The Red Cloud chief. (Red Cloud, Webster Co., Neb.) 1873-1923, July 01, 1898, Page 6, Image 6

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Ni JBRsiWTO til (v OmMl'u A v
TVhy Hvrry l'ntrlotlc Aiiiirir.iu Should
Ilijolro mill (Jim TIiiiiiKh HUtory of
tlio Declariitlaii of Im)iit-iiiIciiro It
Oro huntlrctl and twenty-one years
ago tho bell rang In Independence hall
In Philadelphia. To tho uninitiated It
pealed Its Bonorous notes for some un
known purpose. To those who, breath
less, were waiting for tho sound, It told
tho news that liberty had shaken off
her shackles In tho now world, that
alio had taken hor rightful place and
that hereafter tho people would ac
knowledge tho power of no ruler except
tsuch ao might bo chosen by them
selves. It was a curious scene In that
staid old Quaker town, tho last place
In tho colonies whore one would have
suspected a spark would bo given birth
to light freedom's torch throughout the
western hemisphere.
It was on tho seventh day of Juno,
177C, that tho delegates from tho colo
nies sitting In congress In Philadelphia
considered tho following resolution In
troduced by Virginia's statesman,
Richard Henry Leo:
"Resolved, Thnt tho United States
colonies nro and ought to bo freo and
(independent states and their political
connection with Great Britain Is and
ought to bo dissolved."
Thcro had been murmurlngs and
threats and calm expressions of de
termination. But here was united ac
tion. The people, by tholr representa
tives duly chosen, formally absolved
themselves from allegiance from tho
mother country and said to tho world
that they had cast off tholr swaddling
clothes, and were now nblo to walk
alone. To spenk with absolute truth,
nil tho delegates did not favor this
progres3lvo step. Homo opposed It on
tho ground that It was premature.
Nevertheless tho resolution over
came opposition ami was Indorsed as
stated, by the majority of ono. Thir
teen colonies were represented. Do
causo s.even.o.f, them voted and stood
for Independence, the United States Is
''bWwKat Bfinr Subsequent xltivel
opmonts prove that hnd the action tak
en been delayed, tho question of litde
penden e mlsht have slept In peace un
til the herald of the people, m one
knows how many vra after, sounded
o'iyJiSii fw
I ,-s' N
the tocsin of i evolution. Tho dele
gates thought It wl?e to defer the ques
tion of final consideration to July 1,
1770, by which time they believed there
might be a more united feeling among
tho people.
Thus It wan that on June 11, thnt
famous conmlttcc was apppolntcd to
frame tho declaration of Independence.
Noto the names, and If you are n stu
dent of tho history of the United States,
conceive, If you enn, of a better quin
tet to have represented the American
people: Benjamin Franklin, John
Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sher
man, Robert R. Livingston. The first
was the man whoso fame Is ticked Into
our ears every time we hear n telegraph
Instrument, whose genius Is placed In
broad light whenever we enjoy the Il
lumination of electricity. The second
rose to be president of the nation ho
helped to form. The third Is the fa
ther of what the world knows as Jeffcr
sonlan democrncy. Tho fourth, purl
tan, patriot, leader, gave more In moral
forco and determination, In knowledge
of the law and Its common sense prin
ciples than almost any man who as
sisted at the birth of tho nation. The
fifth was the man of whom tho major
ity of people know comparatively little,
and yet there was none who better do
served a place of honor in tho public
mind. Eminent ns n financier, a
shrewd Judge of human nature, his
touch on the helm of state was cx-
uctly what was needed to keep
young craft on her course.
Jefferson had spoken but little
congress and he had no patt In
acrimonies which then prevailed.
a plain brick house, corner of Market
and Seventh streets, Philadelphia, ho
drafted tho declaration of Independ
ence. Tho work was almost wholly
Jefferson's, only a few verbal altera
tions being suggested by Adnms and
Franklin. It then wns approved by
the committee. A few passages were
struck out by congress
Caesar Rodney, ono of Delaware's
delegates, In order to have his vote
recorded, rodo In the saddle from a
point eighty miles from Philadelphia,
all night, and reached tho floor Just In
tlmo on July t to cast Delawaro's vote
In favor of Independence. On that day,
over memorable In American annals,
the declaration of Independence was
adopted by the unanimous vote of tho
thirteen colonies.
