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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 23, 1862)
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i wumfur nnn'n I' irmmr" am imfwnwimniniiiiiii t . u, mi aurmmriw .iii.ninra
! rBLjc3ED fVEBTTHfESDAT BT
S trickier iiiOCK, direct
jjSOWKVILLE. N. T.
If piid i" advance
.f Vili tHi 9lii of t
f 6 montbi
- $2 00
ill I. rnrnUtiA at M fin nr
ei Ue ci.t accompanies tbe order, uoU
r s If f - x
' iw ! nwiWinWa-jf wn-anfcaK3flt m 1 MlsWflfcaattajsfilai 55 -15 -, - --a-a-r liMM I. JIIT"lnil'! W TDMaWUMllJMI-iLJM I II Isj f m II1HII1 iM iiHsj
' " . ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' ' m ' ' ' " ' ' ' I I i ..I - , l l ' t' 't " "l t - - -- -
'IiIBZETY A2TD UlflOW, OiTE AWt) IHSEPEBABLE, NOW AIrH FOUEVEH."
BROWN VILLE, NEBRASKA, SATURDAY, AUGUST 23, 1862.
nvTi:s or aivi::;tim.m;.
tijjine.i C.(S. ix iiuet or le-s, 01.9 ytr
Oua cviuiru t,T.eyer - -O
n tix.z ii.iai.ia wiie jrir -0-.e
iuunh co; 11 am ot'i yr
One euiitn og'unm oi yer
rie fnu't'u coiiiasii ivn .uti
" e.t.iUof ji c.!-jr..a i invU'i
One c:utua tUrce ni.u'i . .
Gi g hi.f xii::i;i tr.rt tn . .
iH e f jutlu cj1 j.s;. li.'fj Uuaijj .
Atun'tiiiC1i'U:a f-r C.: , .
i la TraoscUat i JvcrthtMci:!'. f?ac. -f over o-
! N-ire wi:i Wihargea fr ly tU Usie. jf.ta r; 0 u-x
jeep sta ar.t eek, an.j 5 cer.u eca sur.i-sat
? ; t
1 ' (J
1 :; E S S CARDS.
r0 p. STEWART,
"'V j Tuurman'i Pru.' Slore, Whitney'i
i jsRS. 31 A It Y W. IIEWETT,
;BSt rweirei ft new itock of Straw Goods,
vrTi SHAKERS, II ATS,
, . . t.j t the la-teit style. The Udiei of
; 'r e iui Ticinitjr are cordially invited to call
DO YOU "WANT
STEA3I EXCaXCS Oil
PATENT SUGAR CAST, "
Patknt steam coil yr
patent kike rv v . . 1
patent sta: ' ;
riKE'S peak :; f ':
SKNIr I'. . ; : .
with cc . , ! r
For the Advertiser. ,
Philosophy and nistory of 2Icd-
est want rf
latest 1 ;u '.
' DIL A. GODFREY,
' i. Trance. bvln tweaty-fl.: reara' expe-
; Thi UeJical science, and one of tbe correpon
'"v. --luierican Journal of tbe Medic! Scien
! . el permanently in Brownrilte, and re
" tender bit profession! aerricea to tbe clt-
11,11 ci:r and viciuiiy.
'MMtcui.nneliiaaerrlcea to common practice,
. 'iTeia to cbrot.ic "measea diseases of lonj
iVnDt Tumor and Sores Abscesses and
i cTacenwd Sore Eyf. even rariU! Blindness,
r c-aioDly called Fal'.nj Sickness. Palsy,
-1 Dvnjy. Conutntition la tbe first and
i e iusaoiiT In ao rD1 D? of
' Priicalar attention paid to Ajue.
,"1 if requested. Bive rc.'erence to tnose pro
V.VurLie latLs United States, and afterwards
J found at all boars, eitber at J. D. Mann's
ii.'fc or at nis aweiuoi uuu, -"--
. , . i ; :l .y, agent,
ilion i iile, Nebraska,
. :. : 0 Laiied Information can be
I II. M. ATKINSON,
TTORNEY AT LAW,
r 0I;e corner or Main and First Sts.
3rownvillo, 2M". T.
L 30,72-n30 v8 ly
J0H1I L CAES0IT
(Successor to Lnsbbattch Si Carson.
223 UB o .
LAND AND TAX PAYING
Dealer in Coin, Uncurrent Jlloney, Land
Warrants, Exchange, and Gold Dust
BROIYX VILLE, KEI2RASKA.
