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About Nebraska advertiser. (Brownville, Nemaha County, N.T. [Neb.]) 1856-1882 | View Entire Issue (March 1, 1860)
... - - . . .
jTJRNAS & LYALUTA,
rr..iv nV fain P t r c t
l8i 5W '
if In adrancs.
. . $ 2 00
If Pd Ube end of C roonthi S 60
" ' . ) or more wilt be furaicbrd at $1 0 pet
rvld tbecab econiFDlp tLe ir2tr, not
A ,y lyv a yfyy .) f
M It ..! MX M -1 ! LZ
On s3r ('J t'.nei er Jess) Ci2
Cl:t saaare, cet ciocti,
Briiae Cixiuef a.x i.it or i; .
Ofce Colasia on ytr, -
Or.'ti;r Cl s.aa j yer,
founi Cu'.una ,se jr,
Cr.col-4tnn iix muuil J, -One
fc.!f Cuiataa jx E3u?t. '
Cue fr:b Colerne six
Owe ';iiis C!- -o ix ro-.ntha,.
One Cinma tbree months, -
Cue fcxl Coloma ittM cir.ntii,
One foertfc Colttma ttirce iuob!;::
Oaeelxktn Colatia three moot!'
. ft 61
f ' ff,
SO 0 '
i 9 .
. S 9
It i .to. wif - tiCiiM
BliOWNVILLE, NEBRASKA, THUESDAY, MARCH 1, 1860.
SOLICITOR IN CHANCERY
Xlcal Estate Agent,
DR0WNV1LLE, N. V.
p. F l'e
ci T T ATTTTTTT
Cabinet & 7agoii-IIaker
rin?treet.bet. Sixth and Seventh.
.i!kin.lif binet work neialy execnied.
- f tU.w. etc.. promptly done.
. J. B. V7ESTON,
ATTOBUEY AT LAV ,
i rj'OSceon Min Street, one door bore the Post
; .werfl'.e, Prcember I, 59
'irchitect and Builder.
"TlRS. JIA11Y HEW-ETT . .
flUMER AIID DRESS MAKER.
Viin Street, one door above CajBons Bank.
M enc ''HmmzTigy ciiray on A an J.
-JAMES W. GIBSON,
T. M. TAL150TT,
; DENTAL SURGEON,
?.ifi loeateJ bimclf in Urownville. N. Tnlfi-
Ill job! warnmieu.
Hnvin" penuanenlly located in
Medicine end Jsirjrery, ten-
in his jrofeMifnl nerricee to the afflicted. -
X S. HO L LAD AY, M.D.
IcvectmilTtriforniibii friend in Brownville nd
in.3ute vicioiiy tbtbe ha resumed the practice r
; Medicine, Surgery, & Obstetrics,
! M hopef.br strict attention to his profeMm, to receive
uuiM-nerun ptronge heretorre rxien.lel him. in
licae here it i possible or expedient, a prescription
LiDewill berlone. Otfte at City Umg Store.
Feb. 24, '69. 35 ly
: Mrs. Hendgen & Miss Lusk,
i KILL1XERS AND DRESS 5IAKERS,
j First Street, bet. Main and Water,
1 DliOWN VI I A .K, NEBRASKA,
J Ut!t, litoi-Drtneiend Trimming alwaytonkand
L. LL JOHNSON, I.L D.f
PnYSICIA AND SURGEON,
Office at C C. Johnson's Lr Offlcc,
' first Street, between IXain and Water,
o. t. M Oiir. o. a. iicwctt. t. w. tijomaS.
McGary, Huwelt k Thomas,
ATTORIiEYS AT LAW
SOLICITORS IX CHANCER Y.
Will practice In the Courts of Nebraska, and Xortfc
Messrs. Crow, McCreary &Co., St. Lonls, Mo
lion, jarues m. iiucds,
Hen John R. Sbcply.
' If on. SilaiJlVoKBon,
Hon. Sniitel W. BUclt,
S. F. Nuckolls, Esq.,
Cbeever Sweet h. Co.,
R. W. Furnas
St. Joseph, Mo.
Brownville, K. T. Oct. 23. 1858.
a . 4u wilcox.