Tho enthusiasm of tho patriots at
hearing tho Intelligence wns unbound
ed. Whllo congress had been dlsciifs
tng the subject, crowds assembled out
falde the hall and In the struts, au-
-V"1 V
s "J
xlottsiy awaiting the result. When I
wiih announced at noon the state hous
bell, on which was Inscribed "Proclali
liberty throughout all the land tint
tho Inhabitants thereof," clanged dee
and melodiously and the throng guv
vent to long and loud shouts of exulta
The old bell ringer had been at hi
post since early morning. He ha
placed his boy below to nnnounce whe
the declaration was adopted, so tin
not an Instant might be lost in trans
ferring the glad tiding!) by means o
tho bell to the waiting multitude. A
the wearisome hours passed and nt
sign came to him the nged bell rlngc
finally exclaimed "They will never di
It! They will never do It!" Just thei
ho heard his boy clapping his handi
and vociferating nt the top of his ju
enllc lungs "Ring! Ring!" Tho oh
hands swayed the sonorous bell wltl
delirious vigor. Its reverberations wat
echoed by every steeple In the city,
That was a gala day In Philadelphia
what with rejoicings and bonfires ant
Illuminations. The cannon boomef
and messengers rodo awny hotly In nl
quarters to announce the news. Wash
Ington then was In Now York with tin
army. By his orders it wan read to tin
soldiers, who acclaimed it enthusins
tlcally. The townsfolk on that nlgln
tore the statue of George III. from ltt
pedestal In Bowling Green and It was
melted Into -12,000 bullets for the pa
trlotle troops.
"Yesterday," wrote John Adam3 t
hls wife, "the greatest question wai
decided that was ever debated in Amor
lea; and greater, perhaps, never was oi
will be decided among men. A rcso
lutlon was passed without one dissent
Ing colony 'that these united colonlci
are, and of right ought to be, freo nn
Independent.' Tho day Is passed. Tht
Fourth of July, 1770, will bo a menior
ablo epoch In the history of America. 1
am apt to believe It will bo celobr.itec
by succeeding generations as the greal
anniversary festival. It ought to b
commemorated as tho day of deliver
anro by solemn nrts of devotion to Al
mighty God. It ought to bo solemnize!
with pomp, shows, games, sports, guns
bolls, bonfires and llluminatlona fron
one end of the eqntinent to tho other
from this tlmo forward forover."
By a strango coincidence Join
Adams died on July 4, 1820, tho flftlctl
anniversary of tho declaration of In
dependence. His last words wero "Jef
ferson still survives," But at 1 o'clocl
on the samo day Jeffer3on also passe
Tlie Ji'rtrurk nit tlio riiiclilp, With I lie
lluttlcftlilpft Ion ii mill Oregon nnilTliroo
Aiiilllur.r 'nilcrit Xntjr Mnl(i TliM
Annouiicciiii'iil In tin onivliil II ti llett it.
Wahiiixo ro.v, June 28. The navy de
partment at I l:Ifi o'clock posted the
following bulletin:
"Commodore Watson sails to-day In
the Newark to join .Sampson, when hu
will take under his command an ar
mored .squadron with eruiscrn nnd pro
ceed nt once off the .Spanish coast."
Later the Navy department Issued a
second bulletin, .showing tho ships to
he placed under lommodoro Watson's
command. The ships named are as
Flagship Newark, battleships Iowa
and Oregon, cruisers Yosoinlte, Yankee
ami Dixit) and tho colliers Scintilla,
Aba rendu and Alexander. The ad
vance will be made at once from San
I lago.
Admiral Camara 's Meet, now reported
at Port Said, Is closely watched. The
reports which have. come to tills
government about Camara 's force show
that he has sixteen vessels under his
command, armorelads, utiarmored
cruisers, troop ships and auxiliary
cruisers. When the vessels left Cadiz
they scattered in t.wo divisions, eleven
ships proceeding through the Straits
of Gibraltar to Cartagena and the
others to some unknown destination,
supposed to be the Canaries. Three of
the live vessels of the second division
had troops on board. Later informa
tion shows that thcu five, or its many
more which were waiting nt Carta
gena. are now with the main force,
and that several of the vessels are
carrying soldiers.
By some it Is thought that the Navy
department's bulletin may be for the
purpose of influencing tho movement
of Camara. Wit li an American licet
bound Spalnward, it is deemed im
probable that Camara would continue
on his way Hast, granting that be over
Intended to go to the Philippines, Ha
waii or San Francisco, its has been
variously conjectured.
By sending Commodore Watson tt
harass the Spanish coast the navy
starts upon a most aggressive cam
paign. Tho announcement that the
Spanish coast is to be attacked caused
a thrill of excitement to sweep through
the Navy department, it Is stltl that
the blockade at Havana and Santiago
will not suffer by the withdrawal of a
flying squadron.