I will give especial attention tobcylng and selling ex
'jhange on tbe principal cities of the United States and
Europe, Gold Silver, uncurrent Bank Bills, and
Gold Dust, Collections made on all accessatle points,
and proceeds remitted in exchange at current rates.
Depot-it received on current account, And interest al
lowed on special deposits.
3IAIX STREET.-BETWEEN THE
Telegraph and the V, S.
Llnd & Brother Philadelphia, Pa.
J. W. Carson & Co., " "
Hlser, Dirk It Co. Baltimore, Md.
Tounn &. Carson, " "
Jeo. Thompson Mason, Col'r of Port, " "
wm. T. Smithson, Esq., Hanker, WashingtoP V. U.
J. T. Stevens, Esq., Att'y at Law,
no. S. Gallaher, Late 3d And. C S. T.
- the or meJicine and Surgery, Un
' 1 profeion&l services to tbe afflicted . -'
, one uiilc south of town, the old Juion
ilORNEY AT LAW,
Corner Tirst and Main Street,
ttnvUlc. - - " XcbrasKa
1 T. 31. TALBOTT,
relocated himself in Urownvjlie, X. T., tea
ofe.-vional stfrvicea to thecounnunity.
; i.K warranteil.
::ks, watches, jewelry.
! Vonldinuouncetothecltitens of Brownvllle
ini vicinity that he has located himself in
"3rownvi!le, andintends keeping a full assort.
f ervtuicg In bis lineof business, which will
i .w for cash. He will also do all kinds of re-
of docks, watches and jewelry. All work war
jWARD W. THOMAS,
VTTORNEY AT LAW,
LICIT0R IN CHANCERY.
Wlca CM-ner cf Maia and first Streets.
WN VILLE, NEBRASKA.
or all Kisra.
) Alo, Warehouse Trucks, Letter
. J Presses, &C
-3AHKS, GREEIJLEAF & CO..
'ii L.USC ST., CHICAGO, ..
i b. i
ami toy or.'y Le jcar;e.3
k .. w w
1 lock port, n. y.,
-oleso!e and Itetail Dealer a in Fruit,
-t and Ornamental Trees,
' AND SHEUBS AND
"OCKS FOSl XERSERYJIEy.
"UE ROCK, NEBRASKA
' Rrrence, Dr. D. Owin, BrownTille.
Tarlor t Krie'-'i,, Bankers,.
i. '. .. : s li. I'r... ,
.. ( 1 r-4ti ,n,
P. ' . . :. : :; , j'-'t S. T-V,
.f..: ;', A y 1 w,
:. ! " 1 " j3 A'.I'r La -v,
..,..eli. . T'.-! ry, .
i roi-.il. lutwiier,
M. 1 , .
?.. -wr 3 a
: - -:-
4 CwauoexiJM. A!J
Soy 8, 1960-tf.
RE AL ESTATE
1. "7-- Bedford,
Main, Bivccen Lcvze and First Streets.
Particular attention given to the
Purchase and Sale of Ileal
Estate, flaking Col
Payment oT Taxes lor Xon-Ilcsl-dents.
LAND W AKRANTS FOB SALE, for cash and on
LAND WARRANTS LOCATED for Eastern Cap
italists, on lands selected from personal examination,
and a complete Township Hap, showing Streams,
Timbjr, Ac, forwarded with the Certificate of loca
tion. Urownville.N.T. Jar..3.1S61. , yl
JACOB IIARHON ,
Calls the attention of Gentlemen desiring new, neat,
servicable and fabhionable ,
Hew Stock of Goods
BROAD CLOTHS, CASStMERS, VESTIXGS, Ac. Ac,
OF THE VERY LATETT STYLES,
Khlch he will sell or make up, to order, at unprece
dented low prices.
Those wlshiug any thins n bis line will do well to
call and examine his stock before investing, as he
pledges himself to hold out peculiarly favorable in
i i -
;:-rSE. SICX AND ORNAMENTAL
UlZEU AND PAPER IIANGER-
L BROWNVILLE, N. T
! WILSON EOLLINGER,
COUNSELLOR0 AT LAW,
Scral and Collecting jt r
JjaCE, GAGE CO., KEEIlAs:
I'cfiee intbeseve al Courts ta rr.j
.-fcououw, and will rive t' 1 ' '' l- n
entrusted to hii. C .. : f 5 " i1
lv . articular atter..;- -. c-a t-. .oeat-
'"rraotacn lauds J tcioctci by
f T t i u t
ti::mi, col man, co,,
. : f the traveling public that their splendid
; Steam Ferry running across from
E:--iIle, ES2 Nebraska.
is cne t tv e ?t in every respect on the Upper lfls
sccii rive-.-. Tbe Boat makes repular trips every hour
soibat r t,r? will be lost in waiilcpc.
lbs 1 m k cu both sides of the river are low and wel.
gr led 'i. i a renders unloading unneceesarj' as is the
cjseat r. -t o l.er ferries.