T. W. LZfQtilj
WILCOX & BEDFORD,
A 5 D
ZUroxprxTLlTo, INT. 27.
Land Warrants Loaned on Time
From One Month to Ten Years,
Land Warrants Loaned to Prc-cniptors ; Taxes Paid;
Collections made; Real Estate Boucbt and Sold j Lands
Located ; and safe Investaienti made for Eastern Cap
italists. All Land Warrants sold by cs are joaranted perfect
In all respects,
Acres of Choice Lands,
For Sale In Ncmalia and Richard
son Counties, Nebraska.
Thee lands were selected and lKated immediately
after the Laud Sies, and are amongst tbe tuol valua
blet.an.U in the Territory.
We will sell them at low prices, and on Ions time to
WILCOX it BEDFORD,
Brownville, K. T., Dec. 8, 1W9.
Clocks, Watches & Jewelry.
Would anuouneeto thecitltens of Brswnvillt
and vicinity tbat be bas located bimselt in
Brownville. andintend keeping a full assort.
lueiu of everything in bis lineof butiinefs, mbicb will
be old low for cash. lie will also do all kinds of re
pairing of clocks, watebca and Jewelry. All work war
BUOWiSrVILTi'E, N. T.
imiMinri ., ti.f iinMic that he is Dreuared to accom-
li.him' m-ith c.t:i"ph and Uuccice I to
gether with good ae horses, for comfort and case in tra
velling. He will also board norse ny iceuay. t ees or
XVTERMS FAVORABLE. mfl
June 10, '63.. 60tf
INCREASE OF CASH CAPITAL
Phoenix Insurance Company,
FIR IliSURAKCE EXCLUSIVELY
Cash Capital, 400,000 00 Dollars.
Casll ASSCttS, $317,713 tf7
S. II. LOOM IS, President.
H KEU OQ i. Secretary.
Branch Office, 31 & 33 3d St. Cincinnati
M. MAGILL General Agent.
AftcU in tbe principal Citiei and towns in the
iwoa. Uict promptly paia. ArwicawunarweiT
po'.icief iwued ui renewed.
O. B. HEWETT Agent,
At Urownrille, N. T.
BfowoviUe, Not. 17. 185'J.-ly
Of. cvory description, for sale at
SCIMTZ S: DEUSER'S
South-east corner Main and Second,
EBOWNVILLE. N. T.
Rrr.f ,1 f-ntll
tup mm iiDi
JOliS W. MIDDLETON,
ZjnOTTXTILI.E, X. T.
rs-V IH.RF.BT informs tke public tbat be bas
located biacelf i tbtsCity, and is prepared
V -t rerre tkoe in waot of anything in his line,
ft' has selected bis slock rith c are-and will nanufacture
1 ". t article of ereryttiag offered. He deems it un
cetn.ry tocnaraerate? tvtwill keep on band ereyarli-
caiaailyobtaiMd is Sjue and Harness shops.
JOnX W. MIDDLETON.
arownviUe Vsrlt. no4-m
w m m m.
HaT'in fntrnA th int trail f I. ik mid Emm'riiMiiii
JJ BrjnriiieS'eara Sjw and (irmt lltll.annonnce to
"thepublic that he is prepared to iccjnnvlate the
"itttf Hrnwnrill riJ V th C.Hintf with a n-
rr,niity of Imnber of all kinds. A1m with tbe
"lill.Uerreall In that line.
Buarkat nrtoa 1 1 , i ni.t tnr T-nFt and Corn
oid bniaeif Xoel.LkelL F.mnternon will te
''tiH by rieery Iake. All future bnlne e ndncted
laidwicned. JESSE XOKL.
'ille. April 7th, 1S59. IT
JOSEPH L. ROY,
33 -l 3EL.23 ES 2-
nnowxTiLLt, x. t.
CITY LIVERY STABLE.
(Over Scigle & Urcerjboum'a Clotliing Store,)
Brownville, IT T.
rhe proprietor would ret peel fully inform the pub
vsthe lia!" opened upend established f'-r the re-
ttb ntof the inner man, at the above mentioned
plae, ,; nil citn be accommodated with the best
of Wines and Li quo.?, and enjoy tbe soothing in
fluence of the bcftqunlity of feegnr.. A hrst claw
1'belrtn'- Tatent Combinntion Cushion, with all the
rnoderm improvement!". U alno on the premises for
the enjoyment of all who delicht tn thi. pfntienmn
IyflndcieiitifieKame. EVAN WOUT1IINU.