The sailing of the Cadiz fleet to Ma
nila relieves tho New England coast of
further fright, and the vessels doing
patrol duty along the northern coast
have been ordered tcrejoln the block
ading licet at Havana. It is believed
that as soon as Spain hears their coast
is to bo attacked orders will bo sent to
stop the Codlr. fleet nnd recall Admiral
Camara to Cadiz.
The ollieial announcement of the in
tention of the United States to attack
Spain is the most daring Incident of
tho war, and shows that all talk of
peace is idle speculation. The squad
ron will sail at once.
Commodore John Crittenden Watson
Is well lltted to perform the duties of
his new assignment. He was Farm
cut's flair lieutenant at ID and was in
all Farragut's lights from tlio capture
of New Orleans to Mobile bay. In tlio
last named light young Watson as
sisted in lashing tho admiral to the
rigging of the Hartford.
Since tho close of tho war Commo
dore Watson has served on lmard of or
commanded ships of our navy in all
parts of the world. In ISM, when Ad
miral Rcnliam with the United States
fleet defied tho entire Brazilian navy
in the harbor of Rio and opened the
commerce of that port to the world,
Commodore Watson was In command
of Benliam's flagship and was also the
chief of staff of the fleet. In the same
year he was tho commander of the
warships sent to Ulue,flclds on account
of the trouble with Nicaragua. More
recently tho eommotloro has been gov
ernor of the naval home.
Commodore Watson is Kentucky
born and f.4 years old. He is a grand
son cf John J. Crittenden nnd a nephew
of Thomas L. Crittenden, the staff of
ficer who, on the field of Buena Vista,
mndo the famous response to Santa
Ana, "'General Taylor never surren
ders." Commodore Watson hns trans
ferred his Hag from the Cincinnati to
tho dispateh boat Dolphin and is now
Issuing his orders from that craft.
Hold to Ilaie Designs nn tlio (lovcrn
inont of Hpaln.
Loxno.v, Juno 28. Tho Vienna cor
respondent of the Dally Telegraph
says: Tho latest advices from Madrid
indicate that thcro is ground for tho
apprehension that Marshal Martinez
do Campos will soon Issuo u pronunela
monto and attempt a dictatorship.
Minute directions havo been sent to
the Austro-Hungarlan ambassador at
Madrid, Count Dubskl, regarding tho
personal safety of the queen regent.
Tito latest news from Madrid Is that
the situation is so serious that several
cabinet meetings have been held, in n
desperate attempt to avert a crisis.
ICiinsus groc Under Weight.
Toimika, Knn., Juno 23. Lnough
negroes to form a full compn ay offered
themselves as volunteers this morning,
but many of them did not pass tho re
quired examination. Of tho first thirty
half wero rejected because thoy wero
under weight. They wero examined un
der tho regulations that govern tho
enlistment of white soldiers nnd many
of tho young ncgrics are too slender.
Tho surgeons say that tho average
young negro six feet tall is fif
teen pounds lighter than tho average
wluto man ox vuu wium
Within four Mile 1'rnin tlio Cltr 7,000
Troop urn lliiriuniml.
Kixnsio:;, Jamaica, Juno L'3. Seven
thousand American troops were
camped in sight of Santiago Sunday,
three and n half or four miles away.
Men are eager and in good hcaltn,
after having been fighting since Wed
nesday. T!j;ro will be uo attack on
the efty for two or tlneC days. Garcia
has arrived with :i,000 men.
Probably a hundred "Ro'ugh Riders"
and regular cavalry made an advance
of two mlle.-t after daybreak Sunday,
passing the village of Sevllla, camping
ut sunset In plain sight of Santiago,
three miles away. The advance was
without opposition. Sunday was
spent In transporting machine and
field guns, supplies, horses and mules
toward the advanced position held by
General Wheeler. This point will be
supplied as a permanent camp until
heavier artillery and remain
In' troops pass Savllla. This will oc
cupy some time, perhaps three days,
on account of the poor road. Then
ivill come an assault on Santiago.
When the dispatch boat left Slboney
many reports were current in the
camp concerning our losses, some say
ing that forty had been hilled. Col
onel Roosevelt, nt the front, said,
however, that sixteen were killed.
There is no ollieial list an yet. Eight
rough riders are likely iioosevelt's to
tal loss. He speaks In most enthus
iastic terms of his men's dashing cour
age. He led the way nnd seemed a
lion in action.
The top of every hill anil mountain
northwest of Santiago is occupied by
blockhouses, from whence the Span
iards can view the movements of the
American army as it advances beyond
Sabanilla, while to the eastward to the
city on every knoll and bit of high
ground are Spanish entrenchments.
