Valentine Democrat. (Valentine, Neb.) 1900-1930, May 10, 1906, Image 3

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Sam'n Prosecution of Land
Pr.and * Will Rescue Millions of
Acre * From Cattlemen for TJ e of
People Million Acrca Recovered.
the next fe\v months , and
not later than August 1 , there
be restored to homestead entry
and occupation not less than a round
million of acres of land in central Ne-
faraska. This restoration will come as
a direct result of the government's in-
Testigation and prosecution of the pub
lic land frauds.
For many years this land has been
'held to the exclusive use of the big
cattlemen. Some of it has been with
held from settlement by the people because -
cause of the fact that it lay within the
.great pastures enclosed by illegal
'fences , although the title remained in
ttbe government. Nominally this acre
age has always been subject to entry ;
In point of fact it has been as effectually -
-ually withdrawn as though there had
been a transfer title. Another part is
'that which has been stolen by means of
fraudulent filings.
The lands thus pre-empted do not
represent the total area of the public
aomain in the State. Altogether , there
.mil be from .8,000,000 to 10,000,000
- acres subject to entry when the gov
ernment has concluded its work over
the frauds. Three-fourths or more of
this lies on the high "divides" and
ridges. What its final and best use
may be is still a problem. At the pres
ent time it is made of service chiefly
for grazing. Probably 2,500,000 or 3-
000,000 acres will prove suitable for
"high plains" farming , as this is now
'understood , dnd the available acreage
will be continually increased as meth
ods become better known and are im
proved upon by experience. The re
mainder the so-called "arid" portions
must now be used , if at all , in con
junction with the valley lands.
Knowledge of this fact has given the { |
-cattlemen their control of the whole ;
for by making conscription of the val
leys and water courses , they have pre
vented any hut themselves from using
the higher , areas. Thus control of one
acre carried with it the exclusive
ese of four or five more.
In the course of their defense and
i Justification , the holders of these great
tracts have declared , both in court and
through the newspapers , that they
liave always "welcomed , " "invited"
" " within
smd "encouraged" settlement
their enclosures. The history of the
cattle country records the untruth of
this statement just as in everyday understanding -
' derstanding of motives would indicate.
First and 4ast , by every means by
persuasion , by intimidation , by violence
lence homesteaders have been induced
to keep outside the boundaries of these
reserves. The owners of the herds
liave wanted the lands for themselves ;
settlers have been regarded merely as
trespassers , "squatters" with no rights
entitled to respect. Almost invariably
fcona fide homesteaders who have had
the temerity to enter the big enclosures
liave found life an exceedingly difficult
Five or six of the larger enclosures
have now been thoroughly investigated ;
the unlawful fences have been ordered
removed , and hundreds of procured and
fraudulent filings have been recom
mended to the Interior Department for
cancellation. Before the summer Is
' .f' over these lands will be returned to
the use of the people.
Even now there are many indica
tions that the year will see a tide ol
Immigration exceeding any similar
movement of the last two decades.
Government agents , railroad officials ,
newspaper offices and real estate deal
ers are now being deluged with in
quiries coming from all parts of the
United States , but chiefly from the
east and south. From what is now
known , it seems well within the truth
to say that approximately 5,000 fam
ilies will ultimately find profitable
homesteads within this reopened area
in Nebraska. Furthermore , these cul
tivable tracts are well distributed ,
so that those homesteaders keeping
small herds of live stock a wise and
economical adjunct to farming can be
assured of ample pasturage and mead
ow. These lauds all lie within the ter
ritory covered by the so-called Kinkaid
law , which permits an entryman to file
upon G40 acres , or one squqare mile.
"This law has been responsible for many
grave frauds during the two years
since it became operative ; but , honestly -
estly administered , it may still be
made to serve the purpose for which
it was ostensibly passed the creation
of the "grazing homestead. "
Surgery Cares Incorrigible.
Harold Hurley , a 12-year-old boy of
Toledo , Ohio , who had been sentenced tea
a reformatory for incorrigibility , is said
to have shown a complete transformation
of character following a surgical opera
tion which removed pressure upon the
brain , caused by a swelling of' the bone
after a fall when he was 5 years old.
Onr Mountains IN'ot So Hlgb.
