Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, April 04, 1921, Page 9, Image 9

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Vegetable Growers Capture City Garden Plots
Chicago System Aids Foreign
ers in Fighting High Living
Costs and Helps in .
By transforming Chicago's vacatn
lots and waste land into miniature'
farms, the City Garden association
has furnished 900 gardeners with
plots from which thousands of fami
lies will be supplied with fresh vege
tables this summer.
There is a spirit of friendly rivalry
among the Greeks, Italians, lirish,
Swedes, Germans, Frenchmen and
families of other nationalities in the
growing of their crops. Mike Terra
nclla's record in growing vegetables
last year is envied by the gardeners,
and many of them will use the extra
hour of daylight this summer to beat
Mike's record.
What One Plot Yielded.
Mike is an Italian day laborer wan
a wife and three little children. He is
one of the 900 who are provided with
a garden through the association.
"Last year," Mike related, as he
stood in line waing for his allot
ment for this year's garden, wonder
ing wnere 11 would be this spring,
"I set out ISO tomato plants and got
So bushels of big red tomatoes. I ve
got yet 300 or 400 jars of tomatoes
that we put up from that patch. I
had 10 or 12 bushels of '1001' beans;
lots of Austrian beans, and 'rusini,'
Itatian squash. I had two bushels of
cucumbers and lots of Kohlrabi, and
two wagon loads of Roman lettuce
I planted my own cabbage and sold
2,000 or 3,000 young plants to the
other gardeners.
"I got so much because I planted
right," Mike added. " I got four
crops, putting in peas first, then cu
cumbers, and after two weeks I
planted cauliflower. Then I put in
Swiss chard and strineless bush
beans. In one row I had two crops
of corn and carrots. Our friends
came every Sunday and took bas
kets of vegetables away."
Store Surplus for Winter.
There are 124 other gardens be
sides Mike's on the tract, and while
his method of French farming is
more intensive than most others, all
of the gardeners raised enough vege
tables to last them through the sum
mer and had many varieties to store
for winter use,
The gardens are given out by Mrs.
Laura Dainty Pelham, president of
the City Garden association, and M.
E. Green, superintendent of the gar
dens. The work was started about
12 years ago and continues to grow
in sire and importance. As far as
possible, the same plot of ground is
assigned to a gardener year after
year. After the first season of work
the gardener always takes a proprie
tary interest in his bit of ground.
Association Bears Some Expense.
The association plows and harrows
the ground and fertilizes the soil, fur
nishes the seed, and supervises the
work throughout plowing, planting
and harvesting seasons. While tools
are not furnished to individuals, there
is a certain amount of equipment
provided for each tract. It costs the
association about $6 an acre each
'jear to carry on this work. Interest
is added to the work by making a
small rental charge, which helps to
cover only a part of the expense to
the association.
The gardener 'does as he chooses
with his plot of ground, subject to
the advice of the superintendent, who
imposes practically no restrictions.
The entire crop belongs to the gar
dener. For the rent of his little farm
he pays from $1.50 to $2.50.
Italians Prefer Salad Crops.
You can almost guess the national
ity of the gardener by the kinds of
vegetables he grows in his garden.
The Italians raise, large quantities
of tomatoes and peppers. They are
said to be the only ones who raise
garlic. Mike Terranella says the Ital
ians from around Messina would
rather have a green pepper than a
piece i bread. Roman lettuce and
various salad crops are also grown
in the Italian gardens.
The Russians raise large quantities
of beans,' which they preserve in salt
for winter use, something after the
fashion of sauerkraut. They are the
only ones who raise sunflowers. The
IVUSSiail Vt7ll,., lie, ..
er seed and grind it into meal.
The Poles specialize in beans, us
ing them chiefly as string beans. The
Swedes, Irish and Germans .have all
their gardens streaked with rows of
big. hard heads of cabbage. Amen
rant an A Americanized foreigners
raise an abundance of corn. But the I
others care little or noming iw h; .
AU of the Americans and Insn
would like to raise potatoes, but the
places where Irish potatoes can be
grown successfully are limited. The
gardeners are all on common ground
when it comes to the growing .of
onions, for in every garden, regard
less of the gardener's nationality,
onions are grown. -
Food production is not, however,
the only benefit derived from the
jrardens, according to Mrs. Pelham.
Where all nationalities work side by
side with Americans of many gener
ations, the gardens become little cen
ters of effective Americanization.
They have a common interest, wheth
er they are raising garlic and pep
pers or potatoes and cabbage, wheth
er they are doing intensive farming
or just learning to bring one crop
to harvest. .
Promotes Community Spirit
When families come' out to the
gardens and spend whole days
throughout the summer, hoeing the
crops, a neighborliness and commu
nity spirit grows up among them
which is no inconsiderable factor in
Americanization. Not "one of the
3,000 or more children who help
work the gardens has ever been ar
rested since records have been kept,
showing the gardens' contribution to
child welfare.