The corrcsindent from an elevation
to tho right of the American lino-,
counted twenty-four of these en
trenchments, completely fencing
every approach to the city. Tlw
trenches hae- Iktch dug as the con
formation of tho ground admitted.
The end of tin: trenches overlap
where breaks in the lines occur, thus
securing compiirtlvely safe retreat
front rille tiro in wise parts of the
trenches arc captured. Upon one of
these works- modem guns have been
mounted. They can be plainly seen
without glasses.
Spies report that inside the in
trenchmcut urn- four parallel lines of
title pits, shoulder deep, and In front
of them are marked ranges- and sev
eral rows of barbed wire- fences.
No olllccrsr wlu Iwvu surveyed the
lte-ld over whleli the advance- must be
made underestimates- the task: ahead of
the- Americans.
TnnwnortK Ijimlcd .'1,000 t'ulmn- S'olillrm
nt .luriiKUit Sunday.
.JcrcAoCA, June UT. General Callxto
Garcia, with II, Joo Cuban Insurgents
from the mountains west of bnutiago
do Cuba, was landed here to-day. The
Cuban, troops were brought here on
board the American transports. Fully Insurgents, nearly tho entire
available lighting force of Insurgents
lu the southern part of Santiago prov
ince, are now concentrated at or near
.luragca. Three-fourths of them are
armed with modern rifles and have
abundant supplies of ammunition.
The soldier aro ragged almost to
nakedness. Most of tliese men nro
thoroughly accustomed, to tJte bush
whacking methods of tho Spaniards,
and are perfectly familiar with every
trail lu tho Tleinlty of Santiago. With
the intention to protect the American
advance on Santiago, detachments will
also be sent toward Guar.tanamo to
ghe warning in ease an attempt is
made to form a junction with General
Pun do's army in Santiago.
A conference Iwtween Major General
Shafter and General Garcia will be
held to-morrow. Tho plan of co-operation
of the American and Cuban arm
ies hns been agreed upon, not only in
the campaign of Santiago, but in the
subsequent movement on Havana and
General Garcia's plan is to march his
entire army along tho northern coast
of Cuba, keeping In touch as well as he
can with the United Stntes army. As
soon as posslblo he will effect a junc
tion with tho insurgent forces under
General Maximo Gomez, who is now
west of Havana.
Other bodies of insurgents, it is said,
will soon bo brought in. It is the plan
of the Cuban leaders to have at least
L'0,000 men before Havana when the
tlmo comes for tho investment of that
Manila, Juno 21. Up to the time
this dispatch is sent tho transports
from San Francisco having on board
American troops Intended to relnforco
Rear Admiral Dowey huvo not arrived
here, and there is noclningo in tho sit
uation. The Insurgents havo not mndo nny
further advance and tho Spaniards
havo been continuing tho construction
of sand bank fortifications and the
planting of sharpened bamboos around
Manila for the purpose of stopping the
Insurgents' ndvance.
Tho pnper.s here contlnuo appealing
to tho natives to coiuu to tho assist
ance of Spain.
May Almiulon Culiiinncra.
Pr-AYA. Dki. Esti:, Juno 23. It is Re
lieved in camp hero that "the town of
Calmancra, on the upper bay, is about
to bo abandoned by tho Spanlwh, who
are said to be In a desperate condition
owing to lack of food. The report is
that they will leave tho town and fall
back on Guuntanaino.
Lightning Kill Svieu Homos.
Mkndom, Mo., Juno 28. A violent
storm stiiick this place yesterday
morning ut 0 o'clock, dolng r. vast
amount of duuiiiifo. zvj. wong,
farmer, balf a mile east of town, had
sovcrt tine work horbcs killed by lightning.
Perhaps the first consideration with
those contemplating a visit to the
Trans-Mlssls-iippl expo-dtion this sum
me: is that of To the few.
"money Is no object:" to the many it
may be said that the cost of n visit to
the exposition Is moderate and reason
able. .(
Tl.i railroads have granted low
rates, especially to the territory near
by. Rooms can be obtained at moder
ate cost in any part of the city, in
some eases including board, and those,
to whom time Is money should remem
ber that the compactness nt the expo
sition buildings and the n. essl " ,
front the center of the city i it
possible to "see the sight in much
less time than was reqnif' I at the
Columbian exposition at Chicago. One
day spent in each of the main build
ings, with two or three tlajti for tho
state bt lit lugs ami other attiiictiotis,
will occupy about two weeks, but a
good general Idea of the fair can bo
obtained lu half that time.