According to the latest edition of Gan-
nett's "Dictionary of Altitudes in the
United States , " many previous estimates
of mountain heights are altered. Care
ful surveys indicate that -these estimates I
"have been exaggerated. Mount Whitney ]
"has been reduced from 14,898 feet to 14-
502 feet , and Mount Williamson , in Cal
ifornia , is credited with only 14,500 feet-
Mount Ranier has been cut down 163
feet to the height of 14,363 feet. This
.gives its rival. Mount Shasta , the advan
tage , with 14.380 fset to its credit.
- 1 V
Theodore Thomas Orchestra to Ap
pear in Kf Event at Sioux City , la.j
Sioux City. la. , is already making
Croat preparations for its annual mu
sic festival , and an extensive array ot
artists has been engaged for this
event. '
The series as'arranged is t < ? include
three grand concerts , to be given at
the New 9 rand theater , May 23 and
24 , and as an aid to this plan , the well
known Theodore Thomas Orchestra
has been secured for concert work at
each of the three programs. Th
mere name of the Thomas orchestra
is , in Itself , a guarantee of the very
finest along orchestral lines , and will
undoubtedly prove to be a great at
traction to hundreds of music lovers
throughout this section of the country.
This orchestra has for many years
played an important part in the musi
cal development of this country and
today stands without a peer among
the great concert orchestras of the
world. Its reputation Is international
and its performance of the great mu
sical works a final authority along
orchestral lines. They have taken the
leading part with most of the grea
festivals of the country.
The organization , in its appearanct
in the Sioux City festival , will be com
prised of fifty-five players , the same
membership as in the Chicago con
certs , and each man an artist in his
particular line. Frederick A. Stock ,
the regular conductor of the orches
tra , will lead at this time , and his
reputation of the past few years has
placed him among the best leaders of
the country.
The choral union is , in this partic
ular case , especially happy in its
term , as it is a union of the musia
forces of college and city circles ,
forming a festival chorus of over 200
voices , and the largest organization
of its kind In the state of Iowa. This
club was organized uro years ago by
Prof. J. W. Mather , director of muslo
at Morningside College , and the orig
inator of the festival idea in Sioux
City. Last year Handel's "Messiah"
was given with great success by th
chorus , and arrangements were at
once made by Prof. Mather looking
toward a greater and. even more at
tractive program for this year. Tha
series includes two symphony concerts
by the orchestra and soloists on tha
evening of May 23 and afternoon of
May 24. In the evening of the 24th ,
Mendelssohn's great oratorio ol
"Elijah" will be given by the choral
union of over 200 voices , assisted by
the entire Thomas orchestra and solo
ists. The chorus has been doing mag
nificent work this year , and this con
cert promises to be one of the greatest
ever given in the northwest. Mr. Stock
will lead the orchestra concert , while
Mr. Mather will conduct at the "Eli
jah" performance.
The soloists are as follows : Madams
Charlotte Maconda , soprano , New
York ; Mrs. Hannah Butler , soprano ,
Chicago ; Miss Grace Munson , contralto
to , New York ; Mr. Glenn Hall , tenor ,
Chicago ; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon ,
basso , New York ; Mr. Leopold Kra
mer , violinist , Chicago ; Mr. Bruno
Steindell , 'cellist , Chicago ; Mr. Brahm ,
Vandenburg , pianist , Cincinnati. Such
an array of artists is seldom found
outside of the larger music centers oi
this country , and the musicians of the
state are to be congratulated on thia
opportunity of hearing them so near
Madame Maconda is one of the
leading sopranos in New York and a
singer of brilliant attainments. Foi
years she has been the principal solo
ist at the Maine festivals under the
direction of Mr. Wm. R. Chapman.
Mrs. Butler has just returned from
an extended concert tour in England
and Germany , and met with much
success in her work there.
Miss Munson has one of the leading
church positions in New York and ia
especially fitted for oratorio work.
Mr. Hall has appeared as soloist
with many of the large choral societies
of this country , Including the Handel
and Haydn of Boston , Philharmono
of New York , "Worcester festivals.
Apollo Club of Chicago , Cincinnati
Chorus , and the Ann Arbor festival.
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon , basso
canlante , has within the last few yeara
created for himself a reputation second
end to no other bass in this country.