Each anolicant for a garden plot
signs a contract. He accepts the
garuen sudjcci io uic uiuucuiaic uia
position in case the land is with
drawn from the association some
thing which has never happened dur
ing the season. All of the planting
must be in straight rows. Vege
tables not approved by the superin
tendent may not be planted.
A footway of 18 inches is main
tained between each garden, and the
gardener keeps one-half of the four
foot walk adjoining the garden free
from weeds. The gardens are pro
tected. The penalty for trespassing
upe-a gardens or, faking yegetabea
l tit lit f
GARDEN GOSPEL Left: Mrs. Laura Dainty Pelham, president of the City Gardens association, ex
plaining the rules and regulations to three recruits. Mike Terranella, I. Laecri and Santa Terranella, who
nave just enlisted in her 1921 army of 900 vegetable gardeners. Right: M. E. Green, superintendent, is
pointing out the exact location of Mrs. Antonina Metegrano's plot.
from another's garden is immediate
forfeiture of the ground and crops
without compensation. llus is
practically unknown in the associa
tion. (
If the gardens are neglected with'
out a good reason they are forfeited,
but this has seldom happened. On
the contrary, the gardeners work
consistently and guard one another's
gardens against possible marauding
Irom the outside.
iiiey are not allowed to put up
lences or buildings, but occasionally
a scrap of outlaw structure springs
up over night and js permitted to
remain for instance, the tiny shack,
or cottce house, as some call it, on
John Thul's garden. Here he makes
coffee and serves it to his friends on
Sunday afternoons, adding to the
social atmosphere of the gardens.
New Federal Farm Bank
Bonds Are Attractive
To Large Investors
Investment houses have been fieur
ing on the return of the proposed
new issue ot federal Land bank
bonds, details of which will prob
ably be announced shortly. Former
issues of these bonds are redeemable
five years after date, but the new
bonds will not be redeemable
until the 11th year. This is an es
pecially attractive feature, as many
investors now prefer bonds which
cannot be taken away for at least a
reasonable period of time.
Ihe new issue will be exempt
from government taxes, including
the income tax and from state, mu
nicipal and local taxation.
The prewar issues of government
bonds carry the same exemption, but
because of circulation privileges, they
sell at too high a rate to attract in
dividual investors. The 3lt per cent
Liberty loan bonds have an equal
exemption, but at present prices,
yield a little over 4 per cent Sim
ilarly, the 3Vi Victory notes yield 4
per cent at the present market prices,
but the latter have an early maturi
ty. Other Liberty bonds have only
a limited exemption from federal
taxation. .
Monster Incubator
Turning Out Future
Fries by Thousand
When one speaks oi a chicken
ranch the -first thought that usually
comes is of a large number of fowls
running about in yards or pens, but
up near Auburn, Neb., H. M. Wells
has a different kind of a chicken
ranch, and one which is proving a
Mr. Wells has what is probably
the largest single incubator in the
middle west, with a total capacity of
7,500 eggs. The machine is in 14
sections and is 60 feet long. It is
housed in a building built specially
for it, and one-third of the capacity
is set each Monday for three weeks.
This system enables handling the
output each week and as fast as one
hatch is taken out, another is put in.
Mr. Wells is specializing in pure
bred White Leghorns, and at the
present time is buying practically all
of his eggs for hatching. The chicks
are sold when a day old and the en
tire output is contracted for in ad
vance up to June 1. The chicks are
put in paper cartoons holding 100
each and sent by parcel post. ,
Steamships Cut Rates
On South African Wool
Steamship lines running between
South African ports and the United
States recently announced a scale of
reduced rates on wool and dry hides,
as well as some other articles of
freight for export to American mar
kets. Because of the severe deprecia
tion in the value of these articles,
the steamship lines have taken this
action as a measure to maintain ex
ports. The freight rate on. "grease" wool,
which is one of the chief exports
from South America has been re
duced from 3d. (about 5 cents) to
2l2A. per pound. The rate for
"scoured" wool, is now 3Yid.x or
about S cents, as compared with the
equivalent to 6 cents per pound be
fore the new rates went into effect.
The rate on dry hides lias been cut
from 3d. to 2d., or 4 cents a pound.
All changes are made according to
the rate of exchange prevailing on
March 11, when a shilling was worth
about 20 cents and a penny about
1 cent..
jowa Tjeet Sugar Factory
May Not Open Tbi9 Season
It is altogether likely that the
large sugar beet plant at Waverly,
la., will not be opened during the
coming season. It is reported that no
move toward making contracts for
beets with the farmers in that terri
tory has been made by the com
pany and many of the employes, at
the plant are expected to be laid oil
in the near future. The plant ran
for a short time last season, but it
is reported that the company lost
money on the output.
Philadelphia Now
Ranks Third as
Produce Center
Five Per Cent of Total Ship
meats for Country Handled
In the Quaker
The city of Philadelphia, ranking
third in population among cities of
the country, likewise holds third
place among the fruit and vegetable
consuming markets of the nation,
with a total of 63,580 cars of apples,
cabbage, cantaloupes, onions,
peaches, potatoes, strawberries and
tomatoes received and unloaded dur
ing the four calendar years of 1916,
1917, 1918 and 1919, according to
figures recently released by the
bureau of markets of the .United
States department of agriculture.