September Z-M, isav.
I 1-6 m
Life Insurance Company,
Incorporated ly the State of Connecticut.
Capital Stock 200,000.
With litrrcand increajinjr surplus rfccipt,secure-
ly invested under the sanction and approval of the
Comptroller of Public Accounts.
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:
JAMES C. WALKL.EY, President.
JOHN L. IIUXCE, Vice President.
ELIAS tJILL. Secretary.
E. D. DICKERMAX, General Agent.
Alfred Gill, Daniel Phillips, JohnL.Hunce,
K. P.!.lgef, J. A.l'.utlcr, K. I. Ii"keroian
N.Wheaton, Sam. Coit. Xclion Hollistcr,
James C. Walklcy.
S. B. Bereford. M I, ConUltin? Physician.
A. S. lIHd.iy.M J). Meilical Exsirainer.
Applications received by U.W. Kl'KXAS. Ap't.
n8-tf Ilrownrille. N.T.
CITY TEUIIK ST0EE.
, FAS SETT & CROSSLI AIT,
Traveling & Packing
VALISES, CAR PET BAGS, 6? C.
South West corner of Pine and 3d st's,
Saint Lcals, Ho.
D. A. COS8T ADLC,
IRON STEEL, NAILS,
CaS HAGS, SPIIINGS, AXLES, FILE
ifi a cksmYth's tools
" TUrd Street, bctweea Felix and Edmocd,
SAINT" JOSEPH, MO.
- V'iiich be sells at St. Louis prices for cash.
. -";rv. -ricd Paid fot Scrnp Jroa. '
Ii.vi.ci , i j.-iy.
JOQX. P. KINXET. CHAR. F. HOLLY.
KINNEY & HOLLY,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
rVEIIUASKA CITY, IV T.
Will practice in the Courts of thi Territory Collec
tion and criminal business attended to throughout N
hraska, Western Lwa and Missouri. Will attend the
Courts at Brownville. v2n33-Cnt
E. S. DUNDY,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
ARCIIEK, RtCII ARDROIf CO. It. T.
WILL practice in the several Courts of tbe id Judicial
District, and attend to all nutters connected with tbe
Profession. Wat. McLekhas. Ka., of Nebraska City,
will askist me in the prosecution of Important Suits.
Sept. 10. '87-tl-tf
OFFICE Mai St, Eattof Kinnty 4 Holly' t ojjict,
Nebraska City. 3.T.
Per:ontwh contemplate building can be fnrnished
With Designs. Plan Specifications. &c. fr buildingoi
anyclass tir rariety of style, atirl the ereciii ii of (he
same .nperintended ir dasired. rrompt attention paid
Ij busiuef roni a distance. Sill
TYPE & STEREOTYPE FOUNDRY
TSo. 188 Vine St.. bet. Fourth ana Fiftc
C. F. O'DIUSCOaLL & CO
Manufacturer and dealers in News. Uook aDO Job
Type. Printing Presses. Cases. Nnllics.Ae., tc.
Inks, and Printing Materia! of Ererr Description,
STEREOTYPING of all kind Books Music.
Patent. Medicine Directions Jobs, Wood Kngrevings.
c, f c.
Brand and Pattern Letters, variousstyles,
ST. JOSEPH, MO.
WILLIAM CAMERON, A." M., Principal.
Completely organized as a first class Female Boardine
and Day School. Number limited to 125, including 25
boarders. Scholastic year commencing first Monday In
September. For Catalogues, with full particulars, ad
dress tbe Principal.
Ancnst 4th. 1S6J). v4n4f
We are now prepared t. all alt orders
On tin ur line with promptness and on tbe
! tbe most reasonable terms. Ourttockls
ei ' t Ji..f and comi leteand nil of our own
manufacturing. Tboseia ant of article in our line,
(wholesaleor retail) willdowell tojrive ns a call be
fore pun-basin elsewhere. A share of public patrou
aeei solicited. n!8v3-ly
JAMES HOG AN,
BLANK COOK MANUFACTURER.
