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About Western news-Democrat. (Valentine, Neb.) 1898-1900 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 23, 1899)
Manure for Orchards.
So much mischief can be done by applying -
plying manures of the wrong kind in
orchards , says the Agriculturist , that I
doubt if AVO do not lose more by ma
nuring than by neglecting to manure.
Fruit trees do not require at any time
barnyard manures , or their equivalent.
What they require is a supply of iuor-
gani'food. . You can do no better for
apple trees than to supply them Avitli
coal ashes in Avhich there is a liberal
admixture of wood ashes. The coal
ashe * ; loosen the soil ; the Avood ashes
furnish the fertilizer. If you can get
arg ply of old mortar you haA'o just
the riling you need. A mixture of lime
and salt , Avhen so mixed as to leave no
free salt , is excellent for all fruit trees.
All such manures should be applied .as
a top-dressing. A poach or plum or
chard needs nothing better than sAvamp
muck or earth from the Avoods , Avith a
slight addition of phosphate and pot
If barnyard manure is applied at any
time , it should be thoroughly decom
posed and applied as a top-dressing.
Such manure , if placed about the roots ,
A\ hen planting a pear or apple tree , Avill
kill it. Grapes , of course , Avant phos
phates and potash. They Avill also respond
spend to a free application of liquid
manures during their periods of rest ,
both in Avintor and in midsummer. All
the tall groAving berries , of the bramble
sort , Avill use a large amount of organic
manure. But be careful about dress
ing your raspberries \vith rank unde-
composcd barnyard manure. The prob
ability is at any time you Avill develop
a fungoid disease that you cannot eas
ily master. If you use barnyard manure
in raspberries it should be thoroughly
comminuted Avith the soil as a com
post. In fact , I prefer to compost every
manure before it is placed on my gar
dens. Equally important as the manure
is the mulching of our fruit trees and
bushes of all sorts.
Covering : a "Wagon Fenl.
Procure flannel , either black , blue or
green , tAvo dozen buttons for the top
crff i ushion , and the same number for
tlio bottom , black oilcloth for lining the
"fall , " a spool of stout linen thread ,
and a long darning needle at least five
inches in length. Using the Avoru "fall"
as a pattern , cut the oilcloth of the
same size and the flannel three-fourths
inch wider all around. Bind the edges
of the flannel over the oilcloth , basting
firmly Avith firm silk thread , stitch the
tAvo together , the line of stitching being
very near the edge of the bound-over
For the seat cut a narroAv strip of
oilcloth buckram is better if you have
it for use as stiffening. Lay narroAv
tucks in the flannel , both lengthwise
and crossAvise , stitching them in. This
forms squares , and the lines of tucks
should be very regular and about four
inches apart. Cover the bottom of the
seat Avith oilcloth , cutting it of the de
sired size. Cut the tucked flannel three-
fourths inch larger , and stitch as for the
"fall , " Avith the stiffening in place
along throe edges. Slip this cover over
the "hair" or "spring" foundation and
fasten the end firmly.
Place a stout tAvine in your long nee
dle , to it fasten one of the larger but
tons , put the noodle through the COA-
orcd cushion at a corner of one square ,
draw doAvn into the cushion as far as
possible , pressing the button Avith
some Avooden object from the upper
side to force it into the yielding ma
terial of the foundation , tie a slip knot
in your thread at the leAver side , put
on the small button , and cutting the
thread throe inches from the cushion ,
tfviiid the end between the button last
added and the cushion around the eye
of the button. The tension will hold
It if drawn tight enough through the
cushion. At the four corners of each
square place buttons. Orange .Tudd
Cnre of Asparagus.
In the fall the tops of asparagus
should be cut and the bed rid of grass
and Aveeds , says Western PloAvmaii.
The asparagus seed should not be al
lowed to reseed the bed , as they will
simply cause superfluous plants , mak
ing the product small and Aveak. A
liberal covering of coarse manure
should bo applied , serving the double
purpose of enriching the soil and keep j
ing out the frost. If sufficient loose i
trash is spread on it must bo loose to j
prevent heating and smothc-ring to i
prevent the frost from reaching the ! ! I
croAvus , the result Avill be good , as the
plant is one of the earliest to start in
the spring , and prepares for this during |
the winter , if the soil conditions are
ffaA-oiKiblc. In the early spring time the
coarse manure should be raked off and
'the ' fine manure worked in the ground.
