Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 14, 1913)
RED CLOUD, NEBRASKA, CHIEF
The Diary of fc.iv Eastern. Teivder-i
Toot'5 Jovarr&y over Its Lervtury-
NATION A I
11 !vni!SuK-REaGS8ftwV9HB i
BWr IIhbsbsbsiibbsbsbsbKbbSbbV ' BesasBSBsaS'SalBssrdBBVsmil
r JeT LbssssssssssssssssseLbbsssbLa. 'ViShBKwIkAiI
V Tii , IBBBBBBBBBBBBB. S JfcBW . BBS.
-wre. jp" " " m
PT TJ T r m .- wirfrra
a '.. . Jk i, A
IsmbV' .. IjaasssyssssBBBassstBsatBBssssssBeaiy ', -IMk"w ;4n -"t "-,v ,A ' "V" jM,.-.,jsrr
BSBSBSBSBSBSBsV9aw2i(sVassw .V 4 ;;J IBEFmfflTf!? f iolBf vrzfs&z :"i
UHHHHTsHKak ' i BSJFtiiWF' lit ill tot? ?fr ( liV if , pr J
t -V "W "" ; J..J
bssbssss r i
Z J??2ito'i;, '.. ., S,tf 'J
m !n:'vtcr' '.' , !T.v
1 a iJHHH
Aj'WfrT . Nfc nV9kB1HHHI
v.l ttlHHHI I
r.xxA, U.A vrzui
o -odiiBl t i-9?flWB I
AriT Vdrf vrw. yyyCx..'mBvHiHI
RUNS OVER ICE FIELD
ROADBED OF ALASKAN RAILROAD
RESTS ON GLACIER.
Builders Admit Situation Hat Itt Per
Ha, Though There la Little Dan
ger of 8udden Catastrophe
Minor Accldenta Frequent.
An Alaskan railroad, tlio Copper Hir
er & Northweatern, runs for nearly
Beven miles over
tlio lower end of
tho Allen glacier,
partly covered in
this part with
moraines and veg
at points the Ice
Is visible. In an
ed to La Nature,
says tho Literary
Digest, Pi of. Laurence Martin, chief
of tho National Geographical society's
Alaskan expedition, describes this
part of the road and recounts tho dan
gers that Is running in Kb risky loca
tion. Fortunately, glaciers move
slowly, and there Is little peril in any
sudden catastrophe. Writes Professor
"During our visit in 1909 tho ico was
vislblo on six of tho railroad cuts on
tho terminal glacier; it was no longer
seen a year later, although It could bo
brought to light by digging slightly. In
1909 tho railroad had been built on a
sort of n shield of moralnlc ballast en
cased in the Ice, which had been
opened up with dynamite. It was
found to bo seriously changed in 1910,
the sinking due to tho melting of the
Ico varying from two to three feet in
one place and to six or even eight feet
in others. . . . Tho rnllroad men had
endeavored to repair the damage by
filling in. . . .
"Nowhere eUe In tho world at least
to our knowledge has a railroad line
been constructed for nearly seven
miles on the edge of a still active gla
cier. Hero the layer of ballast which
supports the ties and rails lies directly
on tho Ice, and not, as at the Honoy
glacier, Beveral miles to the north, on
a uolld mornlno.
"This perilous situation gives rise to
continual accidents; sometimes the
melting of tho Ico displaces tho profile
of tho road; sometimes there are
formed new streams, which involve a
FAULTY RAIL ALWAYS PERIL
CUT ' IffianrjuaiCL
That's a pretty good placo to stay,
We'll always think when wo'ro far away,
Song of tho GlaclalB.
1113 particular part of Montnna
about which thin song was sung
lies In tho far northwest corner of
tho state, where the Rocky moun
tains, their summits covered with
l t ffVBtftt nl 4llnll LnitAH htA4lrtl
L " In plno forests of perpetual greon,
W swung over the Canadian border,
down through tho heart of tho continent to tho
year-long summer lands of Moxico.