The principal solo part in the oratorio
of "Elijah" is that given to the bass ,
and for this work Mr. Witherspoon ig
especially fitted. The New York crit
ics speak of his work along this line
as something magnificent and satisfy
ing to the last degree.
Mr. Vandenburg received much ol
his piano training in his home country ,
Belgium. Later he came to Cincin
nati and has since made for himself a
reputation for brilliant musiclanly
playing and is an artist in the true
sense of the wor.-l.
The names of Mr. Kramer , violinist ,
concert master of the orchestra , and
Mr. Steindell , 'cello soloist , arc * closely
associated with the musical activities
of the Thomas orchestra for the past
twelve years , as prominent members
of the same , and musicians of recog
nized ability.
The orchestra will give at this festi
val , for their larger works , Beetho
ven's Symphony No. 5 in C minor ;
Symphonic Poem ( Les Preludes )
Liszt , and three Wagnerian numbers ,
The Vorspeil to Lohengrin , Ride ol ,
the Valkyries , and Overture to Tann-
hauser , and Dvorak's brilliant Carni
val Overture and a new overture by
George Schumann entitled "Liebes- :
fruhling. " Also parts of the Symphony
No. 5 by the great Russian writer ,
In the arrangement of a music fes
tival of such magnitude Prof. Mather
has been greatly aided by the Sioux
City Commercial Club and L. L. Ness ,
secretary , which has. through its con
stituency , guaranteed the financial
backing , so necessary in such an en
terprise. Also the efforts of Morning-
side College , with its strong constit
uency and the closely allied Conserv
atory of Music with its able faculty
and many music students. This force ,
with the city section , forms the main
body of the choral efforts , and all of
these influences have been brought to
bear to make this the most , successful
festival of music ever offered In Iowa ,
and one which is already attracting
the attention of many musicians
throughout this section of the coun
try. .
An open rate of one and one-third s
fare has been secured on all.rallroadg
enterinc : Sioux City , good May 23 to
25 , inclusive.
During 1004 the Standard Oil Com
pany saved about three-quarters of a
million dollars through "the secret rates
discovered by the
bureau of corpora
tions , and , of course ,
there may be other
secret rates -which
the bureau has not
discovered. This
amount represents
the difference be
tween the open rates
and the rates actual
ly paid. Many of
these discriminations
"fr' ' ' ' " ' were clearly in vio-
JAS. A. OARFIELD. lation o 6 jnter _
state commerce law , and others , whether
technically illegal or uot , had the same
effect on competitors. On some State
business secret rates were applied by
means of rebates. These discriminations
have been so long continued , so secret , so
ingeniously applied to new conditions of
trade and so large in amount as to make
it certain that they were due to concert
ed action by the Standard and the rail
roads. James R. Garfield , Commissioner
of Corporations.
Points from Roosevelt's Message.
President Roosevelt's recommendations
to Congress , based on the Garfield oil re-
porr , are , in brief , as follows :
A law should be passed regarding oil sim
ilar to that.putting alcohol used in arts
and manufactures on the free list.
Fee to oil or coal lands held by the gov
ernment should be kept by the govern
Railroads should be permitted to unite for
protection to themselves and the public as
against the power of great corporations.
Examiners under the direction of the in
terstate commerce commission should ex
amine the affairs of a railroad as thoroughly
as bank examiners Investigate banks.
The commission should have affirmative
power making Its decisions take effect at
once , "subject only to such action by the
court as is demanded by the constitution. "
"The proper play for individual Initiative
can only be secured by such government
supervision as will curb these monopolies
which crush out all individual Initiative. "
Commissioner Garfleld's report finds that
both secret and open rebates to tbe Stand
ard Oil Company have existed all over the
country. The discriminations by secret tar
iffs alone have aggregated $750,000 a year.
elaborate series of rate discriminations
which permit It to profit both at the ex
pense of its rivals and of the general pub
lic. The Attorney ( general reports to me
that the investigation now going on as to
the shipments by the sugar trust over the
trunk lines running out of New York City
tends to show that the sugar trust rarely ,
if ever , pays the lawful rate for transpor
tation , and Is thus improperly , aud prob
ably unlawfully , favored at the expense of
its competitors and of the general public.