Southeast cr. 2nd and Iocust St-s.
ST. LOUIS, .AIO.
Allkindoor Blank B x.V mlef the host paper, rnled
t. any pattern, and ewed In tbe new Improved patent
LIZBAMES PCItlODICAIiS. MUSIC.&c,
bound in any tyle, and at the hortet notice.
Itavinr been awarded the Premium at the lat Me
chanic's Fair, befcelic:ndiieit in inurins satisfaction
toailwlm miy citc hint a cait.
July 124, liii. Iyr3n4
D L AUK
COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA.
WILLIAM F. KITER.
Would respectfully inform the citizens in Western
ru- V.k..;lr. tinl tin htu nnnno.t ft. first flila
Cindery, and the only one ercr established in thii
section of country. I am now prepared to doall kind
of worn pertaining to trie nusmc.-p.
Harper s. lirtham s.tjodey , 1'cterson s, Artnur
Uallou'i. Frank IlieV, Knickbocker, Wa
verly, Hunt's, and Putnam's Magazines.
Jicw York Ledger, IiallouV Picto
rial. Harper's Weekly. Scien
tific American. Yankee
Kotions. Musical!, eriew. Les
lie's Illustrated, Lndies Repository.
Ladies Wreath, Atlantic Monthly,
Music, Law. Hook, and Newspaper!', or
books of any kind, oil or new, bound or r bound
in themo?t at.prTed styles, on short notice and low
prices. Old family UiUcs rebound so as to lock and
wear equal to new.
August 2t, 1SS9. n7-ly
DROWS & CLIXTOX,
Forwarding & Commission
No. 78, North Levee, St. Louis. Mo.
Orders for Groceries and Manufactured Article? accu
rately filled at lowest possible rate. Consignment for
ale anl re ship rue tit respectullr nolicited. Shipments
of all kinds will be faithfully attended to.
Messrs. O IT Rea 4t Co St. Louis
Birtlett. McComb 4 Co ' do
Gilbert, Mile & Stannard do
ITon. W II Bufflngton. AnditorState of Missouri
J Q Harmon. Esq. Cairo City, III.
Messrs ilolonr, Bro s &Co' Kew Orleans, Lonisiana
J D Jackson. Ksq.,
Messrs llinkle Guild & Co,
F Ttittnmar & Co
Brandell &. Crawford
Woodruff & Iluntlcgton,
It- Billinff. F.sq.,
May 12, liS53 45-3m
A. D. KIRK,
Attorney at taw,
Land Agrcat and Xotarj Public.
Rulo, Richardson Co., .V. T.
Will practice in the C.uirtrnf oist.debraska.a
Xriir lintrnd P.ennett .ebrnkr Pitr.
IS HAM UEAVIS,
ATTOMEY AT LAW,
UF.AL ESTATE AGENT,
Falls Uity, Richardson County. Nebraska.
Wi Icre prompt attenti n tn all professional hosi
dcfs intrasted to bis rare in Richardson and adjoining
countier; also to the drawing of deeis, pre-emption pa
per StC c. May 13. '68 n4G-6m
A. W. ELLIOTT,
SEED DEP 0 T,
Cor. Broadway and Yf'nsli Street.
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
n.ivinjr purchased tbe entire nursery stock of Jchn
Sipgersook. Bro.,1 am prepared to offer to tbe public
tbe largest and best selected stock of Fruit Shade, and
Ornamental taees, shrubs and plants ever offered for
sale in tbe West. We ?re determined to offer sncb in
dncements to tree planters and the tra!c ai will ensure
tbe mot entire satisfaction. Descriptive catalopnes. will
be furnished, and any information ?iven. lv adilrcssing,
A. W. ELLIOTT.
Saint Louis, Mo.
Xovp mhr-r 35. 'S3-Ty.
SEBHASKA CITY, SEBKASCA.
T. I. GODDIN, Proprietor.
September. 29. 1S:9.
Important to Farmers.
Mers. Jamc ChaHenit Son Pnhliahen" Philadel
phia will send any Agricultural Work published in
America, postpaid, on receipt of the retail price.