Xo to 1 rpii be entertained antodiracultiesatornear
Vms ci o- ; s, at everybody In tbls region, on both sides
of fl.o river, is for the Union the stroncest kind.
, u)o an Item these nara umes are i'
bjr crossing. ,,,
-1 Kansas to Iowa ft ad to the east will find
nd best route i" every reepect.
UN, COLEMAN & CO.
. a ka, Sept. 21st, 1SG1.
tt.iQ at "
tt. f,; i
r 55, '61.
! ,nH. A. TERIIY,
yUsale and Retail Dejlcr in
un, ricld ami Tiouer Seeds
. Ii TO YOUffG I.ADIES A5D
uf -Tibcr will eend (free of charge), to all
iire it. the Recipe and directions for making
rl r,oetall a;a.thRt will, in from two to
.:-tt day?, remove riMri.Es,iLOTtHHi, 1 an, t nm.
L3.SaLLOTES, and all impurities and roughness
of the Skin, leaving the same as Nature intended
it shond b "ft, dear, molk and beautiful. 1 hose
desiring the Recipe, with full instructions, directions
and advice, will please call on or address (wilh re
turn poswre.-) .
TliOS. F. CHAPMAN. Practical Chemit.
831. Broadway, New York.
Hay 22, J8C2. n45-2ia. .
, t .
Mi. N. V.
' 1. a:;
e 0 , e:c.,
. w vu ir.ajti. jrnctat.u.iv iies
THE CONFESSIONS AND EXPERI
ENCE OF A SUFFEIlEIt.
PuVLhei a i.-.., rr i f, r t'.? cv:.-W Vc-re-
t of Youn Mn r.d th.?- who ?aST r witn
Dc-h.'.tr, L;.:j cf iir.-r, Fretii 'i r- D ea y, A
l-v (.1.9 .f tliose ho l.n rvr.i Licr.filf oy fiup'
i f.c.n, tit:-.r tn-r T T't 10 grt a : . .1. 1. '.-
j vfi.-'cr.ce, tr.rv-'.'r'.i t;. n?i u wor.'.l-.;s uid'i.sr.ei
I 1 n. 1,'... h. . -
... . '. . . . i r k
r-ir.S- -.' 19 rr-y t. rr t,.p nur.f r, a.
TVI-t-f ail h '. 'j C'!: -IC. Aj ifr-'S
i nt with ihehigb-r..-;c:.!
University in France
.uisition that a more
literature and philos-
,! ; i rt ,"'4 the study of sciences,
.. .; ' . 10 open; the n-ay and, habituate
j i: ! tu search into the great problems
f icu .ice, and to perfect in u$ the power
:. apprehendirig.Jn objects, the qualiiies
great schools. Go into France, into Eng
land, into Germany, whithersoever you
please J learn the opinion of the meta
physicians, study the movements of the
philosophical schools, and you shall at once
be introduced into the very centre of the
French, English, or German medicine
take, at will, such or such medical epochs
you shall soon perceive how obscure.it is
on the; contrary, restore to . it its Dhilo-
sophical element, or read some pages re
presenting the philosophy of the f poch
and the results you' will obtain shall be so
and aspects which. remain, veiled to the I wonderful, so striking, that. the .effect will
medical science, because they are not in
its sphere, and properly belong to mere
philosophy. . Such ' a knowledge .'is ' so
necessary for a professional man, that the
American Medical Association -our Na
tional Medical Congress in its thirteen
th annual session.'in New Haven, Conn.,
on the 5th, 6th and 7th, has recognized
its necessity. .--,-...,
' "Resolved, That it be hereafter regard
ed as an indispensable pre-requisite to en
rollment as a student of medicine in the
office of any regular physician, that the
party shall be at least seventeen years of I
age, of good moral character and habits,
and shall have received a good,1 English,
classical and 7nalhenialical education, and
be able to rtad and ' translate the 'Latin
language, and an elementary knowledge
of Greek, so far, at least, as to be able
to trace the derivations from it to the Eng
Resolved, That this same requisite be
made indispensable ' before , matriculation
in any regular medical college, and the
preceptor of such candidate for enroll
ment, be required to ascertain ivrh qvrtl-
l;v ta-il cxauiiiiiion ar
.1 publish this fcr .the benefit cf .those
who hare applied to me for sur.h enroll
ment in my office, I can admit them only
on the condition that they have the pre
requisite mentioned by the American
Medical Association. Without this pre
requisite they cannot understand a medi
cal book worth reading, and, of course,
cannot honestly and conscientiously prac
tice medicine. The gentlemen to whom
I allude do not live in this vicinity, and I
choose to answer their request through
the columns of your paper, as, in this way,
this may also be of some benefit toothers.
