) reached the
astounding aggregate of twenty-four
thousand millions of dollars. The
balance in this vast commerce inclined
iu our favor, but it would have been
much larger if our trado with the
countries of America, elsewhere re
ferred to, had been more wisely
It is difficult even to appreciate the
magnitude of our export trade since
1800 and we can gain a correct, con
ception ol it only by comparison with
preceding results in the same field.
Tho total exports from the United
Stales from the declaration of in
dependence iu 1770 down to the day
of Lincoln's election in 1S00, added
to all that had previously been ex
ported from the American colonics
from their original settlement,
amounted to less than nine thousand
million of dollars. On the other
hand our exports from 1800 to the
close of the last fiscal year exceeded
twelve thousand millions of dollars
the whole of it being tho product of
American labor. Evidently a pro
tective tariff has not injured our
export trade when,under its influence,
we exported in twenty-four years
forty per cent, more than tho total
amount that had been exported in the
entire previous history of American
commerce. All the details, when
analyzed, correspond with this
gigantic result. The commercial
cities of the union never had such a
growth as they have enjoyed since
1S00. Our chief emporium, the city
of New York, with its dependencies,
haB within that period doubled her
imputation aud increased her wealth
five fold. During the same period
the imports and exports which have
eutered and left her harbqr are more
than double in bulk aud value the
whole amount imported and exported
by her between the settlement of the
first Dutch colony on the island ot
'Manhattan and the outbreak of the
civil war in 1S00.
AfilMCULTUKK AND THE TARIFF.
The agricultural interest is by far
the largest in the nation, and is en
tiiled iu every adjustment of revenue
laws to the first consideration. Any
policy hostile to the fullest develop
ment of agriculture iu the United
States must be abandoned. Iicali.ing
this fact the opponents of the present
system of revenue have labored very
earnestly to persuade the farmers of
the United States that they are robbed
by a protective tariff, and the effort is
thus made to consolidate their vast
influence in favor of free trade. Kut
happily the farmers of America are
intelligent and cannot be misled by
sophistry wheu conclusive facts are
before them. They see plainly that
during the past twenty-four years,
wealth has been acquired in one
section or by one interest al the ex
pense ot another sectiou or another
interest. They see that the agricul-
tural states have mado even more
rapid pn grcss than the manufactur
The farmers see that iu 1SG0 Mass
achusetts and lllinoj&'had about the
same wealth between oight and nine
hundred million dollars each aud
that in 1SS0 -Massachusetts had ad
vanced to twenty-six hundred mil
lions, while Illinois had advanced to
thirty-two hundred million. They
M-e that New Jersey aud I uv i hmi
jus' equal in ppulaiion iu Ititi!) and
that in twenty years the we.iHh of
New Jersey was increased by the
sum of eight hundred and tilty mil
lions ol dollars, while the wealth ot
Iowa has increased by the sum of
fifteen hundred millions. They see
that the nine leading agricultural
states of tho west have grown so
rapidly in prosperity that tho ag
gregate addition to their wealth since
1SC0 is almost as great as the wealth
of the entire country for that year.
They see that the south, which is al
most exclusively agricultural has
shared iu the general prosperity aud
that having recovered from the loss
aud devastation of war, has gained so
rapidly that its total wealth is at least
the double of that which it possessed
iu 1S00, exclusive of slaves.
In these extraordinary develop
ments the farmers see the helpful
impulse of a home market, and they
see that the financial aud revenue
system enacted since the republican
party came into power,has established
and constantly expanded the home
market. They see that in the case of
wheat, which is our chief cereal ex
port, they have sold iu the average of
a year. since tho close of the war,
three bushels at home to one they
have sold abroad, and in the case of
corn, the only other cereal which we
export to any great extent, one hun
dred bushels have been used at home
to three and a half bushels exported.
In some years the disparity has boen
so great that for every peck of corn
exported one hundred bushels have
been consumed in the. homo market.
Tho farmers see that in tho increasing
competition from tho grain fields of
Russia and from the district plains of
India, the growth of the home market
becomes daily of greater concern to
them and that its impairment would
depreciate the value of overy acre of
tillable laud in the union.
OUIt INTEKN'AI. COMMKKCE.
Such facts as these touching the
growth ami consumption of cereals at
home give us some slight conception
ol the vast lies of the internal com
merce of the United States. They
suggest also that in addition to the
advantages which tho American
poople enjoy from protection against
foreign competition, they enjoy the
advantages of absolute free trade
over a larger area aud with a greater
population than any other Nation.