The quantity of these eight leading
fruits and vegetables taken yearly by
the Philadelphia markets represents
about 5 per cent of the total ship
ments reported for the country. 1 his
percentage compares with IS per cent
for New York and 7 per cent for Chi
cago. Average of 15,895 Cars.
Approximately 16,770 cars of
fruits and vegetables were unloaded
at Philadelphia in 1919, compared
with 15,390 cars in 1918, 14,730 in
1917, and 16,690 cars in 1916, or an
average of 15,895 cars yearly and 44
cars daily. The total recorded ship
ments of these eight products named
for the entire country were 375.982
cars in 1916: 346,717 cars in 1918:
311,869 cars in 1917 and 260,137 cars
in 1916.
Although information covering
home-grown stock is incomplete, its
importance may be realized from the
fact that the equivalent of about 340
cars of apples from neighboring
areas were received in 1919, 631 cars
of cabbage, 287 cars of cantaloupes,
168 cars of onions, 836 cars ot
peaches, 1,374 cars of white potatoes,
163 cars of strawberries and
cars of tomatoes, all having been re
ceived from adjacent points' in less
than carlot shipments, or by truck.
"Some Spuds."
Four times as many potatoes as
either cabbaee or onions were re
ceived afid more than seven times as
many potatoes as either tomatoes.
Reckoning a car ot potatoes at ouu
bushels, approximately 4,125,000
hushels. or over 1 tier cent of the
total potato crop and an average of
11.400 bushels daily were received an
nually, in addition to the home-grown'
stock irom nearoy pomis.
Imagine, if possible, this number
of tubers, boiled, mashed and heaped
up in one great dish, steaming hot,
with a piece of butter of proportion
ate size crowning the top. Oh, boy!
Total of 2,810 Cars
Of Spuds Inspected
Up to First of April
Tin. hiireau of markets of the Ne
braska department of agriculture re
xr.t tnal nf 2.810 cars of potatoes
inspected this season, up to the first
of April and it is expected that the
total number of car-lot shipments
for the season will exceed the 3,000
mark. The number of cars inspected
last season was 1,718.
Twenty-six inspectors are now em
rinvrf hv the btireau and are located
at the principal shiping points in the
state. The inspectors are required
to make a careful examination by an
alyzing representative samples from
each shipment before the car leave
the shiping point and a report is im
mediately sent to the bureau of mar
kets at Lincoln.
The 2.810 cars inspected so far this
season grade. as follows: Grade No,
1, 2,157 cars; grade jno. i, oju cars;
mixed or manufacturing, 23 cars.
Four hundred and twenty-one cars
were shipped for seed. About 76
per cent ot the cars inspected ran
as uraae sso. i, wmie oi mc i,mu
cars inspected last season, 52 per cent
were graded as IMP, l.
Nebraska Corn to Be Placed .
In Corner Stone of U. S. Bank
Corn from fields close to Norfolk
will be a part of the contents of a
receptacle which will be deposited'
in the cornerstone of the new $4,
000,000 federal reserve bank building
to be erected at Kansas City this
year. White corn will come from
the farm of Harry Tannehill and
yellow corn from the S. H. Ray
mond farm.
A small amount of products from
each state will be placed in glass
bottles of uniform size, which will
be sealed and left in the receptacle
until future ages shall bring them
to the light of day again. A card
will be placed in each bottle giving
the name and address of the donors.
With a hand operated machine in
vented by an Iowan one man can
plant an acra of onrsn sets in a day,
Corn Increases
In South Dakota
Over 30,000,000 Bushels
Produced Past Five Years
Than 1900 to 1905.
South Dakota produced 325 per
cent more corn in 1920 than in 1900,
according to the figures just com
piled by Irwin D. Aldrich, com
missioner of immigration, making it
rank as the tenth corn producing
state in the union.
The state's corn production total
for 1900 was 32,402,540 bushels as
against 105,600.000 bushels in 1920.
In 1905 the total amounted to 32,
500,000 bushels, in 1910, 55,500,000,
and in 1915, 74,000,000, an increase
for the first five years of the pres
ent century of 7,000,000; 16,000,000
for the next five-year period; al
most 20,000.000 for the five yeais
between 1910 and 1915 and an in
crease of more than 30,000,00 for the
last five years.
Thirty-four counties in the state,
these figures show, now produce be
tween 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 bushels
of corn annually. The combined
corn production of all the New Eng
land states is less than that of the
smallest South Dakota counties.
The results of careful breeding
and seed selection are shown in the
rapid advances made in produttion
by the counties in the northern half
of the state, where a few years ago
it was declared not practicable to
attempt to raise corn. Seventeen
out of the 23 counties in the Second
congressional district lying between
a line drawn west along the north
ern boundary of Moody county to
the orth Dakota border, show an
increase of more than 500 per cent
In 1905 the highest production of
any county in that district was well
under a 1,000,000 production of any
bushels. In 1920, four of these coun
ties produced more than 3,000,000
bushels and all but 13 produced
more than 1,000,000 bushels.