Klghty lakes, sapphlro and opal and diamond
clear, in Uio varying lights, rotlect tho blue west
ern nky. Threescore living glaciers, greon with
tho dopths of Ico that endures season after sea
son, lies tho the hollows of tho giant penks.
Crystal streams descend In countless waterfalls
over tho brown rockH and break tho sllenco of
tho forest trails.
In thoso mountains, loft save for a few trnlla
aB thoy woro before tho llrst whlto men pushed
their way across the plains to tho furthor ocean,
tho wild things of that early wilderness Btlll find
Acustomed to think of Montana ns a Rtato of
cattle ranges, big wheat crops, and tho home of
coppor, wo know nothing of this part of It this
land of dollght. Yet wo, in common with some
40,000,000 of other Americans, aro Its owners.
Congress, In ouo of Ub moments of wisdom two
years ago, set it astdo as a national possession
to be, as Chlof Two Guns said, "a playground for
all tho people, rich and poor, whlto and Indian,
It la now Glnclor National park, and there aro
eomo 1,400 square miles within Its holders. You
may roam through it for a month and never
tread tho eamo ground twice.
It was by pony travel that a party of eastern
tenderfoot, fresh from occupations In which ex
ercise fa at a discount and locomotion Is mostly
by street car, explored tho park a few weeks ago.
Thoy emerged from a two weeks' exllo, after
norno tribulation, hard aa nails and healthy as
eavagea. This dairy 1b a brief record of their
Two Medicine, Mont., Thursday.
It la eight mllOB from tho park gateway at Mid
vale to the first chalet at Two Medlcino. Hut
these aro Montana miles, and as Old Philadelphia
Bald, If thoy would only sell you land on tho Mon
tana measurement and lot you resell it on tho
eastern scale It would bo a mighty satisfactory
transaction. Tho trail led over eoveral small
utrearas, and on through forests of plno and
scrub oak. Hut always It led upward, a little
nearer tho snow-capped mountains Inclosing the
green nhead. Tho paco dropped to an easy walk,
tho horscB' feet fell noiselessly upon tho thick
plno nredlos, and scarcoly a sound disturbed tho
foiegt ppuco. Lato afternoon enmu all too soon.
A sudden turn In tho trail brought Into view a
1'i'Hty leg chalet ItoHlda a deep bluo lake, the
mountains coming down to Its very edgo. Smoko
turleil from tho cook houso chimney, suggesting
kooi things to eat. Tho ponies broke into a
trot, and for tho moment saddlo soreness was
forgotten. This wub Two Medlcino, tho end of
tho tlrst stago of our Journey.
Cutbank Camp, Friday.
Leaving Two Medlcino, wo rodo away in a
golden morning. A light hoar frost sprinkled tho
grnss. Tho sun was rolling a curtain of whlto
mist upward from the violet sides of Rising Wolf
Upward tho trail wound, tho horses picking
their way over fallen trees, now dipping Into
yeasty hollows, now climbing a slippery bank.
Ono rodo at an angle of 45 degrees forward and
backward, alternately. Tho trees grow thinner
and scrubbier "Nature's stunted Btep-chlldron,"
tho official tenderfoot poet called them and tho
trnll steeper until wo emerged aloft, almost at
tho timber lino. Presently wo were riding In a
Hurry of snowtlakes that hid mountain and valley.
A cloud rift letting through a gleam of sunlight
revealed our snow falling as rain In tho valley
Noon enmo and luncheon. It was hardly moro
than four hours Blnco breakfast, yet hungry cyoa
watched tho preparations until nt length was
heard a call which for music gratoful to tho ear
will nover bo equaled In tho Metropolitan Opera
That call consIstB of four syllables graco
notes they might bo called if this wero any sub
ject for mero frivolity. It runs llko this:
"Co-omo an' git it!"
It Is tlio park summons to meals. Tho rush
Wo "got It," and proceeded on our wny now
heartened, though tho weather had Btlll a new
variation for us. Tho last section of tho eighteen
miles from Two Medlcino was trnvcrsed through
a heavy drlzzlo, and tho going was heavy.