An application of coarse salt is very
To groAV spinach successfully the
/work of preparing the ground should
begin in autumn after the fall crop of
/vegetables has been harvested. Work
iinto the soil thoroughly an ample sup
ply of well-rotted manure , then level
j ground off smoothly as possible
and sow the seed in shallow drills Irom
twelve to sixteen inches apart. Sow
the seed seatteriiigly , for it has Been
found that thick seeding does not pay.
This done , cover it only about half ai
inch deep , and in conclusion linn Hit-
ground by treading down each row
with the feet. It is well to get the seed
in early in November , for then the
plants will have a chance to come up
and be thinned out before real winter
weather arrives. When the ground is
'slightly frozen rt moderate mulch of
litter of leaves may be placed over the
plants. In this way an early crop of
spinach may be gathered so early , in
fact , that it will be entirely out of the
way by the time the ground is ready
for other crops. Farm and Field.
VciitilatiiiK the Cellar.
A great mistake , says Medical Class
ics , is sometimes made in ventilating
cellars and milk houses. The object of
ventilation is to keep the cellars cool
and dry , but this object often fails of
being accomplished by a common mis
take , and instead the cellar is made
both warm and damp. A cool place
should never be ventilated , unless the
air admitted is cooler than the air
within , or is at least as cool as that or
u very little warmer. The warmer the
air the more moisture it holds in sus
pension. Necessarily the cooler the air
the more this moisture is condensed
and precipitated. When a cool cellar
is aired on a warm day the entering
air being in motion appears cool , but as
it lills the cellar the cooler air with
whifh it becomes mixed chills it , the
moisture is condensed , and dew is de
posited on the cold walls , and may
often be seen running down them in
streams. Then the cellar is damp and
soon becomes moldy. To avoid this the
windows should only be opened at
night , and late the last thing before
retiring. There is no need to fear that
the night air is unhealthful ; it is as
pure as the air of midday , and is really
drier. The windows should be closed
before sunrise in the morning , and kept
closed and shaded through the day. If
the air of the cellar is damp it may be
thoroughly dried by placing in it a peck
of fresh lime in an open box.
All the nut-growing trees do best
when planted where they are to stand
permanently , and all must be planted
in the fall , as once the nuts become
thoroughly dried their vitality is de
stroyed and they refuse to germinate.
The nuts should be planted only two
or three inches deep in order that the
frost may get to them and break open
Among all the nut trees none makes
so quick a return as the chestnut when
planted where conditions are favorable.
The American chestnut is as good and
sweet as any from any country , but the
size of the nuts do not compare with
the Japanese varieties.
The best way to secure Japanese
chestnut trees is to plant native chest
nuts and afterward graft Japanese
scions on them. A similar plan was
followed with a chestnut grove in New
Jersey. The native trees were cut down
and allowed to sprout up , and these
sprouts were grafted with scions
from Japanese chestnut trees. In ten
years each one of these grafts was
yielding a crop which brought from 3
to ? 7 to the tree , and this yield will in
crease every year for twenty or thirty
years , when the yield from one tree
will be as much as § 30.
Walnuts , hickory nuts or pecans are
easily grown , the first two in the North
and the last in the South. Walnut trees
come into bearing in a few years where
they are cultivated , and Jn course of
time produce lumber of the most valu
The IJevil'a Taint Brush.
This "worst" ' weed is rapidly enter
ing Northern Pennsylvania from New
York State. Its similarity to ladies'
paint brush is great so far as char
acter goes far greater than the sim
ilarity in name. Salt is the remedy
recommended. Prof. Ruckout siys :
that a dressing of ten to fifteen pounds
a square rod will kill nearly all of it ,
and this is especially practicable when
the first patches appear. Another ap
plication may be needed to kill out
some occasional plants that survived
the first application. This amount of
salt is at the rate , say , of a ton an acre ,
and. while it will kill very young grass
plants and some leaves , it will not ma
terially injure a sod. Agricultural salt
will do the work , and is much less ex
pensive than ordinary salt. National
Drinking water often spreads dis
ease. Fowls with colds or roup should
not be allowed to drink with the oth
Common fowls can be greatly im
proved in size and vigor by selecting
the best , and setting only eggs from
the best layers.