Planting ana C'JUlTatlng Fruit
. The spirit of Horticulture seems to be
every day increasing in the minds of our
people, prompted, as it were by the re
quirements of our nature. The dispo
sition to persevere in improving, beauti
fying and planting fruit trees, and to pro
mote fruit culture, h everywhere appar
ent. Every successive - planting' season
is often followed by disappointment, until
the farmer is almost ready to give up in
despair, and say that it is all vanity. And
why is this disappointment; why do not
our trees grow, thrive, and bear fruit,
when our climate and the soil of the coun
try affords unequalled facilities for the
cultivation of fruit, (which is the most
natural, healthful, daintiest and cheapest
element of human food ?) And no one
accustomed to live where it is plentiful,
is willing to be without this luxury. Be
cause a good orchard improres our home
steads, and its immediate surroundings
create a love of home, from which we
could not part without the greatest reluc
tance. The reason we are without these
luxuries may be summed up simply thus :
In the first place ; the trees most gener
ally planted, are bought from unreliable
sources that is from tree pedlres who
traverse the country from place to place,
professing to be agents of some reliable
establishment with no authority for the
same, and with the help of their, gener
ally, very fluent language, palm on the
unsuspecting farmer the refuse trees of
some Eastern nursery, which they buy at
a nominal price, ship them to the west
ern country, regardless of the varieties
that are suited to our climate. This is a
matter of the greatest importance, in
fact, it should be the first object that
should be considered when making a se
lection of the varieties of fruit trees for
Secondly, when the trees are deliver
ed into the possession of the farmers they
are generally shrivelled up and not in
proper order to plant. , I have seen trees
delivered in this neighborhood, the past
season, that would require more skill than
the celebrated Downing was possessed of
to get them into a healthy condition.
Thirdly, when, by chance, they are de
livered in a tolerable condition, they are
not properly planted and cultivated. How
often do we see young trees entirely
choaked with turf, grass, sod and weeds
of every size and description. The trees
in a sickly state dwindle away and die for
ihe want of nourishment, and properly
cultivated soil for the roots to extend
their fine spongy fibres. The question
now arises, how are these evils to be
remedied? First, make your purchases
of trees from reliable nurseries, from
good, honest nurserymen. And if you
are not acquainted with the varieties
yourself, you may rely on his selection.
He will not send out inferior trees, or
trees that are not the varieties that he
represents them to be, when his reputa
tion is at stake ; but will forward them
true to name, and in good condition. He
will send the varieties best adapted to
There is another drawback in the cul
tivation of fruit, a mistaken notion of
the time required for young trees to com
mence bearing. But this error is fast
disappearing before good cultivation. It
is a well known fact that bad treatment
will long reiard the growth and conse
quently the bearing of fruit trees. But
give them, for a few years, a mellow,
clean and fertile soil, and you will soon
see vigorous shoots, and expanding bran
ches, bending to the ground under their
copious loads of fruit. Give your young
trees the care you bestow on your ordi
nary farm crops, and you cannot fail to
succeed. When we are about planting
an orchard, the location is the first in im
portance. Select dry Jand, free from
springs and stagnant water. The soil
should be mellow, firm and deep, and of
good quality. Wet, sterile soil is excee d
ingly unfavorable. It not only lessons the
quantity, but considerably injures the
quality. In order to get the land in a
proper condition for planting, it should
be dressed with well decomposed ma
nure, and loosened from IS to 20 inches
deep, with a subsoil plov The manur
ing being done prerious to the subsoiling.
in order to obtain a thorough admixture
of the soil and manure. It is preferable
to have this done in the Fall, where plan
ting is intended to be done in the Spring.