Progress of the Crops,
Crop Bulletin of the Agricultural Bureau
of the Chamber of Commerce, for
the Week Ending Saturday, April Z.
With the ODenlnar of a new cron nunn
there are a lot of factors, not of Imme
diate occurrence, which may be ot very
considerable Importance In the crop de
velopment of the year. These may well
be made a matter of record In order to
get a better understanding of events which
are to follow.
Perhaps the first factor of importance la
the extraordinary mildness ot the -past
winter. During February all but three
stations reporting to the United States
weather bureau showed temperatures av
eraging above normal. The Missouri val
ley region sKows the largest variation
from normal, ranging from 10 degrees
at Missouri and Kansas points, to 15 de
grees In North Dakota and Montana.
March will show a similar record, al
though the data is not yet Dublished.
Even during last week, when severe
freezing weather spread over the entire
Interior of the country far south as
Louisiana, the average temperature was
above normal over much of the country,
owing to the extreme heat preceding the
cold wave.
Moisture Is Uneven.
Next in Importance is the uneven dis
tribution of winter moisture. The New
Krgland and Atlantic coast states, the
gulf states, including Oklahoma and Ar
kansas and the Pacific northwest have
had abundance of moisture. The northern
mountain ranges have had normal snow
fall. But the southern ranges have much
lax than aVeraa-e snow and have h'ad an
early "run-off," so that there is a liability
to scarcity or irrigation water in me mia
sesson. The entire wheat belt Is Quite
and eastern Nebraska got pretty well
the country east of the Mississippi river
and eastern Ntbraaka got pretty well
soaked the last week In Maroh. The ab
sence of snow extenfling over ine enure
eastern Rocky mountain slope during the
winter season, leaves that area entirely
dependent on timely spring rains ror mak
ing the crop. The eastern spring wheat
area had good rains recently, and seed
ing In that territory has been done early
and under most favorable conditions, al
though! estimates of acreage are not yet
The above and other Tees notable weath
er conditions start the crop season fully
four weeks early, when guaged by de
velopment of vegetation. The third week
in March;, wheat was Jointing In south
ern areas, corn wss being planted as far
north as southern Kansas and peach, plum
end pesr orchards were in full bloom as
far north as centra! Missouri. The follow
ing week disastrous freezing weather
raught all this precious crop growth!,
though not much damage Is reported te
grains and alfalfa .though the iatter la
very susceptible to damage from spring
Southern States Hurt.
All states south! of the latitude of
Omaha report serious damage to fruit and
gardens by the freeze. The area of larg.
eat fruit damage Is reported along the
belt of states In me lamuae oi renins.
The Ozark fruit belt, where the crop Is
Important, reports very heavy loss, and
extending east through southern Illinois
and Indiana, where temperatures of 20
degrees were recorded, it may not be
doubted the loss will be nearly total. The
northern and eastern fruit districts do
not report damage. The intor-mountaln
states, except parts of rtah1. also seem
to have escaped frost damage.
Winter wheat will prohahly show a low
er acreage abandoned from winter kill
ing than In any recent year. This will
leave the area for harvest this year- not
fur from the area harvested last year,
though the area seeded last fall was con
siderably l-ss than that of the preceding
vear. Tt will be recalled that In 1020 a
large area of wheat east of the Mississip
pi river was replanted to other crops be
cause of winter killing. This year the
damsgs reported is from limited areas
In Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan,
where snow protection was Inadequate. If
needed moisture should reach the western
fields soon, the crop could be classed SI
In exceptionally favorable condition.
Live stock of all kinds came through
the winter In much belter average con.
dltfon and witlv losses n-arly n-gitgtbl.
Keed Is earlr and plentiful on rsnaes. and
reports percentage of young stork saved
both on farms and ranches are above iv.
ersge. Ttre pig and lamb crops, now fairly
started except In northern districts, are
most satisfactory,
President Sees
Need of Lower
Rates and Wages
Prompt Action by Administra
tion on Railroad and Tax
Problems Is Reported
President Harding and his admin
istration are regarded here as having
recognized inferentially at least that
at the time. of the government con
trol and operation of the railroads
everything possible was done in the
interest of labor and practically noth
ing in the interest of the investors
and stockholders. Reports come from
Washington which tell of the pur
pose of the president and also of
leaders in congress to begin at once
to work out such remedy as will
bring the railroads out of the mire
and quicksand in which they are now
It is a matter wiucn is ot im
portance not only to those who re
ceive wages, but also to those who
are investors in railroad securities.
These investments are represented
bv a total of approximately $3,000,
000,000. They were in some measure
ignored during all of the months
when the government was operating
ttie railroads. It is the surmise here
that tiie Washington authorities both
in ths administration and in congress
are now inclined to the opinion that
wages are too high and that rates are
also too high. If there is to be a re
duction of rates there must a'so be
a corresponding reduction in wages.