Turkeys should not be confined while
fatteninir. If they are fed plenty of
corn and soft feed throe times a day
they will keep quiet enough and put on
IK'sh very fast.
White corn is liked better than yol-
low by many turkey growers , who
think it gives a clear white color to the
flesh. Some Avheat , barley and bucl-
wheat should be given also.
The various oat feeds on the market
are much praised by some poultry fccd-
ers. They at least afford , a change
from the everlasting shorts and cornmeal -
meal , of which the hens get very tired.
Fowls like turnips cither boiled or
raw , and this root should be used free
ly throughout the winter. The hens
will make a better use than any other
farm animals of the surplus turnips
Too many people reason that if a
dozen hens will give a good profit , an
other dozen in the same coop will dou
ble the profit. One must resolutely
keep down the number , so that there
will be no crowding.
Repairing : Dirt Koads.
For a long time to come dirt roads
will predominate throughout the country -
try , no matter how rapidly the move
ment progresses in favor of hard , per
manent highways. It is of the first
importance that they should be cor
rectly made and properly cared for , in
order to get good results from them.
In discussing their construction and
maintenance , E. G. Harrison , govern
ment road expert , says :
"Except when the frost is coming
out of the ground in the spring , it will
be quite possible to build ordinary dirt
roads so that they will be very satis
factory and so that they can be kept
in good condition throughout the year
except during a few weeks of spring
thaw. The best way , after the road is
properly built , is to hire somebody in
the vicinity , some laboring man , for
Instance , to keep in repair permanent
ly a particular stretch of road. lie
can start out then just after every rain
when he wouldn't be working in his
fields , and with a single shovel he can
make all necessary repairs to the road.
"If water is collecting in any spot , he
can open up a little ditch and let the
water drain off properly , although if
the road Avas properly built , this would
rarely occur. He can toss stones to
one side that the rain has washed
down. And , especially , he can look to
see that no holes are forming. A little
hollow starts in a road. The next
wagon scoops out a trifle more dirt , an
other wagon another trifle. Soon
there's a big hole. It rains. Water col
lects iu the hole and forms mud , and
then the mud clings to the wagon
wheels and the hole grows faster than
ever. But if , in the very beginning ,
the road repairer had filled in the small
hollow with his shovel and some dirt ,
and stamped the earth down a bit ,
then the wagons would have packed
the dirt like a roller and the hole would
never have got a chance to grow.
It's best to have roads kept in repair
by contract , for then it's to the interest
of the contractor that no important re
pairs should ever become necessary.
Ho will exercise constant care , and
with a very little labor every week he'll
have no difficulty in keeping the roads
in perfect condition. "
Crime in Bad-Roads District.
The extent and number of bloody
feuds in the mountainous districts of
some States is attributed to the iiiac-
eessibiliiy of the people , their ignor
ance , enforced idleness and consequent
crime. In many districts the roads are
so bad that a four-horse team can pull
but a ton during the summer and fall ,
while at other seasons what little trans
portation there is takes place by pack
mules. Schools could not be attended
if they existed , the people are out of
touch with their kind , and have noth
ing better to do than to make and drink
"moonshine * ' whisky and nurse their
feuds. Permanent roads would revolu
tion'/ " these communities , make in
dustry possible and profitable , cause
the establishment of schools and re
press criminal tendencies.
CASH VALUE OF IMMIGRANTS.
Brinr the Most Money Into
the Country ami Italians Least
If one were to gauge the worth of
newly arivcd immic'-aius by the
amount of money they bring with
them , those who come from Germany
would take first rank. England would
hold second place and Italy the last.
The average German who conies to
this country brings ? r 2.00 with him.
When the average Englishman comes
he brings $1.40 less , or ? 31.oG. The
next wealthiest average immigrant is
the Frenchman , who comes with $47.2o
in his pocket. The Belgian is fourth in
the list with ? 43.GO.