The argument Is sometimes advanced
against conferring upon some governmental
body the power of supervision and control
over interstate commerce , that to do so
tends to weaken individual initiative. In
vestigations such as this conclusively dis
prove any such allegation. On the con
trary , the proper play for individual In
itiative can only be secured by such gov
ernmental supervision as will curb those
monopolies which crush out all individual
initiative. The railroad itself cannot without - I
out such government aid protect the inter
ests of its own stockholders as against one
of these great corporations loosely known
as trusts. j
Approves Proper Agreements , j
In the effort to prevent the railroads
from uniting for improper purposes we have
very unwisely prohibited them from uniting
for proper pin poses ; that Is. for purposes
of protection to themselves and to the gen
eral public as against the power of the
great corporations. They should certainly
be given power thus to unite on condi
tions laid down by Congress , such condi
tions to include tbe specific approval of
tbe interstate commerce commission of any
agreement to which the railroads may
come. In addition to this the govern
ment must interfere through its agents to
deprive the railroad of the ability to make
to the big corporations the concession which
otherwise it is powerless to refuse. !
The government should have power by
Its agents to examine into the conduct of
the railways that is , the examiners , under
the direction of the interstate commerce
commission , should be able to examine as
thoroughly Into tbe affairs of the railroad
as bank examiners now examine into the
affairs of banks.
Commission Xeeil.s Power.
It is impossible to work a material im
provement in conditions such as above de
scribed merely through the instrumentality
of a lawsuit. A lawsuit Is often a neces
sary method : but by itself it Is an utterly
Inadequate method. What is needed Is the
conferring upon the commission of ample
affirmative power , so conferred as to make
its decisions take effect at once , subject
only to such action by the court as Is de
manded by the Constitution. The courts
have the power to. and will undoubtedly ,
interfere if the action of the commission
should become in effect confiscatory of the
property of an Individual or corporation or
if the commission should undertake to do
anything beyond the authority conferred
upon it by the law under which it is acting.
I am well aware that within the limits
thus set the commission may at times be
guilty of injustice ; but far grosser and
far more frequent injustice , and Injustice
of a much more injurious kind , now results
and must always result from the failure to
give the commission ample power to act
promptly and effectively within these broad
Free Alcohol Will Help.
Though not bearing upon the question
of railroad rates , there are two measures
consideration of which is imperatively sug
gested by the submission of this report.
The Standard Oil Company has , largely by
unfair or unlawful methods , crushed out
home competition. It is highly desirable
that an element of competition should be
Introduced by the passage of some such
law as that which has already passed tbe
flouse. putting alcohol used In the arts and
manufactures upon the free list.
Furthermore , the time has come when no
oil or coal lands held by the government ,
jlther upon the public domain proper or in
territory owned by the Indian tribes , should i
> e alienated. The fee to such lands should ,
> e kept in tbe United States government .
ivhether or not the profits arising from It .
ire to be given to any Indian tribe , and 1 ,
tbe lands should be leased only on such |
erms and for such periods as will enable
he government to keep entire control thcre-
Brief News Items.
Reports from Vienna say there is a plot
to dethrone King Peter of Servia if he
lees not abdicate.
Vice Admiral Cervera , who commanded
: he Spanish fleet destroyed off Santiago
Tuly o. 1808 , by the Americans , has been
ippointed naval commander at Ferrol , the
'Spanish naval station on the Bay of
Andrew Carnegie will receive the free-
lorn of the borough of Gravesend , Eng-
and. a distinction never before conferred ,
m June 1.
Herman Miller killed Edward Scanlon
md wounded Patrick Donovan and Mrs ,
Miller in New York. He asserts the men
ittacked his wife.
Los Angeles capitalists will spend $15-
)00,000 ) in the development of the re
sources of the State of Sinaloa , Mexico ,
ncluding the building of railroads and
lotels , establishing of banks , operation of
i steamship line and the promotion of a
peat colonization scheme.