What High Bates sre Causing.
Although some of the railroad com
panies are hoping that an meresse o
rates will be granted upon some lln '
traffic, nevertheless Investigation by the
committee of congress or by those who
may be appointed by the president v. 11
presumably snow that the lnosse In
rates which the Interstate Commerce
commission permitted have on tho who e
impaired the earning rower of the rail
roads, instead of Increasing thr.t power
Although that was expected to he the i ef
fect. Shippers are either withholding
traffic entirely or calling Into use other
methods of transportation, in the lclnlty
of Boston the utilization of motor trucks,
which has been much increased since the
higher railroad rates were permitted, has
been so great as materially to effect the
rallrond traffic between Boston and msnii- i
facturlng centers in eastern uu
Massachusetts. ... A .
The president of one of the largest of
American corporations, who was called to
Pittsburgh a few dsys ago to give his at
tention to some Important, business, re
ported upon his return that he had seen
from the car window only two or three
freight trains, although formerly when
he had made this Journey the freight,
trains seemed to be almost innumerable.
So also passenger traffic has fallen off and
there has been a corresponding increase
In the employment of the long distance
telephone and the telegraph. Senator
Cummins, who is giving earnest study to
this situation, seems to be of the opinion
that rates are already too high; at all
events it would be impracticable, possibly
ruinous, to increase them. He is quoted
as having said that the American people
cannot be expected to pay higher trans
portation charges.
Where the Loss Falls.
The dangerous increase in the falling
off in revenues does not as yet affect
wage-earners. They still stand In the
position where the government, when con
trolling the rallrpads, put them. The losi
Is borne by the stockholders and investors.
Although the reports which tell or present
day conditions with the railroads con
tlnus to be discouraging, nevertheless It Is
confidently believed that President Hard
ing and his administration, together with
affirmative action by congress, will put an
end to these embarrassments, and It may
be that late in tne summer policies will
be adopted and laws enacted, which will
bring the railroads out of what is called
"The slough of despond."
The situation is not due to serious busi
ness depression or In other words It is not
caused by industrial depression. But it
has been very Influential in establishing
conditions which have occasioned this de
pression. These faults, howeveg, are not
fundamental. For that reason the con
viction is held here that they cau be cor
rected, and without much delay.
Taxes and the Government.
Very gratifying Information comes from
Washington which tells of the purpose of
congress to correct as early as possible
the mistakes which are incorporated In
the present tax law. The excess profits
tax, which was for a year or two a yield
er of large revenue to the government,
has nevertheless proved to be undermin
ing business to some extent. It will un
doubtedly be repealed. It will be possible
for the committee of congress, which has
charge of this matter, to receive some
highly Illuminating testimony from those
who' have had unsatisfactory experience
with the excess profits tax.
The executive head of a corporation
which in normal times does a large busi
ness reports to his friends that the gov
ernment took 80 per cent of his profits
made in 1919. He admitted that the prof
its were large and were the result of war
demands, and yet they availed his corpora
tion very little, because after the govern
ment exacted 80 per cent there remained
only 20 out of which tt was necessary
to take a considerable proportionate part
to meet certain costs.
(Copyright, 121, by The McClure
Newspaper Syndicate.)
Chicago Grain
Chicago Tribune-Omaha Bee Leased Wire.
Chicago, April 2. Renewal of the
liquidation and selling pressure on
all grains and provisions in the early
trading carried values to new low
levels, but selling subsided after the
lowest prices were reached. Senti
ment among the trade leaders
changed around the inside; there has
been a huge liquidation, and prices
are regarded as too low for the best
interests of the business of the coun
try. As a result many changed
Heavy covering by all classes,
combined with a better type of buy
ing, advanced prices faster than they
had declined, and the close was
around the best, of the day, with net
gains of Vi2c on wheat and fi
?4c on corn; c lower to o-Jiigher
for oats, lower to fjc higfier for
rye, and unchanged for barley.
Provisions were heavy and lost
75c on pork, 22;425c on lard, and
30c on short ribs.
The week ' has been ons of the most
sensational In the grain trade of late,
with prices for corn and oats dqpvn to
You Can Grow
Better Chicks
if vou start them rich t. Thev nA . i
)if, I ,
for at least three
fnja ftiaO a"ASMsMMsl ,
w.iM (.am. vvijluu. iu
condition all needed food
e 3. . m t
iicauy irec irom inaigestiDieriDre,thatis easily digestible.
Pratts Buttermilk
exactly meets these requirements.
raises them tirhi. Kne --,... I
. - -
choicest materials earefully prepared
The first brood vni M S n ll
-;iv r-Li.t 7& . . .
"'"j vm rooa cna tnpnat
food for baby chicks" it the best en
" W Monmy Back If YOU Art
Sold hy Pratt deaUrs tftryeiert.
Toronto -6a
Chicago Tribune-Omaha Bee leased Wire.