The Italian , who is the poorest of all ,
brings $9.98 , but it is safe to say that
he returns to his native land the
Avealthiest of all who go back if his
propensity for saving is a thing to
The Turk who comes to America
brings $35.56 with him. and stands well
toward the top of the list. The average
Irishman comes over , to stay , with a
capital of $ lu.2G , while the Russian ,
according to the annual report of the
Commissioner General of Immigration ,
The Solar Day.
Nine persons out of Ven yes , nine
hundred and ninety-nine out of every
thousand if asked how long it takes
the earth to turn once on its axis would
twenty-four and to the
answer ; ques
tion , How many times does it turn on
its axis in the course of the year , the
answer would be three hundred and
sixty-five and a quarter times.
Both answers are wrong. It re
quires but twenty-three hours and fifty-
six minutes for the earth to make one
complete turn , and it makes three hun
dred and sixty-six and a quarter turns
during the year.
The error springs from a wrong idea
of what is meant by a day. The day is
not. as is commonly supposed , the time
required by the earth to make one turn
on its axis , but the interval between
two successive passages of the sun
across the meridian ; that is to say , the
time which elapses after the sun is
scon exactly south , in its diurnal course
thro.igh the heavens be-fore it is again
seer , in that position.
Now , in consequence of the earth's
revolution in its orbit , or path round
the sun , the sun has the appearance
of moving very slowly in the heavens
In a direction from cast to west. At
noon to-morrow the sun will be a short
distance to the east of the point in the
heavens at which it is seen at noon
to-day , so that when the earth has
made one complete turn it will still
have to turn four minutes longer be
fore the sun can again be seen exactly
LANDSEER A JUVENILE GENIUS.
Kxhihitcd Pictures at the Royal Acad
emy "When Only 14.
As perhaps most American boys
knoAv , Landseer , the English artist ,
painted deer and dogs as no one had
ever done before , and as , perhaps , no
one has done since. lie Avas said to
have humanized their expression. His
genius developed very early , so that ,
AVhou only 14 years of age , his picture
of a magnificent dog , chained to its
kennel , and carried away by a flood ,
attracted considerable notice at an ex
hibition of the Royal Academy. A gen
tleman Avho Avas very much struck
with its merit hurried off to the painter
to make an offer for it ; he rang at the
door of a small garden. When the gate
opened he saAV a boy playing Avith a
hoop Avith some other little felloAvs. He
inquired of the children : "Does Mr.
Landseer live here ? "
"Yes , " replied one of the boys.
"When may I speak to him ? "
"NOAV , if you like ; I am Mr. Laud-
"But , " explained the visitor , "it is
your father I Avant to see. I have called
about a picture of his at the academy. "
"Well , " said the child , "it is 1 Avho
am exhibiting the picture , " and he pro
ceeded to make the sale.
His technical poAvers Avere extraor
dinary. He Avas once present at a par
ty , Avhen the conversation turned upon
feats of manual dexterity , and a lady
exclaimed : "Well , there is one thing no
body has ever done yet , and that is to
draw tAvo things at once ! "
"Oh , yes ; I think I could do that , " re
turned Landsoor. And with a pencil in
each hand he drew a profile of a stag's
head Avith all its antlers complete , and
the perfect profile of a horse's head.
Both draAvings Avere full of energy and
The Timid Led by the Blind.
"I saAV a most remarkable occurrence
on the street the other day , " said a pro
fessional man , "and it made a deep im
pression on me. A lady came doAvn
Euclid avenue and stopped at the cor
ner of Bond street. She evidently
AN anted to cross to the other side of the
avenue. She was not a young Avoman
and she did not look strong. There
AA'as quite a jam of vehicles in the
street , motor cars , wagons and bicy
cles , and she seemed a little timid
about risking the passage. As she hes
itated a man came up Bond street and
paused beside her. lie Avas a Avell-
dressed man and carried a heaA\v cane ,
AAhich I noticed he used constantly as
it' ho might bo a little lame.
" 'Sir , ' said the lady to him , Van I
ask you to offer me the protection of
your arm in crossing the streetV
"She said this in a very SAVoet and
ladylike Avay and the man Avith the
cane touched his hat.