In my opinion, besides the pre-requisite
mentioned by the American Medical
Association, knowledge of philosophy is
also necessary, as I first observed and will
endeavor briefly to explain. Now, to
vivify the corse of history ; to give it a
soul; to impart a meaning and a connec
tion to this arid chronology ; to confer
speech and language to epochs already
gone by and silent; finally to carry into
the mysterious depths of medicine the
only light that can guide, it is indispensa
ble to cultivate in us the philosophical
faculty; for, no one ignores that any true
science, whatever it may be, is necessari
ly metaphysical ; theories are but the
metaphysics of sciences ; without this
condition, they shou,ld cease to form a
science. Good or bad, theories are always
the reason, more or less profound, more
or less extensive, of facts; there is not
one which does not contain some frag
ment of truth , each of our medical pe
riods has its philosophy which character
ices it, which comments it, which prepos
ses it. The present times has also its
own, which the Gazette Medicale, of
Paris, seeks to characterize in France,
and American medical periodicals seek
to characterize among us. A mere his
torical glance cast Upon me3icmr-hwa
it subordinate, in itsdevelopements, to the
philosophical wave, whether it soars up
to the hights cf speculation cr plur-cs
into the researches of particulars," it al
ways officiates under the dominion of
philosophical ideas; even those who en
deavor to elude their influence, are bro't
under the yoke nolens volens, willing or
unwilling. Thus, among the boldest con
ceptions of physicians and th general
movement of the ideas of their time,
there is an intimate band, a solidity
which it is impossible to ignore or disown.
But to appreciate them according to their
just value, we must be animated with the
spirit which has produced those concep
tions, we mast be inspired with those
ideas, of which our medical theories are
but the reflection. Do you wish to know
the condition of medicine in a country,
the spirit by which -it is animated, its
characters, its tendencies, take a view of
the physicians of that country. Now,
there are no prospects of information
be irresistable ; directly the enigma shal
disappear, an unexpected light, precision
and clearness shall enter into your mind
If, therefore, we wish to .obtain the ful
comprehension of a system, we must es
timate it in comparison with the epoch o;
the general philosophy to which it belongs.
How many things we shall learn which
heretofore, were to us enigmas not, to be
decyphered, dead letters,- sealed hiero
glyphics I ' l i '
The important : events offered by the
history of philosophy will almost always
:ive us the reason of the changes which
afcicdicine offers at various epochs.- Al
though each of the culminant periods of
history has, as it' were its thought its
archetypical idea which casts its reflec
tion upon science, nevertheless are they
not merely juxtaposited without any oiher
means of union, without any other fixa
tion than the order of date ; in order to
have a . perfectly complete idea of an
epoch, we must know about all of them ;
be initiated in the physico-chemical and
physiological discoveries corresponding to
it, that wr'rr. how' frcm whence it
ccmes, whither it ter.ds: finally embrace,
at one j..-:r.: :a i-ur cuccc -z-,- in
their vicissituh--, the panorama' of Ueaa,
of theories from' their first principles,
their developments through ages to the
actual epoch. Notwithstanding all that
has been said, the number and diversity
of the philosophical system of which the
study of man has been the object, are not
such as we might be taught to presume;
by a close observation, we may easily per
ceive, with evidence, the three or four
intermixed roots of all the philosophical
systems, which, under diverse integu
ments, are reduced to some fundamental
differences, to'a small number of princi
ples opposed and always opposing, and
still inseparable, successively triumphant,
periodically reproduced in all ages w;ith
variations of particulars, so that if the
heat of the combat is great, the arena is
very narrow. "So true it is," says M.