The surface should be left as rough as
possible, so that the inorganic matter con
tained in the soil, and manure, which con
stitutes the food of the plants, be thorough
ly incorporated together. It will then
be exposed ia the best possible way to the
action of the atmosphere and all gasses
therein contained detrimental to the ex
tension of the fine fibrous roots of the
plants be removed before the planting
season is commenced. The ngor of the
elements will likewise destroy myriads
of insects in the form of eggs and larva,
which so often commit such depredations
on our trees, and have entirely Jcft the,
ground. It may be harrowed down for
the convenience of working. Now pro
ceed to mark out the ground according to
the. distance required for the varieties of
trees you are about to plant, placing a
mark where each hole is to be made for
the reception of the roots, which if made
to range every way, will have a very
pleasing effect, will admit the currents
of air and the sun's influence more effec
tually, and make the orchard still more
convenient for tillage. The proper dis
tances, if for standard apple trees, is 30
feet ; pyramids on apple stocks, 12 feet ;
dwarfs on doucainor Paradise stocks, 10
feet; standard pears, 20 feet; pyramids
on pear stocks, 12 feet ; dwarfs on the
quince stock, 10 to 12 feet; peaches 12
feet ; standard cherries 15 feet ; dwarfs
8 feet ; standard plumbs 15 feel ; dwarfs,
10 feet. The, holes should be opened
from three to four feet in diameter, and
from IS inches to two feet in depth.
Fill the hole up within a couple of inch
es to the level of the surface with rich
surface soil, mixing in a small quantity
of the refuse of a charcoal pit or leached
ashes. Raise a small knoll in in the
center, on which place the tree about to
I would here wish to impress on the
mind of the planter to be particular and
expose the roots to the sun and dry winds
as little as possible. Many trees are de
stroyed, before the tree is planted. Ex
amine the roots; see if their extreme
ties are bruised, and if they should be,
take a sharp knife and cut off the bruis
ed part, always cutting from the lower
side upward, which will give the root the
best chance to heal before decay sets in.
Place the tree upon that mound, spread
out the root in the most natural ptsi
t ion for their growth. While the hole
is being filled up with soil, give the tree
a gentle shake, up and down, so that the
soil will come in contact with all the mi
nutest fibres; then pcur on a pailful of
water, which' will settle the soil and roots
together; press it gently with the foot,
raise the s. il abound the tree, about six
inches above the level of the ground;
cover the whole with an inch or two of
charcoal as a mulch,-Avhich will keep the
ground moist and prevent the young trees
from suffering by drouth. The trees be
ing thus planted, and secured from the
disaster, of every kind, by every means
his skill can devise. But the whole is not
yet accomplished. There is one more
duty yet to be performed, which if ne
glected would render the whole cf the
labor already done in vain, that is after
culture. For of all the thousands of trees
that are annually planted in all parts of
country. I may safely say that more los
ses are received by the neglect of this
most important point than by all other
(errors. Could we reasonably expect our
fruit trees to thrive and flourish, be they
ever 'so healthy when planted, when a
crop of grass and weeds consume all the
moisture that was provided for the roots
cf the trees? We most assuredly would
not expect any of our ordinary field crops
were they left uncared for, to repay the
cost of sowing. And by what reason can
we expect our fruit trees to repay us un
der such treatment ?
Most hoed crops may, with advantage
be planted between the rows of trees ;
such as potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets.
&c, which will pay the cost of cultiva
tion. But corn, although a hoed crop,
should not be planted between them, as
it grows too tall, shading the young trees
too much from the action of the sun, and
impeding a due circulation of air, which
causes the ripening of the wood to be
accomplished too late in the season ; thus
endangering the tree to be killed by the
frost. The influence of good culture on
fruit is almost incredible to persons un
acquainted with the nature of fruit. It is
larger, finer grained, and the flavor con
siderably improved. Whereas, withbad
culture, no estimate of the true charac
ter of fruit can be made. In order to
attain to this high state of development,
judicious pruning is indispensable. This
operation has two objects which must at
ail times be kept in view. The first is
to promote vigor and luxuriance in the
shoots and branches cf the young trees,
and to keep a well balanced head. The
other is to check the sap. Ia order to ob
tain fruit in fullness.it must be commenc
ed while the tree is in its infsncy, and by
carefully watching the growth cf thetrte
and removing all supurfluous shoots the
tree might be put in any form required
by the cultivator. By an over abundance
in quantity cf wood, the bearing wood is
robbed cf part cf its sustenance; the
roots arc exhausted, and the natural life
cf the tree ia unnecessarily shortened,
whilst the superflaons wool endangers
the tree, by giving the winds additional
power over it; retaining dampness; pro
moting blights ; affording shelter for in
sects; preventing free circulation cf air;
and rendering the greater portion of the
tree worthless. The outer branches only
can bear fruit. Trees thus neglected ac
quire a stunted habit, and the fruit can
not be but of very inferior quality. These
considerations ought to induce every cul
tivator of fruit to make u thorough inves
tigation of their orchards, and when it is
found necessary, thin out ail irregularly
placed branches, and all unfruitful shoots,
always cutting thera close to the parent
stem. Old orchards may be renovated
and brought to a good state of cultivation
by the addition of root pruning. Th
mode of this operation ii, digging a trench
two or three feet wide, and from three
to four feet from the body of the tree ;
cutting all the roots that have the least
tendency to grow downward, as well as
those under the tree.- So that all roots
that have penetrated into unfriendly soil
are effectually removed from the tree.