In the Senate Friday Mr. Spooner con
cluded his two daj-s * speech on the rail
road rate bill. There was more discus
sion of the necessity for fixing a day
for a vote on this measure and Mr. Till-
man gave notice that after the next Mon
day he would insist that the Senate shall
proceed to vote if Senators are not pre
pared to speak. All the private pension
bills on the calendar were passed and
Mr. Clapp gave notice that he would call
up the Indian appropriation bill. The
tariff debate in the House was further
continued by Mr. WiH ! ras ( Miss. ) , who
held the floor for two hours expounding
the Democratic doctrine of tariff for reve
nue only.
1 ' The Senate Saturday passed the In
dian appropriation bill. An amendment
providing for the removal of the restric
tions on the sale of the allotted lands
of the Choctaws , Cherokees , Chickasaws ,
Creeks and Seminoles was offered , but
Mr. Spooner raised a pont of order that
was fatal to it. Bills were passed as
follows : Providing for the purchase of
land in Washington as sites for build
ings for the Departments of State , Jus
tice and Commerce at a cost of $3,000-
000 ; prohibiting the use of foreign built
dredges in the United States. In the
House Mr. Williams concluded his speech
on the tariff. Mr. Cushman ( Wash. )
started to reply , but was taken from the
floor before he really had begun , owing
to the conclusion of the general debate
on the agricultural appropriation bill ,
which was before the House. Mr. Foss
(111. ( ) reported the naval appropriation
bill fo rthe fiscal year of 1907.
The next Friday was set by the Senate
Monday as the day for beginning to vote
on the amendments to the railroad rate
bill. Mr. Tillman endeavored to have
May 9 set as the date for voting on the
bill as a whole , but failed. Senator Clark
of Arkansas occupied most of Monday
with a speech opposing the pending meas
ure. The House emergency bill appro
priating $170,000 for the Mare Island
navy yard and the San Francisco post-
office was passed. Discussion of the ag
ricultural appropriati6n bill , and incident
ally the distribution of free seeds , occu
pied most of the day in the House. Res
olutions that the thanks of Congress be
tendered Gen. Horace Porter for his work
in recovering the body of Jean Paul Jones ,
and that Gen. Porter's speech at Annapo
lis on the occasion of the interment of the
body be printed in the Congressional Rec
ord were passed. Representative Hearst
introduced a resolution that an additional
$2,500,000 be appropriated for the relief
of the San Francisco fire and earthquake
Mr. Daniel occupied a large part of
Tuesday in the Senate with his speech on
the rate bill. After debate the resolution
thanking Gen. Horace Porter for recover
ing the body of John Paul Jones was
referred to the committee on foreign re
lations. Mr. Allison explained the dispo
sition which has been made of the money
appropriated for the relief of the San
Francisco sufferers. Mr. Tillman pre
sented a resolution directing the commit
tee on the District of Columbia to inves
tigate the ejection of Mrs. Minor Morris
from the White House , and "especially to
inquire whether the superintendent of po
lice and one of the chief witnesses against
Mrs. Morris have' since received recogni
tion by the appointment of near relatives
to office. " No action was taken. By a
vote of 153 to HS it was decided to con
tinue the free distribution of seeds. Many
of the items in the agricultural appropria
tion bill broadening the scope of the de
partment of chemistry were eliminated.
* "
Mr. Newlands on Wednesday introduced
a resolution directing the finance commit
tee of the Senate and the ways and means
committee of the House to consider the
feasibility of the government guarantee
ing bonds to be issued by San Francisco
to provide money for the reconstruction
of the city. Both Mr. Flint and Mr.
Perkins of California deprecated the in
troduction of the measure at this time ,
and said the California delegation should
have been consulted. The resolution was
referred to the committee on finance. Mr.
Daniel concluded his speech on the rate
bill , and then the army appropriation bill [ i
was read. An amendment appropriating ;
$1,500,000 for a supply depot at Fort j
Mason , San Francisco , was accepted , as
was one appropriating $900,000 for a ' \
cable to Panama. In the House the agri- 1 :
cultural appropriation bill was completed
and passed , including the provision for
the free distribution of seeds , which was
carried by a vote of 153 to 82. The bill
carries $7,481,440. The military acad- :
cmy appropriation bill , carrying $1GG3-
115 , also was passed , after the deficiency
appropriation of $1,500.000 to complete
improvements at West Point had been
stricken out.