Tho internal commerce of our thirty
eight States aud nine Territories is
carried on without let or hindrance,
without tax, detention or govern
mental interference of any kiud
whatever. It spreads freely over an
area of three and a half million square
miles almost equal In oxtcut to the
whole continent of Europe. Its
profits are enjoyed to-day by fifly
six millions of American freemen,
aud from this enjoyment no monop
oly is created. According to Alex
ander Hamilton, when he discussed
the same subject iu 1700, "the internal
competition which takes place does
away with every thing like monopoly,
and hy degrees reduces tho prices ol
articles to the minimum of a reason
able profit on the capital employed."
It is impossible to point to a single
monopoly in the United States that
has been created or fostered by the
industrial system which is upheld by
ihe republican party.
Compared with our foreign com
merce these domestic exchanges are
inconceivably great in amount re
quiring merely as one instrumentality
as large a mileage of railway as exists
to-day iu the other nations of the
world combined. These internal
exchanges are estimated by the sta
tistical bureau of the treasury de
partment to be annually twenty times
as great in amount as our foreign
commerce. It is into this vast field
ot home trade al once the ci cation
aud the heritage of the American
people that foreign nations are
striving by every device to enter. It
is into this field that the opponents of
our present revenue system would
freely admit the countries ot Europe
countries into whose internal trade
wc could not reciprocally enter;
countries to which wc should be sur
rendering everj' advantage of trade;
from which wc should be gaining
nothing iu return.
EFFECT UrO.V THE MECHANIC AND THE
A policy of this kind would be
disastrous to the mechanics and work
ingmeii of the United States. Wages
are unjustly reduced wheu an indus
trious man is not able by his earnings
to live iu comfort, educate his chil
dren, aud lay by an efficient amount
for the necessities of age. The re
duction of wages inevitably conse
quent upou throwing our home
market open to the world, would
deprive them of the power to do this.
It would prove a great calamity to
our country. It would produce a
conflict between tho poor and rich,
aud in the sorrowful degradation of
labor would plant the seeds of public
The republican party has steadily
aimed to maintain jut relations be
tween labor and capital guarding
with care the rights ot each. A con
flict between the two ha always led
iu the past and will always lead in
the future to the injury of both. La
bor is indispensable to the creation
and profitable use of capital, anil cap
ital increases the eliicicncy aud v.iltie
ol labor. Whoever array- the one
against the other is an enemy to both.
That policy is wisest afid best which
harmonizes the two on the basis of
absolute justice. The republican
party has protected the free labor of
America so that its compensation is
larger than is realized in auy other
country. It has guarded our people
against the unfair competition of con
tract labor from China and may be
called upon to prohibit the growth of
a similar evil from Europe. It is
obviously unfair to permit capitalists
lo make contracts for cheap labor iu
foreign countries to the hurt and
disparagement of the labor of Amer
ican citizens. Such a policy (like
that which would leave the time and
other conditions of home labor ex
clusively iu tho control of the em
ployer), is injurious to all parties '
not the least bo to the unhappy
persons who are made the subjects of
the contract. The institutions of the
United States rest upon the intelli
gence and virtue of all the people.
Suffrage is made universal as a just
weapon of self-protection to every
citizen. It is not the iutcrest of the
republic that any economic system
should be adopted which involves
ihe reduction of wages to the hard
standard prr vailing ele where. The
republican parly xiuis to elevate and
dignify labor not to degrade it.
As a substitute tor the industrial
system which under republican ad
ministrations has developed such ex
traordinary prosperity, our opponents
oiler a policy which is but a series of
experiments upon our system of rev
enuea policy whoso end must be
harm to our manufactures and great
er harm to our labor. Experiment
in the industrial and financial system
is the country's greatest dread, aa
stability 1s its grcatT3t"tndnr'Evon
the uncertainty resulting from the
recent tariff agitation in congress has
hurtfnlly affected the busiuess of the
entire country. Who can measure
the harm to our shops and our homes,
to our farms and our commerco, if
the uncertainty of perpetual tariff
agitation is to be inflicted upou the
country? We are in tho midst of an
abundant harvest ; wc are on the eve
of revival of general prosperity.
Nothiug stands iu our way but tho
dread of a change in the industrial
system which has wrought such
wonders in the last twenty years aud
which with the power of increased
capital will work still greater mar
vels of prosperity in tho twenty years
OUK FOUEIUN VOLICV.