Andral, "that the human mind is forced
to choose among a very small number of
solutions cut of which it is impossible to
extricate itself; this is the reason why
philosophical problems have not changed
in nature from the time 'of Thales to our
present days, and have received the same
solutions at all times.1'
Indeed,' the number of philosophical
doctrines, to which the medical systems
have relations,' is not indefinite; those
doctrines are computed, and the human
mind is not allotted to establish a theory
absolutely new for the deduction of the
first ideas The evolutions of. thought
are reduced to four : spiritualism, sensu
alism, scepticism and mysticism. These
four doctrines, whose value is very differ
ent, include the whole philosophy; in
deed, it is not given man to propose a
general explanation which does not arise
either from the senses, or from mere
thought, or from doubt, or from extacy.
Man is doomed eternally to go through
these four - evolutions. The. essence . of
all medical doctrines is therefore U:sJ
ly a filiation, mere cr less necessary, to
clq cr the ether cf these intellectual evo
lutions or to several at once -- It is there
fore wrong to proclaim inferior divisions
of theories and systems, which, notwith
standing their number, might be reduced
to a much narrower circle of doctrines.
It is impossible, forsooth, to know the his
tory of medicine, if we ignore the istory
of philosophy ; the revolutions of the one
have been, in their successive phases,
subordinate to the revolutions of the other,
each of the great conceptions by which
philosophers have pretended to embrace
the ensemble of things created, have been
reflected in the science of man, have left
therein their profound and indelible mark;
each Jias given birth to some prospective
views, to some medical theories, and left
therein its frequent germ ; immense chain
which, starting from Hippocrates, has
grown in length at every. period, and
offers to-day a work worthy the illustri-
i -: .Wn those taken from the ous dead, who, tor centimes, u BuCe3-
rtigung. philosophy , su.vej u.e uu-aw. y . :
r,- rral sciences ia that country, yea Lc-n Hipocrates npptareu, oocra.es
will find cut that th? contemporary phil- j had proclaimed .a new mane; rr.
doctrines, ; and to wander, in the same
errors.' -The book cf the nature of man
which is attributed to Polybus, teaches
about the doctrines of Plato, and. shows
us man. formed of four humors. The
doctrine of. Galienus, or Galen, so uiuch
venerated for fourteen centuries, began
also with the" ideas of Plato upon the
four fundamental humors (blood, phlegm,
bie and black bile,) and those of Empe
docles upon the elements of the, primitive
qualities of , things, ideas which taken and
spread by Aristotle, had swayed philoa
ophy before they set tleir stamp' upon
medicine.' 'The systems of Democritus
and Epicurus upon atoms, the effects of
their going near and removing again from
each other, gave birth to those 'of Ascle
piadesand Themison upon i the striciuih Sf
thelaxum. ideas which remind to a-cer
tain degree of the spasm and the atony
of.Cullen and Hoffman,-the dichotomy of
Brown and Bronassois. What wonder that
certain epochs, although separated by a
long intervaibf time, offer striking anal-
ogeis. Man's mind. eternally Lends and
bends again upon the. same solutions, up
on the -same truths as it does upon .the
same errors; moreover is it not submit
ted, as it-was two thousand years ago, to
immutable laws ? The principles of the
Pyrrhonean philosophy evidently were
those, which inspired the founders of the
empiric medical school, although these,
nevertheless, did not always fully adopt
the principles of the sceptic or empiric
philosophy. It would not be difficult to
prove that the distinction established by
Descartes between matter which is inert
and the forces which set it to motion, Lasj
. . u
. . S . v.i iii
hani, the doctrine of
on the o
physicians. In our days do we not see
the philosophy of Locke and Candillac,
which proclaims that the whole physiol
ogy, even the acts of the mind, emanate
rom transformed sensation, open a way
to the school which resumes in inflama
ion the genesis of diseases ? But while
this system was attaining to the apogee
of its fame, a doctrine, more modest,
arose besides it and w?s preparing its
ruin, medical eclectism, which is but an
emanation of the philosophical eclectism
of M. Ousin, protested against the pre
tention tuM all morbid phenomena ema
nated from a sole lesion. He collected
with the aid of clinical observation, of
pathologic anatomj', of chemical analysis,
a large number of proofs before which
soon was to crumble the edificerof the
professor of. Val-de-Grace. Finally, in
these latter times, we have seen medicine,
in Germany, Look for fame in the desti
nies of a brilliant system Which arose to
the horizon of philosophy, the system of
absolute identity, and cast compared an
atomy ,into relations, into, pantheistical
peculations, which ideas a priori alone
Now, if medical syntheses have thus
been the reflection of the conceptions of
philosophy, the knowledge of the history
of the latter, viz : of the ideas which have
ogically succeeded to one another, thro1
ages, must precede that of medicine, be
its preface, as the exposition of principles
must precede that of their consequences.