" 'Certainly , madam , ' ho replied , and
offered his arm. As they crossed the
street I folloAved close behind them.
The man Avith the cane Avas very care
ful. He halted several times , but they
reached the other side Avithout mishap.
As the lady let go of his arm she said :
" 'Thank you. sir , for your courtesy
and protection. '
'You are quite Avelcomc , madam , '
ho replied. 'But I fear you overvalue
my protection because I am blind ! '
"And touching his hat again he
turned and picked his Avay up the
croAvd"d sidoAvalk. "
"When Love Menus Vanity.
The women of French-Canadian
households work themselves out sooner
than the men. who. as a rule , marry
again very quickly.
A girl. too. considers it a disgrace if
she hasn't a beau to see her home from
church. A little habitant servant of
fifteen was found in tears by her mis
tress one Sunday morning. "What is
the matter Avith you , Celestine ? " asked
her mistress. "It's the first Sunday
since I was twelve I haven't had a
young man to walk with , " sobbed Cel-
estiuo. "Think , madam , of the dis
grace ! "
"But how about Jean Seguin ? " "Oh ,
last night Jean came in to say he had
met a girl with a COAV and a feather
bed. and he liked her better than me ,
and wanted his presents back. Don't
be sorry for me , madam. I'll try to get
another beau before this afternoon , and
be married first just to spite him. " Five
minutes later she sailed forth in cherry-
colored ribbons in search of a fresh
beau , and brought him back in triumph
to dinner. Buffalo Commercial.
Ceesar on the Rhine.
The noA" and grand bridge across the
Rhine , which the city of Bonn has just
completed , is embellished by a most im
posing entrance tower. Upon this the
art-loving university town has erected
a statue of Julius Caesar in honor of
his having been the alleged first build
er of a Rhine bridge near Bonn , al
though historical research has plainly
proved that the great Roman general
crossed the river further up , near Neu-
Avied. The attention of the good people
of Bonn was again called to this fact
a Avoek or tAvo ago by a professor of its
university , but they are determined
to keep their false hero guarding- the
entrance to their magnificent Rheiu-
bruccke. London Times.
One idea of a chump is a man who
asks another man where he bought his
A bad player and a bad piano make
a bad combination.
The jokes of the writer who does hia
level best often fall fiat.
rOPICS FOE FARMERS.
A DEPARTMENT PREPARED FOR
OUR RURAL FRIENDS.
How Hopr Cholera la Distributed
A Ions trcarns-Prevention of Pota
to Diseases Fome Farms Too Bisr for
the Farmer Protecting Trees.
Careful experiments conducted in the
laboratory of the Agricultural Depart
ment at Washington , D. C. , have dem
onstrated that hog cholera bacilli will
remain alive and active in water four
months. This explains the cause of the
rapid distribution of the disease along
streams , creeks , branches and rivulets.
A great many farmers alloAV their
pigs to obtahi their supply of Avater
from streams iloAving through their
farms. It is a very convenient mode
of watering stock , but a rather danger
ous one. If the hogs upstream are at
tacked by cholera or SAvine plague the
germs are sure to be brought doAvn and
the hogs infected. It is a difficult
matter to keep informed as to the con-
dtion of all the hogs along a stream
many miles in length , therefore it is the
safest plan by far to fence the swine
aAvay from the rivers and creeks.
It is safe to say that no herd of swine
that obtains its supply of Avater from
a river or flowing stream is safe from
infection , and those who persist in al-
leAving their hogs access to such Ava-
ters must expect to suffer losses from
hog cholera. AVhat makes matters
worse , it is not only the person who
thus allows his hogs to become infect
ed who suffers loss , but the disease is
communicated to the herds of his
neighbors , and is spread over a Avhole
tOAvnship until the losses run up into
the thousands. When an outbreak of
hog cholera occurs in a neighborhood
the best plan is to yard your hogs at
once , and to keep all other animals out
of that yard. Epitomist.
Prevention of Potato Diseases.