Lake St. Mary'B, Saturday.
Wo had started from Cutbank In better trim
than on tho day before, and woro riding moro
at east Around tho bond In tho trnll ahead
swept a band of painted Indians, drums beating
nnd oaglo feathers streaming in tho breozo. A
few paces from our leading Mo thoy reined In
their ponies, formed lino, .and mndo guttural
sounds of uncertain Import. Georgo Star, Mack
foot Interpreter, trotted to tho front.
"Chief Two Guns," announced Mr. Starr, indi
cating a stalwart Indian In bended buckskin nnd
a chief's war bonnet. "Chief Jim Whlto Calf,"
indicating another handsome Indian, "both sons
of old man Whlto Calf, dead now great chlof.
They como to welcome you to park. Hlg Moon,
medlcino man." Mr. lllg Moon nodded pleasantly.
"For three days ho makes medlcino to havo lino
weathor while jou'ro in park."
Tho Narrows, Upper St. Mary's T.iko,
Lonvlng the horses to bo picked up later, wo
Journeyed today by motor launch up St. Mnry'a
lako to this point, where still a new phnBo of this
western scenery presents Itself. Tho lako nar
rows as you UBcend, and tho mountains como
closer, becoming ns It woro on moro tntlmnto
terms with humanity. Very near Beomed tholr
brown Bides, banded with gray and black, and
Bnow-covered summits, In tho clear air. A tiny
glacier In a narrow gulch loked so close that
Probably Worst Danger Known to
Railroading, and Constant Watch
fulness Only Minimizes It.
Only a few days ago a broken rail
caused a railroad accident which
might easily have resulted In serious
loss to life. A passenger train was
derailed and by a miracle the cars
camo to a standstill Just beforo pltlnfs
over tho edge of bank into a swollen
rlvor. This is an Illustration of the
peril of the unsound rail.
During the three months ended Jan
uary 1 of the current year 2,967 per
sons woro killed nnd 51,323 were In
jured on steam railroads In tho United
States. Thero wero 1,859 collisions and
2,135 derailments. Passenger trains
were concerned in 229 of tho collisions
and 194 of tho derailments.
The property losses reached the to
tal of $3,408,953, and this' sum cov
ered only the damage to the rolling
stock, etc., belonging to tho railroads.
Calculated at this rate tho railroads
would suffer annually In this manner a
loss of substantially $14,000,000, and
tho public has to pay for this In the
end. The additional sums tlr't would
be Involved In lawsuits and the pay
ment of damage claims would run the
aggregato yearly drain, duo to negli
gence or mechnnlcnl failures, into
many millions of dollars more.
llroken rails and fractured wheels
wero mainly responsible for the cas
ualties, and 71 per cent, of all of tho
derailments were occasioned by de
fective roadway or equipment, while
nearly 21 per cent, of tho derailments
were caused by broken rails. Shat
tered or fractured wheels wero ac
countable for 2C.G per cent, of tho de
railments. Collisions can mostly be avoided
through proper alertness on tho part
of responsible employes, but thero 1b
something insidious about tho peril of
tho faulty rail. To tho casual eye of
tho track walker the rail may be
seemingly sound, and yet within tho
substance of Its head or the thinner
material of the supporting web a catas
trophe may bo lurking. Unseen, the
steel may be yielding and at tho next
blow tho rail mny bo shattered and a
speeding train hurled from Its course
UNDER FIVE MILES IN LENGTH
you would cxpoct to throw a stono upon Its sur
faco with ease. Tho guide said It was a full
three miles away.
Lako McDermott, Wednesday.
We have Been many benutlful sights, but the
unanimous vordlct on rcnchlng camp tonight was
that tho day's rldo had been the most beautiful
rldo of all; at which Tom Dawson, tho veteran
chlof guldo. only smiled. Ho Is used to these
tenderfoot raptures. "Why," ho said, "you
haven't soon anything to speak of yet. This is
only tho beginning."
