Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, February 04, 1917, NEWS SECTION, Image 1

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    et by Wilson
The Omaha Sunday Bee
WithGermqny Firmly M
Friendly R elationsjper many End ;
Wilson Sends Passports to Bernstorff;
Grave Crisis Now Confronts the Nation
President Wilson Lays Action Before
Congress, Explaining Reasonc for
Breaking With Germany Over the
Latest Submarine Warfare Issue
Austria Expected t&Act With Germany and a
v Break iVifh That'Country May Follow Any
Minute- Gerard Called Home and Spain to
Act for United' States
Washinsrton. Feb. 3. President Wilson has broken off
diplomatic relations with Germany and warned the kaiser that
ruthless sacrifice of American lives and rights means war.
Similar action is waiting for Austria when she notifies this
government that she joins in the campaign of unrestricted sub
marine warfare.
Announcement to World.
The president made formal announcement of his action
to the country and to the world today at a joint session of
congress. , .
Passports have been handed to Count von Bernstorff ; Am
bassador Gerard with all his staff and' all Americanconsuls
have been ordered out of Germany. All German consuls in the
, Unifed States are expected to withdraw that the severance of
relations may be .complete. American diplomatic interests in
Berlin have been turned over to Spain, German interests in the,
TJniteji States have been taken over by Switzerland. Foreign
diplomatic interests of which the United States had been in
charge in Germany have beenturned over to various neutrals.
..i Culmination of Outrages. '
. ! Two years' of diplomatic negotiations, marked with fre
quent erises and attended with the loss of more than 200 Amert-
can lives on the high seas, have culminated with' an act which
., in' all the history of all the world has always led Jto war. Every
' agency of the American government has been' set ki motion
to protect the country against acts of German sympathizers.
These moves of necessity are "being kept secret. "
: With the notice of severance of "diplomatic relations the
United States sent to Berlin a demand for the immediate re
lease of forty-eight Americans taken from ships captured by
German raiders in the South Atlantic.
At the request of the president, congress, after hearing
his address, began work on new laws framed by the Depart
ment of Justfce to conspiracies and plots against the
United States which cannot now be reachdd under existing
. ' t Question of Convoy. '
The question of convoying American ships through the
submarine blockade has been taken up and is being considered
as one of the next moves by this government.
.- Neutral governments have been notified of the, action of
the United States and have been invited to follow its action if
the new submarine campaign violates their rights.
Works Most of Night. ' ?
The breaking oil of relations came
with a crash, despite the fact that it
bad been discounted.
J. his was pi
npon last night. The president re
turned from his night conference with
the senators determined that a break
in relations was the only act "conist
Bent with the dignity and the honor of
"the United States." He worked most
of the night preparing his address to
. At 10:30 this morning it became
known that Ambassador Gerard had
been ordered home and that passports
had been sent to Count von Bern
storff. Although there was no official
confirmation of the president's deci
sion until he formally announced it
himself to congress, the knowledge
spread rapidly.
Bernstorff Deeply Moved.
Count von Bernstorff heard it unof
, ficially while talking with an Asso
ciated -Press correspondent. While ap
parently deeply moved, he was not
surprised. His first act was to ask
Dr. Paul Ritter, the Swiss rtffiiister td
.h. r..,mn i,..,. ,a
pare to take over its affairs.
1 hen fie informed his wile, an
American-born woman, of the devel
opment and likewise told the embassy
tCeatlnued on I'are Four, Column One.)
The Weather
v .
For Nebraska. Cloudy and colder.
TcaipermturM at Ornate Yeatordar.
0 Hour. Def.
b a. m...., in
I a. m
7 a. m , I
a. m
9 a. m 11
, m is
m 11
IS m 33
f p. m
I p. m
p. m 23
t p. in....... 31
S p. m ', .
7 p. m ,. 2k
Cnptntlfl LmhI HmotA.
1117. 1111. 1916. U14
Hlgheat yeaterdar. . . at 11 34 U
Lowmi yeatcrdHy.... !. 4 It 10 temperatures.,'.. M 3 X
Precipitation n .07 .00 T
Temperature and palpitation departure,
from the normal:
Normal temperature , ....,31
Exceaa' for the day , . 1
Total earea. .Inc. March 1 171
Normal prerJpHatlon ..... iOS Inch
Deficiency (or the day..... 03 Inch '
Tola) rainfall .Inn. March 1. .. .17.30 Inrhe.