The last day of the general debate ont
the railroad rate bill in the Senate Thursday - ' j
day brought out much criticism of federal
judges. Mr. Tillman. by citing individual <
cases , attempted to show that the power
of granting temporary injunctions should (
be taken from the inferior United States J
courts in interstate commerce commission ]
cases. Hewas followed by Messrs. Baj j 1
con , Bailey. Teller and Foraker. The
army appropriation bill , carrying about
$74,000,000 , was passed. The naval ap
propriation bill , which carries nearly
$100,000,000. was taken up in the House.
Mr. Foss (111. ( ) explained the measure
and the general debate which followed at
one * took on other lines. The tariff again
forged to the front , with the prices of
steel rails abroad as the main object of
of the > atlbiial Capital.
The President has sent to the Senate
the nomination of Julius Jacobs to be
assistant treasurer of the United States
at San Francisco , Cal.
For the first time in twenty-nine years
the Supreme Court of the United States ,
called its docket of original cases , with
the end in view of eliminating some of
them if possible.
Senator Lodge denies the report that
Be will offer the Philippine tariff bill aa
an amendment to the House bill removing
the tax from denatured alcohol , and ajso (
denies that he is opposed to that measure ,
Conjpetition-KilJiiiHT Octopus He-
clarccl to Have Gained Three-
f ] ? irter.v of a Million : i YearlVIilf 2
Independents Sirifer.
President Roosevelt Friday transmitted
to Congress the report of James It. Gar-
field. Commissioner of Corporations , giv
ing the results of his investigation of the
subject of transportation and freight
rates in connection with the oil industry
In his message the President expresses
the view that the report is of great im
portance because of the effort being made
to confer upon the interstate commerce
commission the power to meet the needs
of the situation. The facts set forth in
the report , he declares , are for the most
part not disputed. That the Standard Oil
Company has benefited enormously almost
to the present mompnt from secret rates.
many of which were unlawful , the Presi
dent says the report clearly shows , the
benefit thereby secured amounting to at
least three-quarters of a million dollars
i year.
of the President.
Following is the President's message :
The Senate and House of representatives
I transmit herewith a report by the Com
missioner of the Hureiui of Corporations in
the Department of Commerce and Labor on
the subject of transportation and freight
rates in connection with the oil industry.
The investigation , the results of part of
which are summarized in this report , wns
undertaken in accordance with House reso
lution 4 ! ) ! ) . passed Feb. 1.1. 100.- . but for the
reasons given in the report it has been more
general and extensive than was called for
in the resolution Itself.
I call your especial attention to the let
ter of trnnsmittal accompanying and sum
marizing the report : for the report Is of
capital Importance in view of the effort
now being made to secure such enlarge
ment of the powers of the Interstate com
merce commission as will confer upon the
commission power in some measure ade
quately to meet the clearly demonstrated
needs of the situation. The facts set forth
in this report are for the most part not
disputed. It is only the Inferences from
them that are disputed , and even in this
respect the dispute is practically Ifmited to
the question ns to whether the transac
tions are or are not technically legal.
Benefits I y Secret Rate * .
The report shows that the Standard Oii
Company 1ms benefited enormously up al
most to the present moment by secret
rates , many of these secret rates being
Nearly unlawful. This -benefit amounts teat
at least three-quarters of a million a year.
This three-quarters of a million represents
Kie protit that the Standard Oil Company
obtains at tbe expense of the railroads :
but of course the ultimate result is that
It obtains a much larger protit at the- ex
pense of tbe public.
A very striking result of the ravestica-
tion has been that shortly nfter the dis
covery of these secret rates by the commis
sioner of corporations the major portion
of tbem were promptly corrected by the
railroads , so that most of tbem hare now
been done away with. This - cor
rection , partial or complete , of the evil of
the secret rates is of course on tbe one
hand an acknowledgment that they were
wrong , and yet were persevered in until
imposed , and on the other hand a proof of
ho efficiency of the work that has been
lone by the Bureau of Corporations.
Prosecution Is Promised.
