Semi-weekly news-herald. (Plattsmouth, Nebraska) 1895-1909, December 08, 1899, Image 3

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    Ileve that tli Ih exposition will tend
morn (Irmly lo cement Ok; cordial re
lations between the nations on this
In accordance with an act or con
gress, approved December 21, lXDS, and
under the auspices of tne Philadelphia
Commercial museum, a most interest
ing and valuable exposition or products
and maniifacturcH especially adapted
to export trade was held in Philadel
phia from the 14th of September to the
1st of December, IS!). The represent
tatlve character of the exhibits and
the widespread Interest manifested in
the objects of the undertaking afford
renewed encouragement to (hose who
look confidently to the steady growth
of our enlarged exportation of manu
factured goods, which has befit the
most remarkable fact In the economic
development of the United States In
recent years. A feature of this cxpo-
in tlu
31 men were scrvili:;
pines, and I .i;0 or the regulars, who
were entitled to he mustered out after
the rat I fie -aitoii or the treaty of peace.
They voluntarily remained at the front
until their places could bo filled by
new troops. They were returned home
In tho order In which they were sent
to .Manila and are now all of them
out of the service and in the ranks of
citizenship. I recommend that con
gress provide a special medal of honor
for the volunteers, regulars, sailors
and marines on duty in the Philip
pines, who voluntarily remained in the
service after their terms 01 enlistment
had expired.
By the act of March 2. 1899, congress !
Kave authority to increase the regular
army to a maximum not exceeding
65,000 enlisted men, and to enlist a '
Philip- this connection the report of the rust-
master general e mbodics a statement
of some evils which have grown up
outside or the contemplation of law
in the treatment of some classes of
mail matter which wrongly exercise,
the privilege of the pound rate, and
shows that if this matter had Leen
properly classified and had paid the
rate which it shoul have paid, ins'ead
of a postal deficit for the last fioi-al
year of $6.610,0ou there would have
been on one basis a surplus of J 17,
037.570, and on another of $5, 733.36.
The reform thus suggested, in the
opinion of the postmaster general,
would not only put the postal service
at once on a self sustaining basis, but
would permit great and valuable im
provements, and I commend the i-.ub-ject
to the consideration of the congress.
pci.nanent. and increasing utility to
our Industries, is the collection of sam
ples of merchandise produced in va
rious countries, with special reference,
to particular markets, providing prac
tical object lessons to United Slates
manufacturers as to qualities, styles
and prices of goods such as meet tins
special demands of consumers and may
be exported with advantage.
In connection with the exposition
nn international congress was held, j ,nn jppim.s ,iave ,,wn transported to
UJM.I11 Hie 1 II V 1 Lill 11)11 Ul lilt I 11IWLI1:-
which is likely to become of force of 35,000 volunteers, to be re-
j -rutted from the country at large. Lly
virtue of this autho.tty the regular
army has been increased to the number
I of 61. 999 enlisted men and 2,248 ofli
j cers and new volunteer regiments hav
1 been organized, aggregating 33,050 c .
listed men and 1,521 officers. Two of
these volunteer regiments are made
! up of colored men. with colored line
officers. The new troops to take the
places of those returning from the
phia Commercial museum, transmitted
by the Department of State to the
various foreign governments, a con
gress for an exchange of information
and opinions with a view to the pro
motion of an international trade. This
Invitation met with general and cor
dial acceptance, and the congTess,
which began its sessions at the expo
sition on the 13th of October, proved
to be of great practical importance,
from the fact that it developed a gen
eral recognition of the interdependence
of nations in trade and a most grat
ifying spirit of accommodation with
reference to the gradual removal of
existing impediments to reciprocal re
lations, without injury to the indus
trial interests of either party.