This is the rational measure which it is
necessary to take in every scientific edu
cation; a history of medicine thus under-
tood shall constitute the most extensive
and the most certain instruction which can
be received and transmitted ; but as long
as the philosophical questions which are
connected with medicine shall remain for
the medical public a kind of arid and
tedious algebra, there shall remain a
hiatus, a want in the intelligence of the
rcecTical prcfe?. - . -
V ell it is then that medical Jawsshoulc
:uire an.--j there: h ,-nc-.vh",T9 cf
Gray or Powder YHIIotc.
- "What, lerme ask, is the great distin
guishing deficiency, that is apparent, to
any one, in our prairie homes cf the
West. All agree in saying ihat it is the
lack of timber properly distributed. "
"Then tho question arises how can
that be remedied ? Y$ have been try
ing experiments for tha lat twenty year,
with locust and some other kinds cf trees
but with no satisfactory results.
r "Now I propose that we try the Gray
or Power Willow. It is more easily
produced than any cf the : kinds hareto
fore tried, is better adap.fd to all local;
ties, -is. a mare raptu grower, is more
beautiful, will not breed or harbor ver
min, 'will cot spread by suckeis, and
lastly' is equal in vjilut to any other fust
grvwer that has been tried, and I think
superior.. All that is necessary is to
stick strips of the willow in the ground
and it will grow, and that rapidly. . It is
best adapted in its habits to low and wet
grounds, but will grow in any kind cf
sou. .Uut of one thousand slips thare is
ca need of loosing any ; they all grow.-r-
oiips one foot long, stuck half wav into
tha ground, will grow in three years
rrora nrteen to twenty feet high, and at
the 'end of seveni to ten years will be
large enough to cut into three rail cuts,
the first making four rails, the second.
two, and the last one is a pole. The
cuitmg or it down does not. destroy it,
out oniyiarusesa more rapid and vigor
ous second growth.. When-once the
ground - is set with it,; it n a permanent
thing. It matters not how often it is cut
off, it continues to throw up new shoots.
Then there is no kind of wood with which
I arri acquainted that splits with so much
ease, and so straightly, as this willow.
The rails are easily handled because the
wood is light; and they will Iaft, if kept
Jj iC ground, inirty . or Jorty years.
lhere is no decay to then wr?a f.cr: c.r
tne grouj. as L::Li.r.j c: i.i'j ra!::$
uni vicissitudes cf wev.hsr will
ally lesson them in siza, sr.i t' -y v . i
eventually brccme too small fsr.a.rvic$
u.3 rails, but not until they have served out
their fidl time.' When it comes in con
tact with the ground is not a hardy wood.
It is also valuable for protection, shelter,
or screen for vines; also for boards,
shingles and fuel. It is quite equal, I
am told, to any of the light woods for fuel.
It is astonishing on what a small
amoant of ground enough Willows can be
grown to build and keep up the fences of
a farm, and at the same time supply the
house with fuel. In many parts of
Europe they grow it for fuel, putting it
in on the lines between tracts owned by
different persons, and in low and marshy
places. It i3 the first thing to throw out
its beautifiul green leaves in the spring,
and is the last to part with them in au
tum or early winter. The tree grows
straight, and limbs are upright; does not
spread about like many other trees, but
is really a thing of beauty. From my
earliest boyhood it has been familiar to
me, and I never look upon it but with
renewed pleasure. '
. I hope the farmers of McLean, and all
the prairie regions of the West may be
A fence of this description cn tho f x:r:i
Major Mary, Marcclljs. New York, with
Lomtardy Popal posts, lasted ever thirty
years. : Though, l.kj aU willjws, its
choice, were it capable of making cne.
wouhl be for a wet soil, it grows equally
well on dry prairie. It is beir iri-oJ fcr
hedgo ia L-.v irreurJ. Fcr thi r-rr.---
my plan "would Le to use largo Ihnls, say
two to three inches ia diameter, five cr
six feet bng. Sharpen cn? end, and
drive th . i eighteen inches deep, and at
lea3t that distance apart, sloping them in
the hedge lina at an angle of foriy-f;vn
degrees, similar to the 'siJd hill fence'
built' irr. soma localities in tho Eastern
States.- P,y leaving the sod .unbroken,
crowding the plants thus close, and occa
sional cutting the tops, it u possible that
it may be kepr dose enough fur a good
Excuse my tediausnsss I plead guilty
to the accusation cf a mania in trct
planting., and would that all who read
this, in all prairiedom, were not almost,
but altogether as much engrossed as a
few of us are, in this important subject.