The Department of Justice will take up
the question of Instituting prosecutions hi
at least certain of the cases. But it is most
desirable to enact into law the bill intro
duced by Senator Knox to correct the in-
terpretntlon of the immunity provision ren
dered in Judge Humphrey's decision. The
hands of the government have been greatly
strengthened in securing an effectivp rem
edy by the recent decision of the Supreme
Court in tbe case instituted by the gov-
51-nnient against the tobacco trust , which
decision permits the government to examine
the books and records of any corporation
sngaged in interstate commerce and by the
recent conviction and punishment of the
"hit-ago. Burlington and Quincy railroad and
certain of its officers.
But in addition to these secret rates tbe
Standard Oil profits immensely by open
rates which are so arranged as to give it
an overwhelming advantage over its inde
pendent competitors. The refusal of the
railroads in certain cases to prorate pro
duces analogous effects. Thus In New
England the refusal of certain railway sys
tems to prorate has resulted in keeping
the Standard Oil in absolute monopolistic
control of the field , enabling it to charge
from three to four hundred thousand dollars
lars a year more to the consumers of oil
in New England than they would have bad
to pay had the price paid been that ob
taining in the competitive fields.
Government Control Needed.
This is a characteristic example of the
numerous evils which are inevitable under
a system in which the big shipper and the
railroad are left free to crush out all indi
vidual initiative and all power of inde
pendent action because of the absence of
adequate and thoroughgoing governmental
control. Exactly similar conditions obtain
in a large part of the West and South
west. This particular instance exemplifies
the fact that the granting to the govern
ment of the power to substitute ? proper
for an improper rate is in very many in
stances the only effective way in which to
prevent improper discriminations in rates.
It is not possible to put into figures the
exact amount by which the Standard prof
its through the gross favoritism shown it
by the railroads in connection with the
open rates. The profit , of course , cornea
not merely by tbe saving in the rate Itself
as compared" with its competitors , but by
the higher prices it is able to charge , and
( even without reference to these higher
prices ) by the complete control of the mar
ket it secures , thereby getting the profit
on the whole consumption. Here again the
only way by which the discriminations can
be "cured is by conferring upon the inter
state commerce commission tbe power to
take quick and effective action In regulat
ing rates.
One feature of the report which Is espe-
ciallv worthy of attention is the showing
made as to "the way in which the law is
evaded by treating as State commerce what
is in reality merely a part of interstate
Snsar Accused.
It Is unfortunately not true that the
Standard Oil Company Is the only great
corporation which in the immediate past
has benefited , and is at this moment bene
fiting. in wholly improper fashion by an
Improved Smelting Furnace.
An improved smelting furnace recently
installed in a foundry in Canada uses coal
instead of coke , at about one-half the
cost , and when smelting the sulphide ores
the sulphur is used in combustion , making
a still further reduction in expenses. It
is stated that this furnace does not re-
( juire crushing and roasting of the ores ,
which means a very considerable saving.
o Insurance Men.
At a meeting of New York insurance
men the question of facing losses by the
California earthquake and fire was con
sidered. It was estimated that the prop
erty loss would reach $000,000,000 and
that the insurance liabilities would exceed
$300.000,000. It was generally agreed
that rates must be raised. Some of the
smaller companies were in favor of tak
ing advantage of the "earthquake clause' *
in their policies.
Patronize those who advertise.
Word from Caracas is to the effect that
President Castro of Venezuela has resign
ed temporarily in favor of Vice President
Gomez in order to secure needed rest. A
new cabinet will take charge of the dis
pute with France.
Through its diplomats the Japanese gov
ernment has announced that after May 1 '
citizens and vessels of foreign countries
would be permitted to enter the Manchu-
riau ports of Arming Ilsien and Tsitunjr
Kao. Dalny will be opened in the near
Despite a rigid censorship at Lisbon ,
Portugal , it is learned that the 1,400 sail
ers of the warships belonging to that
country who recently mutinied are con
fined to barracks pending court martial
proceedings. The mutiny is said to have
been due to severe discipline.
The London and Northwestern railway
has created somewhat of a sensation in
England by establishing a reserved , first-
class compartment on its trains aa ti
smoking car for women. This has re
newed the public discussion- the alleged
increase of the smoking : habit among so
ciety women.
The strikers in the- coal mining district
of Franca have become exceedingly ag
gressive during the past week , , and large-
bodies of them have marched from place-
to place , doing considerable damage to
property. Severaf soldiers were injured
in trying to preserve order at Lens Wed
nesday. A number of the minerswere -
also wounded. The trade unions at I/o
rient voted to begin a general'strike. .