New York, April 3. The note
worthy financial incidents of last
week were four in number, an al
most imprecedcntly large move
ment of newly-imported gold into
the federal reserve, which, along
with continued rapid reduction of
loans and note circulation, brought
the reserve system back to the po
sition it occupied when the after
war deflation began early in 1919,
maintenance of the very high money
rates in face of that condition; con
tinued downward tendency in prices
of commodities and continued
though irregular receding of prices
for investments, under sales of pro
fessional speculators. How long
all of these four movements, some
of them inconsistent with others, can
continue simultaneously, is an in
teresting problem.
In some respects the present
course of events in financial and in
dustrials markets repeats the move
ment familiar in our past economic
history after every great business
reaction. 1 he dividends of oroduo
ing and trading companies and the
action t., shares is in line with
all similar past experience. The
perplexing fact about the present
depression, nowever. is that it has
a double cause and a riotihle riarar.
ter. It embodies reaction from the
over-tension of credit and inflation
of trade and prices during 1919,
and in this it duplicates, the condi
tions caused by all of our past fi
nancial panics.
Reactionary Trend.
But it alSO emhOfliPM rPlrtlnn frnn,
Inflated markets of the war. it h-
said to have fulfilled, not only the sud
den misgivings which arose when credit
io ti at tne lop or the "after war
boom" In November. 19m hut v,,.
Justified also tho apprehensions of De
cember, 191(1, and November, 1918, as to
what would be the course of trade and
prices on return of peace.
nnat Kina or markets we should have
nau ana in wnat respects different from
the actual occurrences, it is diffiiult tn
say. Producers nd merchants were at
least in a position, when the armistice
his siKnea, to endure tne experience wltu
a. minimum or enocK. Hut that read
tlon, as we know, had scarcely atartari
(though with all the signs of the typical
after war adjustment) when it was sud-
ueniy ropiacea oy the illusions and tho
unanciai ouooie-Dlowing which lasted a
run year ana completely changed the sit
'ine ract that the country had to
"liquidate" not only 1919, but the whole
war period as well, accouifts for the ah.
normally great Industrial depression, for
n c.uoimmioi iMHgiuiuue oi company
losses and for the wholly unprecedented
rapidity of the decline in average prices
i commoaiues, wnicn nas run ny some
official estimates as far as St per cent
from the high point of 1920.
Decrease In Imports.
Certain financial movements occurred
Invariably in our larger peacetime re
actions from a breakdown of credit. They
comprised among other phenomena, very
groat decrease of Imports and Increase of
exports, and as a consequence, Import of
gold usually beyond all precedent. This
would always be followed, not only by
an exceptionally large increase In bank
reserves, but by a fall in money rates
which brought even three months loans
to or 3 per cent In this period of years
such as 1908 and 1894.
The changes in foreign trade have oc
curred this time as on the previous oc
casions. Our Imports since last June,
have been reduced (477,000,000 and while
our exports also have decreased
1103,000,000 that was mostly a
matter of lower prices and the surplus of
exports over Imports for the period which,
a year ago, had declined half a billion
dollars. Is now, despite the fall In prices,
practically back at the highest war-time
level, when we were supplying the entente
armies with munitions aod our own for
eign purchases were restricted by the war
conditions. The events ot the past few
weeks have shown that movement of gold
to the United States has repeated the ex
perience of the older after-panlo years.
Even the rise of bank reserves has fol
lowed as a consequence, bu the very
marked divergence of results has occu
pied with money rates. Instead of ?4
per cent on call and 2 on time which
were quoted in April, 1908, day-to-day
borrowers in Wall Street are paying seven
and three-months loans to bring TAc
1914 levels and wheat and rye off to the
lowest In recent years. The finish rec
orded losses ot 4o in wheat, 33 on
corn, 3V43'ic on oats, 36Vs on
rye, 3 on barley, 32-1714 on pork, 77 H
at 85o on lard and 87'A90o on short
ribs. A huge business was on in wheat, with
exports sales at the seaboard, 4,000,000
bushels or more since the close Fri
day. The bulk of this business was
bought against in the pit by the ex.
port houses and was largely secured a.
the gulf from the country, which is
selling more freely In Kansas. Nebraska
and other states. One house sold 2,000.
000 bushels at the gulf and bought more
from the country than It sold for export.
Premiums were better, and sales for ex
port were made for shipment extending
into June and beyond.
The export business brought in heav
general buying, with big shorts In the
The market having been oversold on the
break, was In a position to respond to the
new buying. Operators who sold early
were buying at the close. Crop reports
generally favorable. A few bad ones were
in from western Kansas, but cut little
Corn and oats were governed by the
same influences as wheat. An early break
carried May corn down to OSc, and o
on oats, to 88 ttc . The advance cams
largely from wheat and short covering.
Country offerings were light on corn and
moderate on oats. The markets have
had widespread breaks and there was
general eveningup.
By Updike Grain Co. Doug. 2627. April 2.