- Deficiency .Inc. March 1 12.01 tnchea
PeflrleiH-y for cor period. 1 3)1 E . . .14 Inch
Uoflrlancy for cor. period,' 1014. l.tOlnchea
"1" tnulvatea trace pi-rclpjtatlon.
, , 1 A. WttUUl, UetMrolotlaL
at the Court of Berlin
Dispatch From Penf ield Indi
cates Rupture With Aus-
- tria-Hungary.
Washington, Feb. 3. A long dis
patch received today from Ambassa
dor Pen field at Vienna is understood
to announce adhesion of Austria to
Germany's course. '
The status of the new Austrian am
bassador, who arrived Thursday, was
stated unofficially this afternoon to
be undecided. '
Issuance of passports to Germany
was suspended today by the State
??X e"V, " : us'rla-"un8j
formally concurs in the Ge-man posl
department. it Austria-Hungary,
tion, however, suspension of passports
to that country will follow, it was
The gate at the White House were
locked today and special "'precautions
taken to keep unidentified persons
away from the executive mansion.
No specific instructions have been
sent to facilitate the withdrawal of
Americans now in Germany, but Am
bassador Gerard has been instructed
to keep them fully posted as to de
velopments. The Berlin embassy has
funds to provide for any Americans
needing aid in leaving Germany.
It was announced officially that all
neutral governments have been noti
fied by the United States of its sev
erance of relations with Germany. Of
ficials of the State department, though
declining to discuss the notification,
left the impression that thr United
States would welcome the co-operation
of other neutrals.
The final instructions for closing
.' A : . 1. . t 1 : - I
tlic American embassy in Berlin andj
turning over its interests to other nca
trals wore sent this morning, the of
ficial announcement said. It was
stated that until then Germany had
received from this government no of
ficial intimations of what the Ameri
can answer Would be,
Governors of states began early in
the afternoon to telegraph President
Wilson, approving his course. The
first to come were from Governor
Lowden of Illinois and Governor Man
ning of South Carolina.
Events Follow Quickly When President '
Severs Relations Between U. S. and Germany
President Wilson announced to congress in joint session severance
of diplomatic relations with Germany.
Passports handed to Count von Bernstorff, German ambassador to
United States. 1 - .
Ambassador Gerard, American ambassador to Germany, instructed
to ask for his passports and arrange for return of Americans and con
sular agents in Germany to United States.
Senators and congressmen and American people generally give ex
pression of united stand behind government iq move.
American owned grain ship Housatonia- sunk by submarine it is
feared without warning off Scilly islands.
American government seizes seven interned German ships, including
five liners and two auxiliary cruisers in Atlantic ports.
Nebraska legislature unanimously votes to support the president in
.the course taken against Germany.
Germans of Omaha pledge their loyalty to America in expressions
of local leaders.
New York's entire National Guards has been called out ,
' Diplomatic 'break does not mean war, but it may lead to it very
Market breaks and then recovers at the developments of the day.
Italians of Omaha take steps to organise a regiment.
Mr. Wilson Solemnly Notifies
Congress and the Nation
' of Aotion He Has
Taken in Crisis.
Washington, Feb. 3. The presi
dent in his address to congress an
nouncing the severance of diplomatic
relations with Germany said:
"Gentlemen of the cbngres:
"The imperial German government
on the 31st of January announced to
this government and to the' govern
ments of the other neutral nat' ' r.
that on and after the 1st day Cyf i ..)
ruary, the present month, it would
adopt a policy with regard to the use
of submarines- against all shipping
seeking to pass through certain desig
nated areas of the high seas, to which
it is clearly my duty to call your at
tention. - .. .. -
"Let me remind, the congress on
the 8th of April last, in view of the
sinking on the 24th of March of the
cross-channel, passenger steamer Sus
sex by a German submarine, without
sumi'nons or warning, and the conse
quent loss of the lives of several citi
zens of the United States, who were
passengers aboard it, this government
addressed a note to the imperial Ger
man government in which it made the
following declaration:
If it is still .-tha purpose of the
imperial government to prosecute re
lentless and indiscriminate warfare
against vessels of commerce by the
use of submarines without regard to
what the government of the United
States must consider the sacred and
indisputable rules of international law
and the universally recognized dic
tates of humanity, the government of
the United states is at last forced to
the conclusion that there is but one
course it can pursue.
Unless the imperial government
should now immediately declare and
(TyntlniMd on Pa. Two, Column One.)
Measures Taken to .