In response to the invitation of his
majesty, the emperor of Russia, dele
gates from twenty-six countries were
assemoleet at The Hague on the 18th
of May, as members of a conference in
the interest of peace. The commission
from the United States consisted of
Hon. Andrew D. White, Hon. Seth
Low, Hon. Stanford Newell, Capta.n
Alfred D. Ma.ian of the United States
fiacy. Captain William a. Crozier of
the United States army and Hon. Fred-
crick Holls, secretary. 'the occasion
4 -feemed to be opportune for the se
rious consideration of a plan for pa
cific adjustment of international dif
ferences, a subject in which the Amer
ican people have been deeply inter
ested for many years, and a definite
project for a permanent international
tribunal was .ncluded in the instruc
tions to the uelegates of the United
The final act of the conference in
cludes conventions upon the ameliora
tion of the laws and customs of war
on land, the adaptation to maritime
warfare of the principles of the Geneva
convention of 1864, and the extension
of judicial methods to international
cases. The convention for the pacific
settlement of international conliicts
embodies the leading features of the
American plan, with such modifications
as were rendered necessary by the
great diversity of views and interests
represented by the delegates. The four
titles of the convention provide for the
maintenance of general peace, the ex
ercise of good office and mediation, tne
formation of commissions of inquiry
and international arbitration.
The mediation provided for by the
convention is purely voluntary and ad
visory, and is intended to avoid any
invasion or limitation of the sovereign
rights of the adhering states. The
commissions of inquiry proposed con
sist"' of delegations to be specifically
constituted for particular purposes by
5".eaas of conventions between the con-
-ling parties, having for their object
tg clear understanding of interna -
i , . .-i .i 1 rli (TrDn'Oc liofaro fpcnrt i 11 r 1 ( 1
the use of force. The provision for ! cia!s Have been assigned to the
arbitration contemplates the forma
tion of a permanent tribunal before
which disputed cases may be brought
for settlement by the mutual consent
of the ljtigants in each separate case.
The advantages of such a permanent
tiibunal over impromptu commissions
of arbitration are conceived to be the
actual existence of a competent court,
prepared to administer justice, the
greater economy resulting from a well
devised system, and the accumulated
judicial skill and experience! which
srch a tribunal would soon possess.
While earnestly promoting the suc
cess of establishing a permanent inter
national tribunal, the delegation of the
United States was not unmindful of
the inconveniences which might arise
from an obtrusive exercise of media
tion, and in signing the convention
carefully guarded the historic position
cf the United States by the following
"Nothing contained in this conven
tion shall be so construed as to re
quire the United States of America to
depart from its traditional policy of
not intruding upon, interfering with, or
envangling nseu in ine ponucai ques-U-s
or policy or international admin
istration of any foreign state; nor
-shall -anything contained in the said
convention be construed to imply a
relinquishment by the United States of
America of its traditional attitude to
ward purely American questions."
Thus interpreted the convention for
the pacific settlement of international
cor.fiicts may be regarded as realizing
the earnest desire of great numbers cf
American citizens whose deep sense of
justice expressed in numerous resolu
tions and memorials has urged them
to labor for this noble achievement.
The general character of this conven
tion, already signed by the delegates
of more than twenty sovereign states,
further commends it to the favorable
action of the senate of the United
States, whose ratification it still
Since my last annual message, and
in obedience to the acts of the congress
of Aprill 22 and 26, 1898, the remain
ing volunteer force enlisted for the
&fanis. war, consisting of 34,834 regu
lars, and 110,202 volunteers, with over
5 0W)lunteer officers, has been dis
ch.fd from the military service. Of
thj;v0lunteers, 667 officers and 14,-
Manila to the number of 581 officers
and 26,322 enlisted men of the regular
army and 594 officers and 15.358 en
listed men of the new volunteer force,
whil" 504 officers and 14,119 men of the
volunteer force are on the ocean en
route to Manila.