Here are presented some statements
made by Mr. L. H. Reid , of Wisconsin ,
at a meeting of the Missouri Horticul
tural Society. Mr. Reid raises potatoes
on a large scale and makes his state
ments in regard to potato culture from
actual knoAvledge :
"No one should ever plant a field of
potatoes without first soaking the seed
in the corrosive sublimate solution (2 (
ounces of corrosive sublimate to 1C
ounces of water ) . Even if the seed ap
pears perfectly free from every trace
of scab , soak it , as the germs of scab
may be clinging to the skin of the
tuber. The expense is small , and the
remedy sure , if the treated seed is
planted upon hind free from the germs
of the scab. "
Bordeaux mixture is just as sure a
remedy against blight as is corrosive
sublimate against scab. But one thing
must be remembered , and that is , it is
not a cure but a preventive. In using
it you must commence early and apply
it as often as necessary to keep every
leaf coated Avith an armor plate of cop
per. Then the germs of the dreaded
blight Avill not be able to gain entrance.
Don't apply it once or tAvice and think
that Avill do , as you Avill be very likely
to lose entirely the labor expended iu
the first application. If you take up
the battle you must keep it up until the
season is over , or your labor may be in
vain. In a wet season you may have
to go oA'er your fields as often as once
a week , or CA'en of tenor. The only safe
way is to keep that armor plate solid ,
or the little foe may enter. In an ordin
ary season four or five applications
give very satisfactory results.
Farms Too BSR for the Fanner.
Much of the success of the fi
depends in the relationship between
the farmer and his farm. Some men
can manage an eighty-acre farm suc
cessfully , but break doAvn when it
conies to 1GO acres. Others can man
age a quarter , but cannot manage a
half section. The farmer must always
be bigger than his farm ; the business
man , if he Avould always be successful ,
must always le capable of handling a
larger business than he actually does.
In short , thcio must ahvays be a re
serve power available for emergen
cies. The weaker must always be a
servant of the stronger. When the
farm is larger than the farmer , it runs
the farmer , instead of the farmer run
ning it. In that case the farmer goes
under. Some man capable of handling
the farm must get hold of it before it
becomes a profitable investment. Wal
Protecting Trees ivith traw.
People put on warm clothing to keep
the skin from being exposed to cold air ,
well knoAviug that the internal heat
from burning of the food taken into the
stomach Avill furnish warmth which
Avill keep the extremities from freez
ing. But there is no internal combus
tion inside a tree , and it may be woii-
derel why there is any adA-antage in
wrapping trees Avith straw , as is often i
done to tender trees to protect them i
from winter's cold. I Jut there is ad
vantage , for though the tire has no
blood it has what is its equivalent , sap.
Avhich circulates in all live trees even i
in the coldest weather. This sap is ;
clraAvu from the deep soil by the tree
roots , and as it is much warmer than
the winter air , if the Inter cn be kept
from- touching the outside of the tree
the sap inside Avill keep the tree alh-c
AA-hen it might othenvisc be killed. Ex
Fulphnr as n Tire Killer.
The burning of sulphur in the poultry
house is not a A'ery reliable process for
getting rid of lice. The sulphur smoke
Avill kill the lice in the building , if pro
duced in sufficient A'olume and con
tinued long enough , but a greater or
less proportion of the lice will decline
to stay in the building to be killed if
they can find any way of escape , and
In the poultry house of ordinary pat
tern they can find a way of escape
through the cracks and will camp * on.
the outside un'til the smoke is gone ami
will then return to their quarters. If
the Avails of the poultry house are
sprayed with kerosene emulsion or
painted with a good liquid lice killer ,
the fumes Avill remain for a number of
days , and if any of the lice should seek
to get away from them by escaping
through the cracks they Avill encounter
the death-dealing odor on their return.
Burn sulphur in the poultry house , but
do not place your dependence entirely
upon this for keeping the premises f reu
from lice. Wallace's Farmer.
Raising : Peanuts.
riant them in a sandy place and al-
Avays as early in spring as possible , for
they need a long season In which to
grow. First put the ground in good
shape , taking a drag a foot wide to
make the nws , check the ground 5 feet
each way , or , if in rich ground , (5 feet.