Art. Open. High. Low. Close. I Tes'dy
July '
l.7H l.S34 1.3714 1.85
l.UH 1.16H 1.18 1.1614I 1.14i
1.80 I.304 1.28 1.S0 1.304
1.06 1.06 1.12 1.10 1.06
.96 .97 .96 .97 .97
MS .60 .68 .60 ' .09H
.62 .6354 .62 .63'i .tlH
.64i .66 .63 .65 .64
.87 .87 .36 .37 .37
.87 .88 .37 .38 .38
.38 .98 .37 .38 .38
18.80 18.30 18.05 18.05 18.80
18.75 18.76 18.60 18.60 19.15
11.00 111.00 10.80 ' 10.80 ''11.06
U.26 111.30 11.17 11.17 11.40
10.45 10.46 10.27 10.34 20.(0
10.80 10.86 10.65 10.67 10.97
. . ' -w ,ul I1U
weeks a true "baby food."
A.- I
lAJucii amounts ana proper
.lfmfnt. fW. W ; -v-
wvw wins, ao L. Vr
ft ..
Baby Chick Food
It raises every good chick
k - i..-. u... j
vf-juwuuvi, VUi DIK1I Of
and blended.
l b.u t, ...
Market News of the Day
Live Stock
Omaha. April I.
Official Monday...
Official Tuesday....
Official Wednesday.
Official Thursday .
Official Friday
Estimate Saturday,.
lx days this week. .
Cattle. Hogs. Sheep.
. I 6.471
. 3,906 13,941
. 4.1411 19.140
. 3,9:9 4.700
. s. oat
0 3.400
.1:0 43, 843
Same days last week
28,007 49.1T4
30.141 (10,179
37,9(13 77.198
38.S01 91,1193
Same days t wk. ago
Kama days 9 wk. ago
Same dsy year, ago.
Receipts snd disposition of live slock at
the Union Stocy Yards, Omaha, Neb., for
24 hours ending at 3 o'clock p. m., April,
3, 1931,
Cattle Hogs
Missouri Pacific 13
C. & N. W.. west 1 !J
C. St. P., M. tt 0 4
C, n. A Q., east 1 3
C, B. ft Q., west 4
C, R. 1. P.. east 1
C, R. I. A P,.west 4
Chicago Great Western 3
Total Receipts
Morris & Co
Swift A Co ,
Cudahy Packing Co ,
Armour A Co ,
J. W. Murphy
Dold Pkg. Co J,. (49
Total 'm
Cattle Less than 100 head' of cattle
irrmfou iuu.v, not mourn oeing nere
to make a market. For the week re
ceipts have been only 19,300. 'While tbts
Is one of th smallest runs of the year so
far. the beef steer market hss been slug
gish snd Is closing steady to 3o lower
than a week ago, declines having been
noted on heavy and half fat kinds of cat
tle. Cows snd heifers closed slow, but
still selling 26i3(0c higher than last Fri
day. Outlet for stnehers and feeders hss
been light all week and at the close they
broke sharply, all hut the best kinds be
ing (Oo snd In extremes 76o lower than
last week.
Quotations on cattle; Qood to choice
beeves.; fair to good beeves.
98.0008.(0; common to fair beeves. 17.009
7.76; good to rholre yearlings. 36.6099.90;
fair to good yearlings, 37.768.60; com
mon to fair yearlings, $.767.75; choice
to prime heifers.; good to
choice heifers, 36.50(g'7.60; rholre to prime
cows. 37.00 17.76; good to choice cows.
96.2(97.00; fair to good rows. 93.6099.00;
common to fair cows. 32. 0004.(0: good
to choice feedors, 38.00(5 8.60; fair to good
feeders. $7.00(98.00; common to fair feed
ers, $6.25 7.00; good to choice storkere.
37.5098.25; fair to good stoekers, 36.7(9
7.90: common to fair stoekers. 93.(096.(0;
stock heifers. 85.00iO6.60; stork rows. $4.Mt
06.50; stock calves, 96.0097.60; veal
calves, (5.5098.(0: bulls, stags, etc., 14.26
Hogs The week is closing with the
usual Saturdsy run of hogs, sbout 8.400
head showing up. Trade was rather slow
with prices generally steady to a dime
lower in spots. Best light hogs brought
39.(0, the day's top. snd bulk of the re
ceipts sold from 88.6098.26. Although
receipts this week have been very mod
crate packing demand has been hack
ward and the trade Is closing anywhere
from6076c lower, with the average de
cline about 6670c.
No. Av. Sh. Pr. Xo. Av. Sh. Pr.
69. .366 ... 8 26 62. .294 70 8 60
62. .287 110 8 60 69. .252 70 8 65
65. ,2(12 70 8 70 68. .270 140 8 75
64. .289 ... 8 80 61 . .240 40 8 86
70. .213 180 8 90 73. .234 140 ' 9 00
70. .218 ... 9 10 84. .314 110 9 15
70. .204 40 9 30 66. .194 40 9 35
64. .183 ... t 60
Sheep No sheep or Iambs were re
ceived today and values In all branches
of this trade were nominal. The market
has been unsatisfactory on most days
this week and fat lambs are closing iOi?