Our foreign relations favor our do
mestic development. Wc are at pcaco
with the world at peaca upon a
sound basis with no unsettled ques
tions of sufficient magnitude to em
barrass or distract us. Happily re
moved by our geographical position
from participation or interest in those
questions of dynasty o.r boundary
which so frequently disturb the peace
of Enropo, we are left to cultivate
friendly relations with all, and are
free from possible entanglements in
the quarrclB of any. The- United
States has no cause and no desire to
eugago iu conflict with any power on
earth, and wo may rest iu assured
confidence that no power desires to
attack tho United States.
With the nations of the Western
Hemisphere we should cultivate
closer relations and fur our common
prosperity and advancement we
should invite them all to join with us
in an agreement that for the future,
all international troubles in North
and South America shall bn adjusted
by impartial arbitration and not by
arms. This project was part of the
fixed policy of President fiarlield's
administration and it should in my
judgment bn renewed. Its accom
plishment on this continent would
favorably affect tho nations beyond
the sea, and thus powerfully con
tribute at no distant day to the
universal acceptance of the philan
thropic and Christian principle of
arbitration. The affect even of sug
gesting it for the Spanish Americau
states has been most happy aud has
increased the confidence of those
people in our friendly disposition.
It fell to my lot as secretary of state
in .I tine 1881 to quiet apprehension in
the Republic of Mexico, by giving
the assurance in an official dispatch
that "there is not the faintest desire
in the United Stales tor territorial
extention south of the Rio Grande
The boundaries of tho two republics
have been established in conformity
with the best jurisdictional interests
ot both. The line of demarcation is
not merely conventional. It is more.
It separates a Spanish-American
people from a Saxon-American peo
ple. It divides one great nation
Irom another with distinct and
We seek the conquest of peace. Wo
desire to extend our commerce, and
iu an especial degree with our friends
and neighbors on this continent. We
have not improved our relations with
Spanish-America as wisely aud as
persi.-tcutly as wo might have done.
For more than a generation the sym
pathy of those countries has been
allowed to drift away from us. We
should now make every effort lo gain
their friendship. Our trade with
them is already large. During the
last year our exchanges in the west
ern hemisphere amounted to three
hundred and fifty millions of dollars
nearly one-fourth of our entire for
eign commerce. To those who seem
dispobed to underrate the value of
our trade with the countries of North
and South America, it may be well to
state that their population is nearly
or quite fifty millions aud that, iu
proportion to aggregate numbers, we
import nearly, double as much from
them as we do from Europe. Rut the
result of the whole American trade is
in a high degree unsatisfactory. The
imports during the past year exceeded
two hundred and twenty-five mil
lions while the exports amounted to
less than one hundred and twenty
five millions showing a balance
against us of more than one hundred
millions of dollars. Rut the money
does not go to Spanish America. We
send largo sums to Europe in coin or
its equivalent to pay European man
ufacturers for the goods which they
send to Spanish America. We are
but paymasters for this enormous
amount annually to Hurcpcau factors
-an amount which isaserioii9 draft,
in every financial depression, upon
our resources ol specie.
Cannot this condition of trade in
great part he changed? Cannot the
market for our products be greatly
enlarged? We have made a begin
ning in our effort to improve our
trade relations with Mexico and we
should not be content until similar
and mutually advantageous arrange
ments have been successively made
with every nation ol North aud
South America. While the great
powers of European: steadily enlarg
ing their colonial dominion in Asia
and Africa it is the especial province
of this country to improve aud ex
pand its trade with the nations of
America. No field has been cultivat
ed so little. Our foreign policy in
its broadest aud most comprehensive
sense a policy of peace, of friend
ship, of commercial enlargement.
i'he name of Americau which be
lougs to us in our Natioual capacity '
must always exalt the just pride of
patriotism. Citizeuship of tho repub
lic, must be the panoply aud safe
guard of him who wears it. The
American citizen, rich or poor, nativo
or naturalized, white or colored, iciiBt
everywhere, walk secure in his per
sonal aud civil rights. The republic
should never accept a lesser duty, it
can never assume a nobler one, than
the protcctiou of the humblest man
who owes it loyalty protection at
home, and protection which shall
follow him abroad, into whatever
laud he may go upon a lawful errand.
THE SOUTIIEKN STATK3.