The force now in Manila consists of
906 officers and 30.57S regulars, aijd 594
officers and 15,388 of the volunteers,
making an aggregate of 1,499 officers
and 45,966 men. When the troops now
under orders shall reach Manila the
force in the archipelago will comprise
2,051 officers and 63,483 men. The
muster-out of the great volunteer army
organized for the Spanish war and the
creation of a new army, the trans
portation from Manila to San Fran
cisco of those entitled to discharge,
and the transportation of the new
troops to take their places has been a
work of great magnitude well and
ably done, for which too much credit
cannot be given the War department.
During the past year we have re
duced our force in Cuba and Porto
Rico. In Cuba we now have 334 offi
cers and 10,796 enlisted men; in Porto
Rico, eighty-seven officers and 2.S55
enlisted men, and a battalion of 400
men composed of native Porto Ricans,
while stationed throughout, the United
States are 910 officers and f7,317 men,
and in Hawaii twelve officers and 453
enlisted men.
The operations of the army are fully
presented in the report of the secre
tary of war. I cannot withhold from
officers and men the highest commen
dation for their soldierly conduct in
trying situations, their willing sacri
fices for their country and the inter
est and ability with which they have
performed unusual and difficult duties
in our island possessions.
In the organization of the volunteer
regiments authorized by the act of
March 2, 1899, it was found that no
provision had been made for chaplains.
This omission was doubtless from in
advertence. I recommend the early
authorization for the appointment of
one chaplain for each of said regi
ments. These regiment are now in
the Philippines, and it is important
that immediate action be had.
In restoring peaceful conditions, or
derly rule and civic progress in Cuba,
Porto Rico and, so far as practicable,
in the Philippines the rehabilitation
of the postal service has been as es
sential and important part of the work.
It became necessary to provide mail
facilities both for our forces of occu
pation and for the native population.
To meet this requirement has involved
a substantial reconstruction. The ex
isting systems were so fragmentary,
defective and inadequate that a new
and comprehensive organization had
to be created. American trained offi-
recting and executive positions, while
natives have been chiefly employed in
making up the force. In working out
this the merit rule has been rigorously
and faithfully applied.
The appointment of director general
of posts of Cuba was given to an ex
pert who had been chief postoffice in
spector, and assistant postmaster gen
eral, and who united large experience
with administrative crpacity. For the
postmastership at Havana the range
of skilled and available men was
scanned, and the choice fell upon one
who had been twenty years in t- -service
as deputy postmaster nrc t
master of a large city. This principle
governed and determined the selection
of the American officials sent not only
to Cuba, but to Porto Rico and the
Philippines, and they were instructed
to apply it so far as practicable in
tne employment of natives as minor
postmasters and clerks. The postal
system in Cuba, though remaining un
der the general guidance of the post
master general, was made essentially
independent. It was felt that it should
not be a burden upon the postal service
of the United States, and provision was
made that any deficit in the postal
revenue should be a charge upon the
general revenues of the island.
Though Porto Rico and the Philip
pines hold a different relation to the
United States, yet, for convenience of
administration, the same principle of
an autonomous system has been ex
tended to them. The development of
the service in all of the islands has
been rapid and successful. It has
moved forward on American lines,
with free delivery, money order and
registry systems, and has given the
people mail facilities far greater and
more reliable than any they have ever
before enjoyed. It is thus not jnly
a vital agency of industrial, social and
business progress, but an important
influence in diffusing a just under
standing of the true spirit and charac
ter ol Aiutritau administration.
The domestic service continues to
grow with extraordinary rapidity. The
expenditures and the revenues vill
each exceed $100,000,000 during the
present fiscal year.
Fortunately, since the revival of
prosperous times, the revenues have
grown much faster than the expendi
tures, and there is every indication
that a short period will witness the ob
literation of the annual deficit. In
The nivy has maintained the spirit
and high efficiency which have always
characterized that arm. and has lost
none of the gallantry in heroic ac'on
which has signalized its briliant and
I glorious past. The nation has equal
I pride in its early and later achie.e
j ments. Its habitual readiness for cv
! ery emergency has won the confidence
and admiration of the country. The
people are interested in the continued
preparation and prestige of the navy
and wnl approve liberal appropriations
for its maintenance and improvement.