Throw out the whole cf the soil contain
ed in the said trench, replacing it by en
riched soil. Placing all the roots in a hor
izontal direction upon it, U3 they invari
ably draw the, sap from the extreme
points. This pruning will compel ths
roots placed horizontally, to exert them
selves, and throw out fresh fibres and
collect a more congeneal sap for the sup
port of the tree, and displace the crude
tissue which heretofore remained as food
for the tree. There is cot a more pow
erful agent for producing canker and dis
eases which trees are subject to, than de
ceudingrpots, penetrating to the told,
sterile soil, inhaling vitiated crude mois
ture, causing a derangement cf the cir
culation of the fluids, which in its turn
causes canker and the attack of .insects,
and promote the growth cf lichens and
moss on the trunk. When trees show
these indications of disease, the great
evil generally lies at the root. The cause
of the disease must be found out and re
moved, and these symptoms will very soon
disappear. There is a process to which
recourse is made too often with diseased
trees. That is scraping the rough bark.
The invention being to remove the harbor
of destructive insects. 'Tis true that it
is a harbor for insects to deposit their
eggs. But on an examination cf these
eggs, it will be found that they consijt
only of the eggs and larva of spiders,
&c, not known to be materially injurious
to vegetation, and should any peculiar
idea call for their destruction it can easi
ly be effected without injuring the bark
The scraping of the bark is totally inef
ficient. As to the removing of destructive in
sects, such as borers, which hare their
habitation under the inner bark, and con
sequently scraping off the rough bark will
do more harm than good, by depriving the
inner bark, and the tree of their natural
protection their only shield from heat
For fear I am making this article too
long for one number of your paper I will
close, but propose to continue the subject
in my next. E. II. BURCHES.
To encourage Agricultural Pursuits in
the Territory of Nebraska.
Sic. 1. Be it enacted by the Council
and House cf Representatives cf the
The Territory cf Nebraska, That, for
the purpose of aiding agricultural pur
suits in this Territory, the sum cf three
hundred dollars be, and the same is here
by appropriated out of the territorial
treasury, and annually thereafter, sub
ject to the order of ths President and
Secretary cf the Territorial Board cf
Agriculture, said amount to be used in
the payment of premiums awarded by
said Board in the various branches of
agriculture, and for no ether purpose.
Sec. 2. That should the Board fail
any year to offer and award premiums
for the encouragement of agricultural
pursuits, then the benefits of thi3 act shall
not be available that year.
Sec 3. This act shall ta!ce effect and
be in force from and after its passage.
Approved January 12, 1SC0.
A question for discussion was brought
before a down east Lyceum. "Can a big
roaa .:h? harder than a littia man."
A correspondent cf th2 Valley Fartxtr
inquires whether there is any adranui j-j
ia feeding Charccai to steel: cr fit:;r.i:::;
hogs ? If any, what cr how 1 ar.I ho-v t
feed it? A heg is a veracious eater, and
if it canhave access to foci, cf whatever
kind, will eat until the capacity cf its
stomach will aimit cf ca rnc:?. T'.is ii
a natural consequence, as in c. r citing
cf the human subject, tends to prcl-jca
deranged digestion. Charccai exerts a
powerful eS'ect ia csrrecticg th.3 jutr:i
teniercycf th? contents ci this gc-rjsi
a t-a. it;:ich: Azl nhen
to swine not orer-fed, it tend !: maintain
a healthy state cf tha system.