"My son Thomas went and made an
estimate of the largest tree, just twenty-
one years from the slip. It ha3 sixteen
limbs, branching from tha ground, lha
largest'of which, measures four feet ia
circumference, three : feet above tha
ground. He thinks the tree will mak3
one hundred and fifty rails, and cne cord
of good wood. We cut down two dozen
trees on the river bank, just two years
since; two shoots from a stump of which
were brought me yesterday, measuring
seventeen feet long, and two inches in
diameter when cut off. I will write you
again, soon as I can pass over f ;
covered ground- -
Duncan's Iills, Fulton Co. 111.
rage m u rrele
:n wnica does e o i.
or the good cr for the evil of mankind,
in a profession whose members aae neces
sarily saviors or murderers saviors, if
they have a competent professional knowl
edgeaccompanied wfth honesty of pur
pose : murderers, if lacking in either of
them. A. G.
Tbe Cost or Fences.
The Maine State Agricultural Report
present some striking statistics in relation
to the cost of fencing. The fences of
of this Slate have cost 825,000,000 ; the
repairs require 82,000,000 annually; six
per cent. interest is Sl.500.000; and a
renewalin twenty years would be S5,250,
000. or two-thirds the original coat of the
Erie canal. . A strong argument in favor
of soiling. Estimated cost of road fences,
supposed to be one sixth part of the
whole, 3,125,000. The interest and cost
of annual repairs and renewing would be
$431,900 the tax paid annually by the
farmers of Maine to make the public
highway a pasture. To this sum is to be
added S150.CC3. the yearly cc3t of break -
rh snow drifts caused by saci i
riduced to grow the Willow, and thereby
beautify their homes. KH. Fell."
"Eds. PjtAiKiE Farmxa: Since the
meeting of the Horticultural Society, I
am almost daily in receipt of inquiries
relating to the Gray Willow. In he
spring of 1845, 1 obtained a cutting of it
from John Moore, nurseryman at Madi
sonville, near Cincinnati. It was planted
on the bank of an old sod fence, and has
never since received any cultivation.
., Currant cuttings planted near it the
year before, receiving the same neglect,
are how no larger than four year old
plants which have been well cultivated.
The Willow, a foot from the ground,
measures over one hundred inches in cir
cumference. Several years since, struck
withit3 rapid growth, I planted a quan
tity of it in an orchard screen, at the
time supposing, as most of our people
have, that the timber was of very little
value. Since hearing the evidence of
Mr. Fell at the Horticultural meeting, as
to the value of the timber for rails, I am
fully satisfied that it is the rnost valuable
tree we have for replacing our Locus!
groves, -beri!' 7 killed ly the cTcr, pr.i for
a r;ev.- jrnpui:
s V.z grczt r,-v:d cf i',
fifty per cent more rapidly than the cct
tonwood, splits freely, is not injured to
my knowledge by any insect, nor liable
to be browsed by stock. Itsprduts freely
from the stump, though I do not remem
ber to have ever seen a sucker from the
"A limb an inch and a half in diameter
was cut off last spring; the stub threw
out five main branches, which grew from
eight to eleven feet in length, besides a
number of smaller limbs. With care in
cutting off all but one shoot, I hope to be
able to show at our Horticultural ani
Agricultural Fairs next fall, a growth of
the. present year from fifteen to twenty
feet in length.
"Cuttings eight inches Icrg set three
fourths their length in the ground, dirt
pressed firmly around the lower end, are
certain to grow. Let the rows run north
and south, say five to six feet apart, two
The love of coffee i3 an acquired taste.
Perhaps nine tenth3 of families using it
'burn it almost to a coal, so that, in re
ality, any other burnt bitter would answer
quite as well. In fact, multitudes ia tho
far West, removed from markets, have
become accustomed to use burnt bread
crust as a substitute, which certainly is
not injurious, but it is a known fact that
a cup cf some mild, hot drink at meals is
a positive benefit.