The officers have shown peculiar adap
tation for the performance of new and
delicate duties which our recent war
has imposed.
It cannot be doubted that congress
will at once make necessary provision
for the armor plates of the- vessels now
under contract and building. Its at
tention is respectfully called to the re
port of the secretary of the navy, in
which the suoject is fully presented. I
unite in his commendation that the
congress enact such special legislation
as may be necessary to enable the de
partment to make contracts early in
the coming year for armor of the best
quality that can be obtained in his
country for the ..Itine, Ohio and Mis
souri, and that the provision of the
act of March 3. 1899, limiting the pnee
of armor to $300 per ton be removed
In the matter of naval construction,
Italy and Japan, of the great powers,
laid down less tonnage in the year
1899 than this country, and Italy alone
has less tonange under construction
I heartily concur in the recommenda
tions for increasing the navy, as sug
gested by the secretary of the navy.
Our future progress and prosperity
depend upon our ability to equal .f not
surpass other nations in the enlarge
ment and advance of science, industry
and commerce. To invention we must
turn as one of the most powerful aids
to the accomplishment of such a re
sult. The attention of the congress is
directed to the report of the commis
sioner of patents, in which were found
valuable suggestions and recommen
dations. On the 30th of June, 1899, the pen
sion roil of the United States number
ed 91,119. These include the pension
ers of the army and navy in all our
wars. The number added to the rolls
during the year was 4,991. The num
ber dropped by reason of death, minors
by legal limitations, failure to claim
within three years and other causes
was 43,816, and the number of claims
disallowed was 107,917. During tne
year 89,o54 pension certificates were
issued, of Which 37,077 were for new
or original pensions. The amount dis
bursed for army and navy pensions
during the year was $138,355,052.99,
which was $l,6ol,461.61 less than the
sum of the appropriation.
The Grand Army of the Republic
at its recent national encampment held
at Philadelphia has brought to my at
tention and to that of the congress
the wisdom and justice of a modifica
tion of the third section of the act
of June 27, 1890, which provides pen
sions for the widows of officers and
enlisted men who served ninety days
or more during the war of the rebel
lion, and were honorably discharged,
provided that such widows are with
out other means of support than their
daily labor and were married to the
soldier, sailor or marine on account
of whose service they claim pension
prior to the date of the act.
The present holding of the depart
ment is that if the widow's income,
aside from her daily labor, does not
exceed in amount what her pension
would be, to-wit: $96 per annum, she
would be deemed to be without other
means of support than her daily labor
and would be entitled to a pension
under this act; while if the widow's
income, independent of the amount
received by her as the result of her
daily labor, exceeds $96, she will not
be pensionable under the act. 1 am
advised by the commissioner of pen
sions that the amount of the income
allowed before title to pension would
be barred has varied widely under dif
ferent administrations of the pension
ofhee, as well as during different pe
riods of the same administration and
has been the cause of just complaint
and criticism.
With the approval of the secretary
of the interior, tne commissioner oi
pensions recommends that, in order
to make tne practice at all times uni
form and to do justice to the depend
ent widow, the amount of income al
lowed, independent of the proceeds of
her daily labor, should be not less
than $250 per annum, and he urges
that the congress shall so amend the
act so as to permit the pension of
ficers to grant pensionable status to
widows under the terms of the third
section of the act of June 27, 1890,
whose income, aside from the proceeds
of daily labor, is not in excess of $250
per annum. I believe this to be a
simple act of justice and heartily rec
ommend it.
In accordance with the act of con
gress approved March 3, 1899, the pre
liminary work in connection with the
twentieth century census is now fully
under way. The officers required for
the proper administration of the duties
imposed have been selected. The pro
vision for securing a proper enumer
ation of the population, as well as to
secure evidence of the industrial
growth of the nation, is broader and
more comprehensive than any similar
legislation in the past. The director
advises that every needful effort is
being made to push this great work
to completion in the time limited by
the statute. It is believed that the
twelfth census will emphasize our re
markable advance in all that pertains
to national progress.