Deautlful Lako Sherbourno was passed at a
cantor, for the tendorfeet by this time have be
come hardened to tho saddle, and each rider'B
pany 1b Ills best friend. Toward evening we
camo upon a new and Btrnngo sight By tho
remnants of a grass-grown stnge road wo reached
n group of log houses, larger and moro preten
tious than most. The guide explained:
"ThlB Ib Altyn, a dead town. It waB built up
by a copper mining prospect, but tho prospect
was only a pockot, and tho pocket soon gave out.
Then evorybody went away. It haB boon desert
ed ten years."
Wo loft Altyn behind nnd In a few minutes
woro In quite a different spot. Tho Lnke Mc
Dermott chalets aro grouped about a waterfall,
around which tho mountains stand sentinel.
Tholr summits ns wo saw them first were flushed
with pink In tho evening light, and Inspired now
adjectives of admiration, nil too weak.
Lako McDermott. Friday.
Vesterday wo rodo to Iceberg lake and Baw
our park In Btlll nnother guise. Wo passed
through a forest or giant Christmas trees with
tho snow thick upon their branches and the
whole world greon beneath, then Bklrted the
steepest mountains encountered In all our travel
hitherto, cllmbod tho famous Golden Stairs, and
at last reached a valloy where on three sldea
hugo cliffs looked down upon a sapphlro lako set
In a sea of whlto. On ono Bide a glaclor centu
rles old moves an Inch or so a yenr down the
Bteop rockB. Ub watorB fedlng the lake, whoso
surface Is dotted with huge cakes of Ico. Tho
hotteBt day In August is cool nt Iceberg lake,
and finds tho glacial fragments floating there aB
though It were early spring.
Todny wo traveled to still another beauty
spot, Crnckor lako, haunt of the big horn aheep,
whoso trackB hero and thoro woro Been upon tho
snow's smooth surface Tomorrow we move on.
ward to Iako McDonald nnd homeward.
Iako McDonald, Monday.
Hero on tho pnrk's western border, and by tho
side of tho largest mnny say tho most beautiful
of all Its many lakes wo havo spent our last
day. Our exploration 1b nt an end, for hero tho
outsldo world makes ltsolf felt again. Hobnnlled
boots and khnkl, short skirt and sweater hore
moot tho habiliments of civilization upon a com
Wo Bald good-byo to our trusty ponies yester
day and today wo trnmped it to tho Hoval Gore
nnd waterfall, which are McDonald's chief beau
ties. MoBt of tho folk who hove ben to thn mr'.
ore going back thore. Our own weal also has Ua
Railway Over the Moraln6, Showing
the loe on the Left.
readjustment of the whole system of
support; once even the abutment of a
bridge sllud 14 Inches toward the
river, and a new one bad to be built.
As these difficulties are renewed every
summer, It In very expensive to main
tain the way, and the speed of the
trains must be kopt very low, although
the passengers aro never in danger, as
a very close watch Is necessarily kept
of the road.
"What makes tho upkeep of tho road
still moro risky Is the possibility of a
forward movement of tho glacier. The
road would be destroyed and all traffic
stopped, for there would be no possible
way of getting out After the period of
Immunity of 67 years, which Is attest
ed by the vegctatlou, a movement of
this kind may tako place any day."
Improving Australian Railroads.