The following substitutes for coffee
have been collected ia all of which it is
suggested, first, that the substitute le
mixed with the genuine article, half-and-half
; second, that ia order to know what
you are really drinking, roa3t and grind
your otva coffee. In this was only, can
you know that you are not imposed upon,
or may not be drinking some cheap ma
terial, either filthy or poisonous.
1. It is said that three part3 of Rio,
with two parts of old Government Java,
well prepared, is quite as good, if not
superior, to that made of the latter alone.
. 2. W'heat Coffe. Wheat coffee, mads
of a mixture of eight quarts of wheat to
one pound of real coffee, is said to afford
a beverage quite as agreeable as the un
adulterated Rio, besides being much more
3. Rye Coffee. take a peck of rye
and cover it with water, let it steep or
boil until the grain swells or commences
to burst, then drain or dry it. Roast ta
a deep brown color and prepare as other
coffee, allowing twice the time for boil
ing. Wheat coffee probably could be raada
the same way. '
4 Another. Take some rye; first
scald it; second dry it; third brown ti,
and then mix it with one-third coffee and
two-thirds rye, and then you will have as
good a cup of coffee as you ever drank.
5. Swiet Potato Coffee. Take sweet
potatoes, cut them fine enough to dry
conveniently, and when dried, grind ia a
coffee mill ; dry them by the fire or stove,
at this season cf the year, cr by the sua
when that will do it; grind and use cne
and a half teacupfuls for six persons, cr
mixed with coffee in such proportions as
you like. Some omit half cf 'he coffee,
6. Barley Coffee. Take common bar
ley, or the skinless, if it can te obtained,
roast as you would coffee, and mix in auch
prercrtiens as e .:.: your tar.;. It ii vc ry
l ei Ccce. It n
v, z v-.ry i
held peas, rcaated and ground with th
coffee. There are hundreds cf thousands
cf bushels of peas annually used for that
purpose. Those who are in the habit of
purchasing ground coffee can do better to
buy their own pea3, burn and grind thera
and mix to suit themselves.
8. Carrot Coffee. It is recommended
by an exchange. Cut up, dry and grind,
and mix wilh coffee in quantities to suit
9. Chestnut Coffee. -Chestnuts, aLo,
are said to make excellent coffee.
10. Dandelion root, dried and slightly
scorched, never burned.
11. Chicory Coffee. qual weights of
chicory and coffee, dried and roasted in
the usual manner. Tb.3 chiccry root is
raised as easily as carrots, and exactly hi
the same manner. The chiccry root i3
raised as easily a? carrot;, and exactly ia
the same manner. To rrerare tho root.
or three feet in the row, cultivate three j wash it clean, slice it lengthwise in f . ' r
years. The fourth year alternate plants . cr sjx pieces, according to size, cut in two
can be cut out for rails, and in two years ; icca lengths, dry and keep ia a dry place
more tho. tatanee can le cut, zz the sheets 1 ,;nt; rr-r.r-J. Chicory U iirj -ly '
snd ' orfning roads. These esti-
:-phv always contains the ccir.p.c-te .
Ic-te'tho'tifciiowed the Sccr&u: p
its expression. That it is tr.ro:!. ;
.iior? of .mo
nv : out tae
Kirs- . i. , . , v--- ;-..-it :-ca;c;r,c
I Island. N. Y.
rnS9tf; May 22, 1852. niS-Sin.
sTtV'tofermentatioa the learea of our' still shcae forth in. all the eclat cf his marauders
is learned, is : left tho way pointeJ out ly their teachor
lor.rt: v which! to fellow in the fooistep of Tlato, who ! t
tin:a:e3 will do
fc:;i;es Mai: o.
the . tw.i
o a n o v
!:.r.t 02 -y.:
to other piuoe
uit-.m now is, that ! s
!i ir.t!-.iic-r : s : jr nj.-ii : .- v i
whim this' wilUbel wili'-v r.:ih can b U
tOA;2l tO Srhut. Cu
OA to Vat. Farmer.
U tC!.Ct I'iJl ttil in.: .. i .u , . ji i
i . . . L - ' . .
amor;.? tr.e trunks ol the past, as rn.jca as io po
i-una n i orov. thfe a;ii iz.
a...g a v y Uw.aw....
0 1 u
1 drink it dorvii.Iki'j Jr"1".
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