Under the authority of the act of
congress July 7. lH'JS. the commission
consisting of the secretary of the
treasury, the attorney general and sec
crelary of the interior, has made an
arrangement of settlement, which has
had my approval, of the indebtedness
to the government growing out of the
issue of bonds to aid in the construc
tion of the Central Pacific and West
ern Pacific railroads. The agreement
secures to the government the princi
pal and interest of said bonds, amount
ing to $58,812,715.18. There has been
paid thereon $11,762,543.12, which has
been covered into the treasury. and
the remainder, payable within ten
years, with interest at the rate of 3
per cent per annum, payable semi
annually, is secured by the deposit
of the first mortgage bonds of the
Pacific railway companies.
The amounts paid and secured to be
paid to the government on account of
the Pacific railroad subsidy claims are:
Union Pacific, cash, $58. 14S.223.75;
Kansas Pacific, cash, $6,303,000.
Central and Western Pacific, cash,
$17,79S,314.14; notes, secured, $ls,050,
172.36. Kansas Pacifis, dividends for defic
iency due United States, cash, $821,
897.70. Making a total of $124,421,607.91.
The whole indebtedness was about
$730,000,000, more than half of which
consisted of accrued interest, for
which sum the government has real-
izeu the entire amount, less about $6,
000.000, within a period of two years.
On June 30, 1898, there were thirty
forest reservations (exclusive of the
Afognak forest and fish culture reserve
in Alaska) embracing an estimated
area of 40,719,474 acres. During the
past year two of the existing forest
reserves, the Trabuco canyon (Califor
nia) and Black Hills, (South Dakota
and Wyoming) have been considerably
enlarged, the area of the Mount Ranier
reserve, in the state oi Washington,
has been somewhat reduced and six
additional reserves have been estab
lished, namely, the San Francisco
mountains (Arizona), Black Meza (Ar
izona), Lake Tahoe (California), Galla
tin (Montana), Gila River (New Mex
ico) and Fish Lake (Utah), the total
estimated area of which is 5,205,775
acres. This makes at the present time
a total of thirty-six forest reservations
embracing an estimated area oi 46,021
899 acres. This estimated area is the
aggregated areas within the bounda
l ies of tne reserves. I he lands ac
tually reserved are, however, only the
vacant public lands therein, and these
have been set aside and reserved from
sale or settlement in order that they
may be of the greatest use to the peo
ple. The protection of the reserves, or
ganized by the department of the in
terior in 1897, has been continued dur
ing the past year, and much has been
accomplished in the way of prevention
or forest fires and the protection of
the timber. There are now large tracts
covered by forests which will even
tually be reserved and set apart for
forest uses. Until that can be done
congress should increase tne appropri
ation for the work of protecting the
The department of agriculture is
constantly consulting the needs of pro
ducers in all the states and territories.
It is introducing seeds and plants of
great value and promoting fuller di
versification of crops. Grains, grasses,
fruits, legumes and vegetables are im
ported for all parts of the United
States. Under mis encouragement me
beet sugar factory multiplies in the
north and far west, semi-tropical
plants are sent to the souta, and con
genial climates are sought for the
choice productions of the far east. The
hybridizing of fruit trees and grains
is conducted in the search for varie
ties adapted to exacting conditions.
The introduction of tea gardens into
southern states promises to provides
employment for idle nanus, as well
as to supply the home market with
The subject of irrigation, where it
is of vital importance to the people,
is being carefully studied, steps are
being taken to reclaim all and or
abandoned lands, and information for
people along these lines is being distributed.