I recognize, not without regret, tho
necessity lor speakiug of two sec
tions ot our common country. Rut
the regret diminishes when I see that
the elements which separated them
are fast disappearing. Prejudices
have yielded aud are yielding, whilo
a growing cordiality warms tho
Southern aud tho Northern heart
alike. Can any ono doiibt that be
tween tho sections confidence and
esteem are to-day more marked than
at any period in the sixty years pro
ceding tho election of President Lin
coln? This is the result in part of
time and in part of republican prin
ciples applied under the favorable
conditions of uniformity. It would
bo a great calamity to change these
influences under which Southern
commonwealths arc learning to vin
dicate civil rights, and adapting
themselves to the conditions of politi
cal tranquility and industrial pro
gress. If there be occasional and
violent outbreaks in the South against
this peaceful progress, the public
opinion of the country regards them
an exceptional and hopeful trusts that
such will prove the last.
The South needs capital and occu
pation, not controversy. As much as
any part of the North, tho South
ueeds the full protection of the rev
enue laws which tho republican party
oilers. Some of tho Southern States
have already entered upon a career of
industrial development and prosper
ity. These, at least, should not lend
their electoral votes to destroy their
Any effort to unite the southern
states upon issues that grow out of
the memories of the war, will sum
mons the northern states to comhiuo
iu tho assertion of that nationality
which was their inspiration iu tho
civil struggle. Aud thus great
energies which should be united in
common industrial de elopment will
be wasted iu hurtful strife. The
democratic party shows itself a foe to
southern prosperity by always in
voking and urgiug southern political
consolidation. Such a policy quen
ches the rising instinct of patriotism
iu the heart of tic; southern youth ; it
revives and stimulates prejudice; it
substitutes the t-pirit of barbaric veu
gcHiico for tho love of peace, progress
THE CIVIL SEUVICE.
The general character of tho civil
scrvico of the United States under all
administrations has been honorable.
In ono supreme test collection aud
disbursement of revenue the record
of fidelity has never been surpassed
iu auy nation. With the almost
fabulous Bums which wero received
aud paid during the late war,
scrupulous integrity was the prevail
ing rule. Indeed, throughout that
trying period, it can be said to tho
honor of the American uame, that
uulaithfulness and dishonesty among
civil officers were us rare a- miscon
duct and cowardice on flu; field of
The growth of tho country has
continually and ncessiirily ciUrgi-d
Ihe civil servic.:, until now :' iiicludes
a vast body ot olliceiv. Ituies and
methods ot appointment whi:h pre
vailed when the number wa.- smaller
have 'been made to seiarite tbu
great mass of ministerial officers
from partisan influence anil personal
control. Impartiality iu the tuoilo of
appointment to be based on qualifica
tion, and security of tenure to be
based on faithful discharge of duty
are tho two ends to be accomplished.
The public business will bo aided by
separating the Icgir-l.-itive branch ot
the government Irom ail control of
appointments and tho executive de
partment will be relieved by sub
jecting appointments to fixed rules
aud thus removing them from thu
caprice of favoritism. Hut there
should be rigid observance of the law
which gives in all cues of equal
competency tho preference to tho
soldiers who risked their lives iu
defense of the union.
I entered congress in 180, ami iu
a somewhat prolonged service I
never found it expedient to request
or recommend the removal of a civil
officer except in four instances, and
then for non-political reasons which
were instantly conclusive with tin:
appointing power. The ollicers in
tho district, appointed by Mr. Lin
coln iu 1801 upon the recoi'imenda
tion of my predecessor, served as a
rule, until death or resignation. I
adopted at tho beginning of my
service the test of competitive
examination for appointments to
West Point and maintained it as long
as I had the right by law to nominate
a cadet. In the case of many officers
I found that the prcsunt law which
arbitrarily limits the term of the com
mission, offered a constant tempta
tion to changes for mere political
reasons. I have publicly expressed
the belief that the essential modifica
tion of that law would be in many
My observaliou iu the department
of state confirmed the conclusions of
my legislative experience, and im
pressed me with the conviction that
the rule of impartial appointment
might with advantage be carried be
yond any existing provision of tho
civil service law. It should be ap
plied to appointments in the consular
j-ervice. Consuls should be commer
cial sentinels encircling tiie globo
with watchfulness for their country's
interests. Their intelligence and
competency become, therefore, mat
ters of great public concern. No man
should be appointed to an American
consulate who is not well instructed
in the history and resources of his
own couutry, and in the requirements
and language of commerce in the
country to which he is sent. The
same rule should be applied even
more rigidly to secretaries of legation
in our diplomatic service. The peo
ple have tho right to the most effi
cient agents in tho discharge of pub
lic business and the appointing power
should regard this as the prior aud
THE MOKMO.V QUESTION.
Religious liberty is the right of
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