Protect the Nation
Against Alien Plots
Washington, Feb. 3. Measures pro
posed to protect the United States
against conspiracies that may result
from the rupture with Germany will
be considered at a special session lof
the senate judiciary committee after
the president's address to congress.
The committee was urged to consider
the measuresyas quickly as possible by
the administration.
Guard Boston Water Front
Boston, Feb. 3. One hundred and
nine policemen, under command of
Superintendent Crowley, were sworn
in late today as deputy marshals ini
immediately ordered to the water
front on guard duty at the pier where
six German ships are docked.
tn. New York Police Vigilant
New York, Feb. 3. News of the
rupture with Germany spurred the
police to take precautionary measures.
Police were , ordered to all places
"likely to be attacked," including the
water supplvsand the entrances to the
great bridges over the East river.
Men were also detailed to guard for
eign consulates. Acting Commissioner
Godley said no serious trouble was
expected. '
Gerard Ordered
: To Close American '
' Embassy in Berlin
' Washington, Feb. 3. Ambassador
Gerard's instructions are to close his
embassy as well as all the consulates
in Germany. All embassy 'attaches,
consuls, consular agents and their
"laff are to be brought out of Ger
many. This makes the severance of
relations more complete than is usual
in such cases.
Washington, Feb. 3. Germany's
diplomatic . interests in the United
States will be assumed by the bwiss
Washington, Feb. 3. Spain will
take over the diplomatic interests of
the United State in Berlin.
It is an Act of Protest Under
Usage of Nations as a
Measure Short of War. ,'
Washington, Feb. 3. Breaking off
diplomatic relations with " Germany
does not mean war, but easily may
lead to war. It is an act of protest
characterized in the usage .of nations
as a "measure short of war."
' The danger that war may follow
is accentuated by the diplomatic his
tory of the world. Modern times
sriov) no instance of a diplomatic break
between the first-class powers that
hi net ben followed by hostilities.
The rights of Germans in the
United States and of Americans in
Germany are practically unaffected by
the severance of diplomatic relations.
No treaties are terminated" or sus
pended, but remain in full force and
effect unless either government de
cides to denounce them, which under
innrnational practice generally calls
lor a notice of one year.
German consuls in the United States'
and American consuls in Germany,
holding their places by virtue of trea
ties, continue to perform their usual
functions, but they no longer work
under supervision of diplomatic offi
cers. - i. , v . i
Business; Relations Unchanged.
There is no change in commercial
relations, already badly crippled by
the war. Individuals and corporations
may continue their usual affairs, oro-
vided they do not deal in contraband,
kj u-:. -ki: .: j- '
aiiu wicu uvukauuiis arc as uuin ma
as ever. The courts still remain opefr
to tnem tor redress, but they have no
facility for direct intervention of
tlieir diplomatic officials. They may,
however, be represented by the diplo-
(Continued on Pa. Five, Column One.)
NewYork State's ,
'Entire Militia Is
Called to Colors
New York, Feb. 3. The entire Na
tional Guard of New York state and
the naval militia were ordered
night by Governor Whitmaa, after a
conference with Major General John
F. O'Ryan. y
General O'Ryan was directed to
have every arsenal, armory and water
shed adequately guarded by the mili
tiamen and Commodore Forshew of
the naval militia was ordered to pro
tect all bridges.
Sailing of Steamship
St. Louis is Delayed
New York, Feb. 3. The Interna
tional Mercantile Marine announced
today the postponement of the sailing
of the American line steamship St.
Ljuis from noon today until noon
Sunday "on account of a shortage of
steam coal." , ,v
Bohemians Pledge
Devotion to Country
The following declaration was
recevied in a message from Chi
cago last night:
"Break with Germany is here
and war may follow at any mo
ment America ia entitled to know
how far, it may rely upon the
loyalty of 13,000,000 citizens and
residents of foreign birth. Bo
hemian National Alliance of Amer
ica, recognized by more than 500,
000 Bohemian-speaking people is
theia. principal organization, de
clares on behalf of this element of
foreign born population that the
American government may count
absolutely upon the unconditional
devotion of Bohemians to their
adopted country."
The following telegram was sent
to President Wilson:
"Eighty thousand memben of
the Bohemian National Alliance of
America approve with enthusiasm
your determined stand In defense
of American rights and honor and
assure you of their absolute loyalty
to the United States. Bohemian
National Alliance of America, L. J,
Fisher, President."