Markets are being sought and open
ed up for surplus farm and factory
products in Europe and Asia. The
outlook for the education of the young
farmer through agricultural college
and experiment stations with oppor
tunity given to specialize in the de
partment of agriculture is very prom
ising. The people of Hawaii, Porto Rico and
the Philippine islands should be help
ed by the establishment of experiment
stations to a more scieniiiic knowledge
of the production of coffee. India rub
ber and other tropical produces for
which there is demand in the United
There is widespread interest .n the
improvement of our public highways
at the present time, and tne depart
In this manner the Philippines came
to the United States. The islands were
ceded by the government of Spain,
which had been in undisputed posses
sion of them for centuries. They were
accepted, not merely by our authorized
commissioners In Paris, under the di
rection of the executive, but by tho
constitutional and well considered ac
tion of the representatives of the peo
ple of the United States in both houses
of congress. 1 had every reason to
believe anil 1 still believe that this
transfer of sovereignty was in accord
ance with the wishes and aspirations
of the great mass of the Filipino peo
ple. From the earliest moment no op
portunity was lost In assuring the peo
ple of the islands of our ardent desire
for their welfare and of the intention
of this government to do everything.
possible to advance their interests. In
my order of the 19th of May, 1898, the
commander of the military expedition
dispatched to the Philippines was in
structed to declare that we came not
to make war upon the people of the
country, "nor upon any part or fac
tion among them, but to protect them
in their homes, in their employments,
and in their personal and religious
rights." That there should be no
doubt as to the paramount authority
there, on the 17th of August, it was
directed that "there must be no joint
occupation with the insurgents;" that
the enited States must preserve the
peace and protect persons and property
within the territory occupied by their
military and naval forces; that the in
surgents, as well as all others, must
recognize the military occupation and
authority of the United States. As
early as December 4. before the ces
sion, and in anticipation of that event,
the commander in Manila was urged
to restore peace and tranquility and to
undertake the establishment of a bene
ficent government, which should afford
the fullest security for life and prop
erty. On the 21st of December, after the
treaty was signed, the commander of
the forces of occupation was instructed
"to anounce and proclaim in the most
public manner that we come, not as
invaders and conquerors, but as
friends to protect the natives in their
homes, in their employments and in
their personal and religious rights."
On the same day, while ordering Gen
eral Otis to see that the peace snould
be preserved in Uoilo, he was admon
ished "that it is most important that
there should be no conflict with the
insurgents.' On the 1st day of Janu
ary, 1899, urgent orders were reiterat
ed that the kindly intentions of mis
government should be in every possi
ble way communicated to the insur
gents. On the 21st of January I announced
my intention of dispatching to Manila
a commission composed of three gen
tlemen of the highest character and
distinction thoroughly acquainted with
the Orient, who in association with
Admiral Dewey and Major General
Otis, were instructed "to facilitate
the most humane and effective exten
sion of authority throughout the is
lands and secure with the least pos
sible delay the benefits of a wise, gen
erous protection of life and property
to the inhabitants."
Tsese gentlemen were Jacob Gould
Schurman, president of Cornell uni
versity; Hon. Charles Denby, for many
years minister to China, and Prof.
Dean C. Worcester of the University
of Michigan, who had made a m jst
careful study of life in the Philippines.
Whiie the treaty of peace was under
consideration in the senate these com
missioners set out on their mission
of good will and liberation. Their
character was a sufficient guaranty of
the beneficent purpose with which they
went, and they bore the absolute in
structions of this government, which
made their errand pre-eminently one
of peace and friendship.
But before tneir arrival at Manila
the sinister ambition of a few leaders
of the Filipinos had created a situa
tion full of embarrassments for us and
most grievous in its consequences to
themselves. The clear and impartial
preliminary report of the commission
ers, which 1 transmit nerewitn, gives
so lucid and comprehensive a hiscory
of the present insurrectionary move
ment that the story need not be here
repeated. It is enough to say that the
claim of the rebel leader that he was
promised independence by any officer
of the United States in return for .'As
assistance had no foundation in 'act
and is categorically denied by the very
witnesses who were called to prove it.