The steady decline of marriages it *
Great Britain is shown in- the statisticr
for 1904. There has been a fall of 10
per cent in the- marriage rate in thepa t
thirty-five years. In explanation of this
decline it appears that the marriage rate
for widows has fallen from 21 in 1872 to
12.5 in 1004 , and that the rate of remar
riage for widowers has fallen from ( J.1.S
to 38 , and that for bachelors from Gl.T
to 52.8.
The signatures to > the Moroccan agree
ment were hardly dry when it was stated"
positively at St. Petersburg that a loan
of $250,000,000 had boon arranged with-
Paris capitalists. The French people were
said to- feel grateful to Russia for the-
services rendered7 at Algeciras. Later it
was reported that the loan would amount
to $400,000,000 , the balance being taken
iy Xe\v York , Amsterdam , London and
St. Petersburg banks. This amount will
aarely suffice to. meet the short-term bonds
and pay the Czar's most pressing debts.
The overwhelming victory of the Con
stitutional Democrats in all the larger
eities of Russia in the elections for the
douma , was said to have caused the- second
end and final resignation- Premier
Witte unless Minister of the Interior
Durnovo should , retire. The premier de-
nands that the Czar grant a written con
stitution and abandon all idea of keeping
the national parliament in autocratic sub
mission. On April S the electoral col-
eges in 12S out of fifty-one provinces ,
chose 178- members of the douma and' not
i single reactionary candidate was chosen.
A .surprising fealitre is that in almost ev
ery instance the candidates chosen by
the peasants were educated progressives. ,
riie result indicates that the oppositioit
vill control the national , parliament by : u
decisi\-e majority.
The recent peaceful , ending to the- long :
leadlocfc between the Hungarian coalition
Ind the emperor king was brought about
hrough the conciliatory offer of a compro
mise by the coalition leaders. The sub-
stanc * ' of it was that these leaders- are *
to takeoffice - on condition that they carryout -
out the policy of the former government.
xossttth. the- leader of the Independence-
> arty , said that the question of airthor-
zing the u < e of Magyar words in the-
nrmy was- left in abeyance. Dr. Alexan-
ler Werkerle was chosen premfer o > f the-
new cabinet. Kossuth becomes minister of
commerce , Count Andrassay minister of
the interior and Count Apponyi mfnister
of worship. The commercial union with
Austria will remain undisturbed untiF
1017. The electron for the coming ; parlia
ment will be under the present restricted
suffrage , but it is understood the new
cabinet will introduce a bill for universal
suffrage , after which a new election will -
> e held.
City School * In the Saburbw.
Prof. Wilbur Jackman of the univer
sity of Chicago school of edncation La
eading a movement in favor of ercctinjc
Chicago school houses out in the suburb *
rar enough so that each may have five
ncres of ground around it. He thinks
that the coming system of municipal own
ership of street railways will solve the
transportation problem by providing spe
cial cars or car lines for the children
: ree. Besides , as the children would be
going to achool in the morning and re
turning in the evening , they would miss
the crowds going to and from business.
Air. Jackman believes that sanitary and
leautrfnl surroundings would tend to
make the children friendly toward ai1
cinds of learning. He thinks that at pres
ent we are trying to grow children "tin- .
ler conditions never thought of in connec-
: ion with the cultivation of vegetables or
the nursing of beasts/ '
Raft of Earthquake Book * . '
"Within a week after the California
earthquake and fire disaster a hundred
books were in preparation in different
cities , giving the complete story. One-
mndred thousand agents have been called
ror to market the books , some of which
were offered to the public before the ern-
) crs were cool.
Shipper * AsMiiU
The governmert has begun at
and , Ohio , an investigation into the rela
tions betweer tee railroads and the Stand
ard Oil Company , former Attorney Gen
eral Honnett of Ohio representing the
nterstate commerce commission. In this
vork Mr. Monnett is aided by Secretary
tj'bamberlain of , the Petroleum Associa
tion , which includes nearly all of the inde
pendent oil producers of the country.
George Garry , cashier of the Tampa
Electric Company , was drowned at HHls-
bore , rear Tampa. Fla.