Instances are cn record, where p:s
and chickens haTe, by accdent, been con
fined for sereral weeks in out-hcu323,find
when discovered had I:st but little Cssi.
and the only lubstanca within their reach
that could possibly serve them as food was
charccai. If charccai contains no nu
triment, strictly sseakintr.it is in its char
acter nearly pure carbon. When eaten
by animals the carbonaceous matter serves
ia connection 'with the oxygen cf thp ti
mojchere. to sustain heat, and the vitali
ty of the system, when without the char
coal the fat cf the animal would bo ex
hausted in the same way in its stead.
We have cften fed it to all kinds cf do
mestic fowls and to swine, with the great
est advantage in keeping up a healthy
condition of the system. .
How to Fsxd it: It should ba pul
verized, and mixed in small proportion,
with corn meal and water. Valley Far
Care cf Brcc'dirAr,ln:l3.
Breeding animah, ia winter, require
special care and attention. They not
only need food sufficient to sustain their
own organization unimpaired, but an in
creased quantity for the support and de
velopment cf the foetus, while it sustains
this mysterious union with its parent.
Breeding animals, cf whatever kind,
should have a good supply cf nutritious
food, properly prepared, a3 well as shelter
during stormy weather. A breeding an
imal, if neglected, exposed to cold storms,
and poorly fed, will bring forth but poor,
stunted young, which will be -hardly
worth the cost of raising, while the very
life of the mother may be endangered by
being reduced in flesh and strength.
This is particularly true cf .cows; and
yet many farmers, because their cows are
dried off, let them shirk for themselves,
thinking that because they give no milk,
rich food is unnecessary.
Dairy cows should be well sustained
through the winter, and more particular
ly those with calf, for their value for milk
the following season depends upon the
treatment they received during the win
ter. March is a trying time upon cattle
that have been neglected. ; It.is a crying
sin for a farmer to neglect his cow3 so as
to let them get upon "the lift," in tho
Spring. Cows in this condition will servo
but a very poor purpose in supplying tha
family with milk during the best part cf
the season, besides the inferior character
of the calf brought forth under fuch cir
cumstances. Both the cow and the calf
will require to be the better pcrtion cf
the summer in good pasture, to regain tha
flesh that they should haro had at ths
opening cf Spring.
Horsc3 ani Cattle ia tlie TTcrll
An illustrated natur.nl history cf tho
animal kingdom has just been published
by S. G. Goodrich. It has 2AQ0 en-ra-
vings. It is a highly useful work-
Among other information abounding ia it,
it contains the following, which is an es-
mate cf the number cf horses ia various
parts cf the world, From this we extract
The general estimate has been frcrn
8 to IS horses in Europe to every hun
dred inhabitants. Denmark has 45 horses
for every hundred inhabitants, which is
more than any other Eropean country.
Great Britain and Ireland have 5.5CO.-
France has 3.0C0.0C0.
Austrian Empire, exclusive cf Italy.
Russia has 3,500,000 -
The United States have 5,000,000
horses, which is more than any European
country; the horses cf the whole world
are estimated at 57,420,000.
Russia has 20,000,000 cattle.
Great Britain and Holland have 9,000,-
Austria has 19,000,000
France his 8,000,000.
United States have 22.C00.0CO. .
The whole world is estimated to con
tain 218.0C0.C00. It is supposed that
one-third cf them are killed annually, so,
tnat we have about 250,000,000 lis. 70.-
000.000 skins, .140.000,000 horns, 2SO,-
000,000 feet annually to be converted
into beef, tallow, leathetr combs, manure
he. : '
The editor cf the Eulltliji applied ccal
ashes to an old sward is here nothing but
white weed, Jcc, had grown before, tnd
it gave two fine crops of grass; applied
it to land for potatoes, and it produced a'
large crop, perfectly free from disease;
applied it to sweet corn and other vege tab
bies in the garden and it gave them a
fine growth and good color.
Sewing machines have been introduced
into some of cur female seminaries, and
instruction is given thereon.
A new process cf making paper f rem
African plants is ia operation at Bordt nux
and Marseilles, France, by which CO per
cent, is saved.
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