Sorry, But We
1 . 33D
Two Thousand of Other Na
tionalities Lose Lives in the
Same Attacks. .
Washington, Feb. 3. Two htfidred
Americans at least, probably more,
'have gone to their deaths through
German and Austrian submarine op
erations. ,
Most of the Americans lost were
traveling on unarmed merchant ships
and, under the practices of interna
tional law and humanity, believed
themselves safe. More than 2,000
citizens of oilier nationalities lost
their lives in the same attacks, but
they compose only a part of the toll
of life taken by submarine warfare.
The ships lost on which the Ameri
cans met death are only a fraction
of the 'number sent to the bottom
by torpedoes, most of them without
Pint American Killed.
1 1 The cases which involve the
United States and Germany are pri
marily those ill which American life
was lost or endangered. The first
American of whom there is record
to lose his life in submarine attack
was Leon T. Thresher, a passenger
on fhe British liner Falaba, torpedoed
and sunk March 27, 1915, off Milford,
England. The Falaba, after a hope
less attempt to escape, stopped .and
while boats were being lowered and
passengers still were aboard the sub
marine drove a torpedo into its side
and it went down in ten minutes. Of
242 persons 136 were saved. -
The first American ship attacked
was the Gulflight, an oil tanker, from
Port Arthur, Tex., to Rouen, France,
torpedoed without- warning off the
Sicily islands May 1, 1915. Two men
(Continued On I'ae lire. Column Two.)
Eastern Guards
Will Hurry Home
From the Border
El Paso. Tex.. Feb. 3. An order
received at military headquarters to
day speeding up the departure of the
Sixth Pennsylvania infantry by ten
days is taken here by military officers
to mean the state troops will be used
on guard duty at eastern - military
depots and other important points,
because of the crisis with Germany.
This regiment will leave the sixth in
stead of the sixteenth of this month.
A Deming, N. U. dispatch stated
that it is reported there that the First
Arkansas infantry which left for the
state, camp yesterday will be diverted
to San Antonio.
Attempts to Sink
U.S. Torpedo Boat;
v Machinist in Irons
Philadelphia, Feb. 3. According to
a report at the1 Philadelphia navy
yard, an attempt was made today to
sink the torpedo boat Jacob Jones.,
A machinist's mate is alleged to
have opened the sea crjeks and as the
boat was being towed into its dork
it was seen to list. Investigation re
vealed that the sea cocks were open
and when, the vessel waf finally
docked there were two feet of water
in the hold. The -chief machinist's,
mate was arrested and placed in irons,
it was said. - ,
Must Part
Members of Foreign Birth
Pledge Their ' Sons , to;"
t A Uphold the Nation. -
(Frnm Staff Correapondent.).
. Lincoln, Feb. 3. (Special Tele
gram;) With- the singing of "Amer
ica," and tears streaming down the
faces of many, the lower house of the
Nebraska legislature unanimously
adopted ,a resolution this morning
pledging the people of Nebraska to
Stand behind thr'president in any
th'ng that might come up in the pres
ent situation. ...
The news that diplomatic relations
had been severed with Germany
reached the house Just at the time
when that body was about to con
sider the resolution of last night, com
mending the president for his attitude
on the situation at that time. '
Representative Peterson, republ'can
floor leader, sent up an amendment
pledging the support of the people of
the slate to. the president in the pres
ent situation. The resolution. was fol
lowed by speeches by more than
dozen members, most o,f them of Ger
man parentage and some of them of
German birth, all of them pledging
their lives to the defenses of Old
Glory and the perpetuity of American
principles. The house then adjourned.
Hoffmeister Talks.
Following the presentation of the
amendment Representat've Hoffmeis
ter, made an address in favor of the
amendment. With tears in his eyes
the gentleman from Chase reviewed
the situation. He said that he had
visited his old home in Germany re
cently. He still had relatives back
there and many tender memories of
those in the old home. "But I have
three sons," he said, and if necessary
(Continued on rata rim. Column raw.)
Unitedtates Drops
Interests of Many
1 Countries in Europe
Washington, Feb. 3. American am
bassadors, ministers and consular rep
resentatives in England, France, Rus
sia, Japan, Roumania, Serbia, Greece,
Egypt and Morocco were today in
structed by theState department to
suspend all activities in relation to the
German interests which they have
taken over and to await information
to be conveyed through some neutral
government as to whom Germany
wishes those interests entrusted.