Visitor; .should communicate Imme
diately on their arrival in the city with
the Ollieial Information Bureau, 1319
I'm rna m street, which is under con
tract with the exposition management
to furnish free reliable information in
regard to rooms, board, transporta
tion, carriage, baggage, mes-songer
service etc. The bureau has on its
books some .",()()() rooms, mostly in pri
vate residences, to which vIlton can
be ivlerred entirely without charge.
Comfortable rooms can be obtained
cither near the exposition grounds or
near the business part of the city for
SI u night, or S. ii week for a single
person, and for 51.r0 a night, or 84 t
week fortw'o. In some cases a light
breakfast Is included in these price.
There ant also rooms at higher or low
er figure) in all parts of the city. The
hotels also furnish the usual accommo
dations at the usual prices.
In some eti-ses Iwurd can be obtained
in the same bouse, and in every case
the Information burvnti will give in
formation ns to- the distance from any
one of the rooms on its list to the near
est restaurant or boarding house.
Good board can be had for 85 a week
for each person, or at nsutil prices at
restaurants all over the city. Plenty
vf goml dining halls- rrnil lunch coun
ter are in operation in close proxitn
iky to the grounds at which visitors
will ls fairly and liberally treated.
There are a dozen restaurants on tho
grounds, besides about two dozrn lunch
counters', tea gardens, Ice cream stands
etc.. at nil of whfelv prices are reason
it bl'is. At most of these the- usual
charges are .1 cents for tea and eoll'ee,
pie, etc., 10 cents-for sandwiches, and
other things nt corresponding prices.
Admission to the grounds is SO cents
for each person above IS ycara of a;c.
Children between .1 and IS years. 2.1c.
These figures inclimV every thing with
in the funces, except the amusement
features on the midway, which are in
the hands of individual concea-rion-aries.
Payings.' a week for room, another
S." for board, and TO cents a- day for
general admission to tlvc grounds,
makes tho cost of n week at the- expo
sition' uboutSir..
Ilrportn Thnt. Kxtnrtlmiirlr rrlrrs Primll
In Oiiiiiliu ur Drririii-oim.
Omaha, July 2S, Ta spite of the- re
ports that have been published brood
cast that the people of Omaha hayo
combined toehnrgo extortionate rates
for accommodations, the people who
have been attracted to the city by tho
Kansas and Iowa day programs havo
found that every accommodation I ob
tainable at reasonable rates. One can
secure a good meal anywhere around
the exposition gates at 25 eents, whllo
ut the down town hotels and eating
houses there is practically no ndvanco
over the rates charged lieforo the ex
position opened. In tho matter of
rooms those who persist in securing
quarters in the central portions of tho
city find that it costs n dollar to seettro
a room, but those who aro sufllcleutly
thoughtful to go farther out can secure-
good cool rooms within ten or
fifteen minutes' ride of the central
portion for much less money. It Is a
truth that there nro hundreds of
rooms to be had in Omaha at reason
able figures if one does not insist In
getting into tho heated section of tho
down-town districts.
The managers of tho trnns-Mlssls-slppl
exposition ltnvo made arrange
ments for a rousing celebration on
tho exposition grounds (he Fourth of
July. Tho pageant will lc reviewed
by tho governor of Nebraska, tho
mayor of Omaha, the president of tho
exposition and other executive otllcera
ns it pastes the music pavilion on tho
south viaduct. At 11 o'clock tho fol
lowing exorcises will lie held on tho
grand plaza: Music Exposition band.
Prayer Rev. T. J. Maekiiy. Singing
Exposition chorus of 200 voices un
der direction of Willurd Kimball.
Reading of Declaration of Independ
ence Hon. John C. Wharton. Oration
of tho day lion. James M. Beck,
United States attorney for Pennsyl
vania. Music. A concert of Ameri
can music has been arranged for tho
evening. This will bo tlio closing
event of the national congress of mu
sicians, anil is designed to mark an
epoch in the history of music in this
country. Tho 810,000 display of flro
works which will bogln as soon as tho
concert Is over, will bo one of the
most brillant pyrotechnlcal exhibi
tions over seen in tho country since
During the twenty-four days since
tho exposition opened up to Saturday
evening tho 'paid ndtnlssions havo been
112.440. Tho biggest day was tho
opening day, 25,112. Tho next best
day was Nebraska day, 11,720. Other
days wero children's day 10,301, 111!,
nnls tiny U,3Dl, Iowa day 8,M)rt. It is
claimed that since the exposition
opened it has cleared above operating
expenses 820,000 and that on not a sin
gle day havo tho receipts run below
tho oporntlng expenses, which havo
ticcn higher than will bo tho caso af
ter tho exposition is thoroughly lu
Itooin nml llo.inl for l.'.i:oilllon
ut M.rlc-ttir foil.