Plant very shalloAA * , so the moles can
pass under them and not find them ;
put two nuts in a hill about G inches
apart. Hull them , but don't break the
skin on the kernel. When they are
well up , hoe and replant. Keep the
ground well cultivated , and hoe under
the edge of the vines , being careful not
to hill them up , and when , the spurs
begin to grow be very careful not to
touch them with the hoo. Keep the
ground loose and they will groAV and
continue to bear until frost ripens them.
When all are matured dig , wash and
dry well In the sun before putting
away. They Avill not keep well if not
dry when stored away. Epitomist.
Neglect of "Weed * .
It is hard to explain why our fanners
are so reckless concerning the en
croachments of Avoeds ? The Avild car
rot might easily have been headed off
if Ave had the right sentiment among
our land-owners. The only difficulty
now in eradicating it is the fact that
there is so much of it. It is easily pull
ed before going to seed. The ha\vk-
Avecd is spreading through the fields of
New York State and elsoAvhore. The
best way of dealing Avith this pest , as
Avell as with moneyAVort , where it gets
lodged on the laAvns , is to SOAV liberally
AA'ith salt. Buy a barrel or more of
damaged salt , which you can generally
find at any country store and obtain
for less than half price. While the salt
kills the Aveeds it fertilizes the grass.
Apply three or four times in order to
thoroughly reach every plant and root.
Farm and Fireside.
Raisins : Tohacco.
The farmers in the highlands of Dick-
son County , Tenn. , have never raised
cotton , but plant tobacco as the money
crop , and it usually yields from ? 30 to
§ 75 per acre net , Avhich is doing very
Avell when Ave take into consideration
that all the grain , and meats used upon
the farmer's table are produced at
home , besides the fruits and vegetables.
More tobacco is being planted in this
section every year , and the farmers be
coming more and more independent
therel > 3 * . It is usually prepared for
market in wet weather when it is too
disagreeable to work out of doors , and
in this respect the tobacco raiser has
the advantage because he is kept busy
all the time. Idleness Avill ruin the
farmer as Avell as his machines , and
tobacco culture is a good cure for the
True Indian Corn ,
Three or four years ago an Indian
mound in Arkansas was being exca
vated , when an earthen jar was found
hermetically sealed that contained a
small quantity of grains of Indian corn.
Some of the grains were the next year
planted in Missouri and several bushels
raised. On the top of the mound from
Avhich the jar was dug out a large tree
4 feet in diameter \vas growing , and it
is thought the corn lay buried about
3,000 years. The ears arc not large ,
but grow tAA-o or three on a single stock.
The one thing peculiar about this corn
is its color , or , rather , colors. On the
same cob are grains of different colors ,
and in the roAv you can find an ear that
is white , another blood red , one a
salmon color , and another perfectly
black. Harrodsburg ( Ky. ) Sayings.
Tanninjr Kabhit Skins.
Split skins same as those of larger
animals , stretch and tack on a smooth
board hair side down. Take equal parts
common salt and alum pulverized and
mixed , rub this over and let stand a
day , then rub with a brick to loosen
flesh that adheres to hide ; repeat as
above till skin is smooth , then let dry.
When dry remove from board and trim
the edges. Moisten a rag with linseed ,
oil and rub it over lightly ; It will keep
the skin soft. In tacking be careful to
lay the hair down smooth. The older
the rabbit the stronger the hide.
Bird Hunting : .
Bird hunting would be a less popular
amusement if men could occasionally
witness a pitiable spectacle like that de
scribed by an Italian naturalist. He
came across a snipe that was thin as a
nail and unable to move. Both its feet
had been shot off , and in attempting to
stop the floAV of blood by putting on
some fine feathers , as snipes do when
! wounded , some of the blood and down
j dried on its bill and closed so that it
could not open it to feed ; and when
found it had been slowly starving for
several days. New York Post.
One of the reforms that should be en
forced , not only in the interest of public
health , but of the fruit-growing farmer
as well , is to enforce the laws which
most States have to punish adultera
tions of vinegar. The malic acid of the
apple juice when soured is hardly in
jurious at all. unless the stomach is al
ready in b'ad condition. But the us ? of
the various chemical acids to make into"
vinegar destroys the tone of the stonj
ach as well as the enamel which
tects teeJi from decaying.
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