Thus comes to an end the great
humanitarian work the United States
has been doing in caring for German
prisoners in those countries as well
as the practical task of handling Ger
many's diplomatic interests, i
The belligerent interests which the
United States has been representing
in Germany ince the beginning of
the war were .turned over by the
American embassy in Berlin to other
neutrals selected by the various gov
ernments' concerned. ' , '
Official announcement was made at
the State department that British in
terests in Germany had .been trans
ferred to Holland, Japanese and Ser
bia to Spain and Roumanian to Spain
temporarily till the Roumanian gov
ernment has been heard from.
Official announcement also was
made that all American consult had
been ordered to leave Germany and
that; Germany was expected likewise
to withdraw all its consult from this
Steamen Housatonio Sent to
Bottom by Torpedo of Sub
marine Off the Scilly
" Islans.
News Creates Sensation at
Washington and Details
Are Awaited.
London, Feb. 3. The Housatonic
was -submarined at noon. All the of
ficers and crew were saved by a Brit
ish armed steamer.
London, Feb. 3. The American
steamship Housatonic has been sunk
by a German submarine.
The rumor is current that the
Housatonic was sunk without warn
Later information confirmed the re-.
port that the Housatonic was sunk
near the Scilly islands.
The Housatonic tailed from Galves
ton January 6 and from Newport
News January 16 for London. The
Housatonic was formerly the Hamburg-American
line tteamer Georgia,
and American registry was granted to
it in April, 1915. Prior to that time
it had been laid up at New Orleans '
since the beginning of the war. i
It was then announced that the
vessel had been bought on March 29
for $85,000 by the Housatonic Steam-
ship company, of which Edward F.
Gcer of New Orleans was president.,
The Housatonic was 3,143 tons
f rom and was built in Glasgow in
890. It was 238 feet long, forty feet
wide and twenty feet deep. . ,
Creates Sensation.
Wsshington, Feb. 3. Newt of the
sinking of the Housatonic created (
sensation here, but State department
officials pointed out that it would de
pend entirely upon the circumstances
whether the incident would affect the
present situation . ... .. .
If the ship was carrying contra-"'
band, and if it wat destroyed with
proper warning and provision tor the
safety of its crew or in an attempt
to escape, the United States merely
would have a claim for damages, as in
the Fry case. '
The first effect of the incident in .
official quarters was to direct atten- 1
tion anew to the president's declara- ,
tion in hit address to congress today
that if American ships ana lives were
sacrificed "in needless, contravention -of
the just and reasonable under
standings of international law," ht
would again go before congress for
authority to "use any means that may
be necessary for the protection of
our seamen and our people."
Fifteen Americans in Crew. '
Galveston. Tex., Feb. 3. At . the
offices of the Texas Transport and
Terminal company, agents i for the
Housatpnic, it was stated that there
were approximately fifteen American!
in the crew and twenty-four of other
T-l 1 .
Spain Wants More v
Time Before Making ,
'- Decision in Matter
' London, Feb. 3. A Madrid dispatch
to Reuter's says that the Spanish gov
ernment has telegraphed the central
powers asking that the time allowed .
Spanish ships tq return to port be ex
tended. Many towns are protesting against
the note of the central powers and
have sent appeals to the government
to support with dignity the interests
of the nation. The administration has
prohibited an anti-German meeting .
which was called at Santander. The
consulates of the central powers at '
Barcelona and the camp of interned
Germans near that city are being
guarded by the police. - '
Washington, Feb. 3. Mr. . Riano,
the Spanish ambassador, after calling
at the State department today, said:
"I have no --information whether
Spain would follow the course of the .
United States in severing relations
with Germany."
May Commandeer Plants ,
For Naval Construction
; Washington, Feb. 3. Chairman
Padgett oi the house naval commit
tee announced late today, in closing
debate on the annual naval appropria
tion bill, that he would offer an '
amendment . proposed by Secretary
Daniels authorizing -the commandeer
ing of private plants i engaged in navy
constructfon in case' of emergency.
Orders were issued late today by
the Navy department forbidding any
navy officials divulging movements
of American war vessels.
The department announced that the
Atlantic fleet would continue its ma
neuvers in. the vicinity of Guantanamo.
Shop on Pier Used by
, Deutschland, Burns
New London, Conn., A tool shop .',
on the state pier, a portion of which
is leased by the Eastern Forwarding
company for storage and handling of ,
cargo for the German submarine mer
chantman Deutschland, was burned
today. The loss was small. In the
shop was metal used in their pier L
construction work. .