The most the insurgent leader hoped
for when he came back to Manila was
the liberation of the islands from the
Spanish control which they 'ad been
laboring for years without success to
throw off.
The prompt accomplishment of the
work by the American army and navy
gave him other ideas and ambitions
and insidious suggestions from va
rious quarters perverted the purposes
and intentions with which he had tak
en up arms. No sooner had our army
i captured Manila than the Filipino forc-
ment of agriculture is co-operating j es began to assume an attitude of sus
with the people in each locality in-
making the best possible roads from
local material and in experimenting
with steel tracks.
A more intelligent system of manag
ing the forests of tne country is being
put in operation, and a careful study
of the whole forestry problem is being
conducted throughout the United
States. A very extensive and complete
exhibit of the agricultural and horti
cultural products of the United States
is being prepared for the Paris exposi
On the 10th of December. 1898, the
treaty of peaco between the United
States and Spain was signed. It pro
vided, among other things, that Spain
should cede to the United States the
archipelago known as the Philippine
islands, that the United States should
pay to Spain the sum of $20,000,000.
and that the civil rights and political
status of the native inhabitants of
the territories thus ceded to the Unit
ed States should be determined by
congress. The treaty was approved by
the senate on the 6th of February,
1899, and by the government of Spain
on the 19th of March following. The
ratifications were exchanged on the
11th of April, and the treaty publicly
proclaimed. On the 22d of March the
congress voted the sum contemplated
by the treaty and the amount was
paid over to the Spanish government
on the 1st of May.
picion and hostility which the utmost
efforts of our officers and troops were
unable to disarm or modify. Their
kindness and forbearance were taken
as a proof of cowardice. The aggres
sions of the Filipino continually in
creased until finally, just before the
time set for the senate of the United
States for a vote upon the treaty, an
atack, evidently prepared in advance,
was made all along the American
lines, which resulted in a terribly de
structive ana sanguinary repulse of
the insurgents.
Ten days later an order of the in
surgent government was issued to its
adherents who had remained in Ma
nila, of which General Otis justly ob
serves, that "for barbarous intent it is
unequalled in modern times." It or
ders tHat at 8 o'clock on the night of
the 15th of February the territorial
militia shall come together in the
streets of San Pedro, armed with
their bolos, with guns and ammuni
tion where convenient; that Filipino
families only shall be respected; but
that all other individuals of whatever
race they may be shall be exterminated
without any compassion, after the ex
termination of the army of occupation,
and adds: "Brothers, we must avenge
ourselves on the Americans and ex
terminate them, that we may take
our revenge for the infamies and
treacheries committed upon us. Have
no compassion upon them; attack with
vigor." A copy of this fell, by good
fortune. Into the hands of our officers,
and they wei e able to lake ine-asiircrt
to control i he rising, which whs ac
tually attempted on the night of Feb
ruary 22, a week later than was orig
inally contemplated. Comdderablu
numbers of armed insurgents entered
the city by water ways and swamps
and In concert with confederates in
side attempted to destroy Manila by
fire. They were kept in chec k during
the night and the next clay drive n out
of the city with heavy Iosh.
This was the unhappy condition of
affairs which confronted our commis
sioners on their arrival In Manila.
They had come with the hope and
intention of co-ope rat Ing with Admiral
Dewey and Major General Otis In es
tablishing peace and order in the ar
chipelago and the largest measure of
self-government compatible- with the
true w.-'lfare of the people. What they
actually found can best be set forth
in their own words:
"Deplorable as war is, the one In
whic h we are now engaged was una
voidable by us. We were attacked by
a bedd, al venturous and enthusiastic;
army. No alternative was left to us
except to fight or retreat.
"It is not to be? conceived of that
any American would have sanctioned
the surrrender of Manila to the in
surgents. Our obligations to other na
tions and to the Filipinos and to
ourselves and our flag demanded that
force shoiiel be met by force.