75c31.n0 lower. Bast lambs are now
75c 31.00 lower. Beat lambs are now
selling around S9.2(&'9.90. Fat ewes are
generally steady ror the week and 96.00 is
a popular price for good ewes. No auotable
change has occurred in the market for
feeding or shearing stuff.
Unseed OU
Duluth. Minn.. April 2. Linseed, on
track. 31.53 91.65. To arrive, 11.52.
A Splendid Record
The Safety Traffic Committee reports that in March
(last month) Automobiles caused 33 Accidents and
21 Injuries.
This is a splendid showing over March last year,
during which 51 Accidents, 60 Injuries and 2 Deaths
were reported from the same cause.
It indicates that the public generally is realizing th
necessity of driving with care and caution.
However, until human nature changes there "will
always be a few who insist upon being canal s, ira-e
periling your safety and disregarding others.
If you are wise, you will protect yourself against the
acts of the irresponsible by securing Accident and
Health Insurance.
It may well be termed Income Protection and the
cost is small. .
Surety Bonds Insurance Investment Securities
640 First National Bank Building Tyltr 0360
V17E solicit your consignments
of all kinds of grain to the
Omaha, Chicago, Milwaukee, Kan
sas City and Sioux City marketx
We Offer You the Services
of Our Offices Located at
Omaha. IWbrassra
Get in touch with one of these branch
offices, with your next grain shipment
The Updike Grain Company
"'The lieliable Consignment Hoiae"
r!lllliilililllllfflliili!lli:i 1
Omaha Grain
Omaha, April 2.
Larger receipt! of grain wtr en
hand today. Wheat arrivals were
62 cars, corn 57, oatt 13, ryt t and
barley 2, Wheat and corn price
were quoted strong. Oata brought
yesterday's figures. Rye and barley
were unchanged.
Confirmation wai obtained on
sales of 1,500,000 bushela of wheat to
Germany, Italy and Belgium today,
and also about a million bushela to
iohr. A total of about
J.OOO.boO bushel, tince the cloie yes
terday was estimated.
No 1 bard: 1 osr. 11.41 thsarylj !
csrs, ll.St;
1 car, 31.17 (smutty); ears, (leaded
UNo. t hard: t cars. l.l; rent, it.;
t r.r. 91 87 tsmutty) : I oars, ti l (load
ed out). . . -
No. 3 hard: 1 oar, lamri .
11.38: J cars, 91 8T; t A'..JVJ
car, 11. 3( (smutty); 1 oar, . w
smutty). ..... . .
No. 4 hard: 1 ears, 1 esj , til
(loaded out): 1 cars. II.J4; 1 ear. 9189.
1 car, 1.3I (amutty)J. 1 car. tl.ll
(smutty). ..... .
No. ( hard: I ears, (smutty) j 1
car, It 29 (smutty); 1 l-l cars,
No. I mixed; 1 ear, (smutty).
No. 4 mixed: 1 car, 11.11 (durum).
No. I whites 1 ear. 4les 4 ears, 43e.
No. t yeilowi 1 ear, 41
No. I yellow: 4 ears, 4le ears. l
Sample yellow; 1 oar, Itej 1 ear, I8e
No. 1 mlieds 1 oar, 47o.
No. 1 mlxedt 14-1 ears. I
No. 4 mixed! 11-5 ears, 4le.
No. t white! 1 ear, 98e.
No. I white: 1 ear, 14 a. '
No. 4 white: 1-9 ear, 31 s.
No. I: 1 ear. tl.13.
No. I: l-l ear. 11.37.
Receipts Today. Inr Ar
Wheat 911,000 l.ltf.MA
Corn (91.009 1.0II.B90
Oato 484,000 l.Uf.OO"
Til. tOO
saa sea
Today. Tssr Ago.
, . eta AAA
Corn . IM.000 t.10?
Oats ,.V Uifi,. -'
Wssk Tesr
Today Ago Ago
Wheat 1J "
Corn 71 181 "
Oal. ...... "
Wk Tesx
Today Ago Ags
Corn .
Week Tear
Teds Ago Ago
., 10 111
,. 4t no lit
Corn ,
wesic Tear
Ago Ago
131 118
II 1
Minneapolis Ill
ri.,t, 111
ii-. i. ui
160 III
UMAHA nsiUEiir'f B APia snirn id.
X3 .Int. . TOrtftV
Wheat , 61
Corn IT
Oats IS
Wheat II
Corn. J...... 4
Oats 1
Rye i. ...... ..
St. Lenls Grain.
St, Louis. Mo., April I. Wheat May,
11.36 bid; July, 91.14 asked.
Corn May, 68 49 lie; July. II e Wd.
Oats May. !8o bid; July. lte aaaad.
Lincoln, Nebraska.
Hastings, Nebraska
Chicago, Illinois
Sioux City, Iowa
Hotdrege, Nebraska
Geneva, Nebraska
Des Moines, low
Milwaukee, Wis.
Hamburg, lowm
Kansas City, Mi