Standardizing rail gauge on the rail
roads In the continental states of Aus
tralia Is proving costly through delay
In pushing tho work forward, accord
ing to a recent report now In the hands
of the federal government. Tho report
of the engtneers In chief recommends
tho adoption of a uniform gauge of 4
feet 8 Inches (tho existing New
South Wales gauge) on the grounds of
the comfort and convenience of pas
sengers, tho facility of transfer of
troopB and merchandise, and the re
duction of rolling stock. Owing to the
huge cost of bringing about complete
uniformity, It Is suggested that as a
preliminary step the through lines
from Fremantle to Urlsbane (including
the tran-Australian line now under
construction) should be converted to
4 feet 8V6 Inches nt a cost of $60,710,
000. The engineers strongly urge that
tho work of conversion should be be
gun without delay, and it Is pointed
out that In 1897 tho estimated cost of
converting the 5 feet 3 Inch gauge
lines in Victoria and South Australia
to the 4 feet 84 Inch gauge was only
111,800,000 against $36,475,000 at the
England Haa No Fewer Than Ten
Railroads With a Trackage That
Altogether thore are ten railroads In
various parts of tho country which aro
under five miles In length. The short
est lino Is that of the Felixstowe Dock
nnd Railroad company, which runB
from tho Great Eastern lino at Felix
stowe Reach station, In Suffolk, down
to Felixstowe dock. It Is only 726 yards
long, its entire rolling stock consisting
of 12 freight cars.
Tho next shortest Is tho Milford Ha
ven Dock company's railroad, which is
only a mile and a quarter in length,
and which was oponed In 1882. It runs
from Milford Haven on the Great
Western roalroad to Nowton Noyes
pier, nnd its rolling stock consists of
one locomotive nnd 21 freight cars.
Tho Stockbrldge rnllroad Is one
mile seven furlongs In length, and has
ono locomotive, two passenger car
rlnges and 68 freight cars. It runs
from Deepcar, near Sheffield, on the
Great Central, to Stockbrldge.
Tho Rye & Cambridge Steam tram
way is two and a half miles long, and
possesses two locomotives, two pas
senger coaches and three freight cars,
while the South Shields, Marsden A
Whitburn railroad Is a mile and three
quarters long, and runs from South
Shields to Wltburn colliery, Bays the
English Railway Magazine.
In Cumberland there Is the Rowrah
& Kelton Fell Mineral railroad, three
miles long, which connects with the
The nearest of these tiny railroads
to London Is the Corrlngham Light
railroad, which starts at Covlngham,
about three miles from Stanford-le-Hope,
In Essex, and runs to Kynoch
town. Tho rolling stock consists ot
two locomotives, two passenger vehl'
cles and ten freight cars.
Cape to Cairo Rival.
The French project for a trans-At-rlcan
railroad from Algiers to Cape
Town, using the Belgian-English line
from Stanleyville to Capo Town, has
taken definite form. In January, says
the Scientific and Mining Press, an
expedition to make a preliminary
survey from Colorab-Bechar tho pres
ent southern terminus of the Algerian
railroad, to Lake Tchad, started out
from the former point. The engineers
believe that the crossing of the Sa
hara desert presents no unsurmount
able difficulties. From Lake Tchad
the line will presumably follow the
divide between tho Sharo and Nile
basins and will enter the Belgian
Kongo at Semlo on the Bomu river,
from there going to Stanleyville.
Expanding Screw to Spike Rails to Tlea
For attaching rails to ties on rail
roads a Frenchman has Invented a
screw that Is Bald to hold tighter
than anything yet devised. It ia In
two parts: First a hollow scrow, open
at tho lower end, silt a short distance
up the sides and having a worm In
side as well as outsldo. This Is
screwed into the hole In tho tie. Into
it is screwed tho second part, which
is a solid scrow, conical In shape. As
this Is driven homo It forces tho low
er end of tho hollow screw apart,
making It spread and becomo wider
below than nbove, thus biting the
wood of the tlo In a way that makes
Defects of Steel Ties.
The use ot steel ties on foreign
railroads Is not universally success
ful. Mr. Braet, engineer In chief of
tho Belgian State railways, Informs
Engineering News that tho steel ties
aro unsatisfactory under high speed
traffic. The Netherlands State Rail
ways company has abandoned their
use because of the expense. Engi
neering authority in this country dis
countenance them, stating that none
of tho foreign steel ties in tse aro
strong enough to bear tho heavy
trains nnd tho driving nxlo loads ot
50,000 and 60,000 pounds on the Amen
tcan trunk lino railways
Not His Fate to Die In Wreck.
Los Angeles has a maij clerk, P.
D, Popenoe, who has survived forty
Powered by Open ONI