"Whatever the future of the Phil
ippines may be, there? is no course open
to us now except the prosecution of
the war until the insurgents are re
duced to submission. The commission
is of the opinion that there; has been
no time since the destruction of thes
Spanish squadron by Admiral Dewey
when it was possible to withdraw our
forces from the islands with honor to
ourselves or with safety to the in
habitants." The course thus clearly indicated
h;;: been unt'.inchingly pursued. The
rebelion must be put down. Civil
government cannot be thoroughly es
tablished unul order is restored. With
a devotion and gallantry worthy of its
most brilliant history, the army, ably
n'l loyally assisted by the army, ably
carried on this unwelcome but most
righteous campaign with richly de
served success. The noble self-sae.riflce
with which our soldiers and sailors,
whose terms of service had expired, re
fused to avail themselves of th.i'r right
to return home as long as they were
needed at the front, forms one of the
brightest pages In our annals. Al
though their operations have been
somewhat interrupted and checked by
a rainy season of unusual violence and
duration, they have gained ground
steadily in every direction and now
look forward confidently to a speedy
completion of their task.
The unfavorable circumstances con
nected with an active campaign have
not been allowed to interfere with the
equally important work of reconstruc
tion. I invite your attention again to
the report of the commissioner. for
the interesting and encouraging details
of the work in the establishment of
peace and inauguration of self-governing
municipalities in many portions of
the archipelago. A notable begin
ning has been made in the establish
ment of a government in the island of
Negros, which is deserving of special
consideration. This was the first isl
and to accept American sovereignty.
Its people unreservedly proclaimed al
legiance to the United Slates and
adopted a constitution looking to a
popular government, it was impossi
ble to guarantee to the people of Ne
gros that the constitution so adopted
should .be the ultimate form of gov
ernment. Such action uncle the treaty
with Spain and in accordance with our
own constitution and laws came con
clusively within the jurisdiction of
congress. The government actually
set up by the inhabitants of Negros
eventually proved satisfactory to the
natives themselves. A new system
was put into force by order of the ma
jor general commanding the depart
ment of which the following are the
important elements:
It was ordered that the government
of the island of Negros should con
sist of a military governor appointed
by the United States military com
mander of the Philippines, and a civil
governor and an advisory council elect
ed by the people. The military gov
ernor was authorized to appoint sec
retaries of the treasury, interior, agri
culture, public instruction, an attor
ney general and an auditor. The seat
of government was fixed at Bacolor.
The military governor exercises the
supreme executive power. He is to
see that the laws are executed, ap
point to office and fill all vacancies in
office not otherwise provided for, and
may, with the approval of the military
governor of the Philippines, remove
any officer from office. The civil gov
ernor advises the miliitary governor
on all civil questions and presides over
the advisory council. He, in general,
performs the duties which are per
form by secretaries of state In our
own system of government.
The advisory council consists of
eight members, elected by the peo
ple, within the territorial limits which
are defined in the order of the com
manding general.
The time and place of holding elec
tions are to be fixed by the military
governor in the island of Negros. The
qualifications of voters are as follows:
(1) A voter must be a male citizen of
the island of Negros. (2) Of the age
of 21 years. (3) He shall be able to
speak, read and write the English,
Spanish or Viscayan language, or he
must own real property worth $500,
or pay a rental on real property of the
value of $7,000. (4) He must have
resided in the island not less than one
year preceding, and in the district in
which he offers to register as a voter
not less than three months Imme
diately preceding the time he offers to
register. (5) He must register at a
time fixed by law before voting. (6)
Prior to such registration he shall have
paid all taxes due by him to the gov
ernment. Provided that no insane
person shall be allowed to register or
The military governor has the right
to veto all bills or resolutions adopt
ed by the advisory council, and his
veto is final if not disapproved by the
military governor of the Philippines.
The advisory council discharges all
the ordinary duties of a legislature.
The usual duties pertaining to said
offices are to be performed by the sec-