Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, February 06, 1916, NEWS SECTION, Image 7

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    The Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Paoe
ALL 77JT Fif P71
: i
Science Declares That Your Scalp Will RETAIN ITS HAIR If You Will Only Give It a
B AD air, Vanity and laziness are the three common
faotora ot that execrable condition, alopecia pre-
mature, or denudation of man'a dome.
' Indian living their own life sever craw bald.
Women following the fashion i seldom grow bald. In
both cases the ecalp receives plenty ot fresh air, and
freth air It the moat efficient ot all practical germi
cides. ;
' Men wear bate nine-tenths ot the time, not because
they need protection against cold weather or Intense
sunlight but because they are too proud to fight vain
eustom, too cowardly to defy the batter. If here and
there some rare and admirable soul strides abroad un
bonneted his envious fellow creatures take refuge In
mean, low-down ridicule, cheered on and encouraged
by the man round the corner with a big stock of male
millinery to unload.
"(Professor Sabouraad determined some time ago that
dandruff Is caused by germs. He Identified a minute
organism, to which be gave the name of micro-bacillus
of , Babouraud. that he found present in practically
' ever case of dandruff.
Professor Lassar, another famous skin specialist.
proved that dandruff is contagious, by taking dandruff
scales from the head of a student who was losing bis
hair. He made a pomade of them with vaseline,
rubbed the pomade Into the back of a guinea-pig, and
in due time saw the pig go bald.
It is a familiar thing tor a young husband or wife to
contract dandruff after marriage. And that the barber
ts the ehlef distributor of dandruff germs and con
sequent baldness we cannot doubt
This1 little micro-bacillus of Babouraud burrows down
the hair shaft, yery gradually yet very industriously,
until it eventually reaches the hair follicle or root,
where it takes up its abode and eata away at the root
until the hair becomes first sick and puny and finally
lose all TlUUty, falling out, never to return. The
' ' :! --nefarious work t a few billion micro-bacilli upon a
needle, only that the needle does in a few seconds
what the micro-bacillus requires months
and years to accomplish.
When we wish to destroy an individual
hair or many ot them for keeps there Is but
one known means of safely doing so, and
that is the electric needle. This ts an ordi
nary No. 6 or No. 7 Jeweler's eteel broach
or a platinum needle with a slight bulb at
the point, attached to the negative pole of
a galvanic battery supplying a four or five
railltampere current. The needle is gently
Insinuated down alongside the shaft of the
hair until it penetrates the follicle or root,
when a stream of white bubbles comes to
the surface and the hair comes awsy with
out pulling or giving pain.
This, of course, is a tedious process an
operator does well to destroy a dosen to
twenty hairs at a sitting. But Just the same
tt is not one whit more efficacious than the
micro-bacillus ot Babouraud when the latter
agent is kept protected with a suitable bat
Lack ot fresh air, darkness, absence of the actinic or
disinfectant action of sunlight, plus uneleanlinsss
these contributing factors aid the micro-bacillus In his
ruthless work.
Tou may note the succeeding stages of the process
In any case. First there is an increasing outness of
scalp and hair a seborrboea, as doctors call it, an ex
cessive flow of the natural oil secreted by the
sebaceous or oil glands which lie about each hair
follicle and supply the necessary oil ot the hair. This
excessive secretion of oil is a response ot the glands
to the stimulating 'effect of infection.
Perhaps if the hat were thrown in the ring and left
there the process would go no further, for the sebum
or oU itself possesses some germicidal power; but this
power is feeble, at best and hence readily counter
balanced by the contributing factors Just mentioned
lack of air, light and cleanliness.
We say nothing here of the Interference with nutri
tion of the scalp by rigid bat bands. Even the derby
or silk hat would hardly impair nutrition If it had no
roof. Few heads are eo regularly spheroid or ovoid as
to suffer from the pressure of hat bands; the normal
irregularities of the outline of the skull cap suffice to
protect the arteries and veins of the scalp from serious
The second stage ot the process is that of dandruff.
At first it Is an oily, greasy dandruff, seborrboea,
oleosa, or stearrhoea, or pityriasis, as it is variously
known. It may assume the form ot a greasy coating
on the scalp.. After a time It generally becomes scaly,
dry dandruff (seborrhoea sicca).
The oily dandruff is usually not so itchy as the dry,
Three Ways of Preventing Baldness.
A -JWear a hat at little) at possible so as to give your hair plenty of fresh air.
B If you are a man, newer use a comb. C -Massage the scalp systematically with
the finger tips.
How We Learned to Use ALMANACS
THH first almanacs were of
Arabian origin, and reflected
the local genius of the peo
ple in a very striking way. They
' served 'as models in other countries
for hundreds of year.
The oldest known copy of such a
work is preserved In the British
Museum, and dates back to the
time of Rameses the Great of
Egypt who lived 1400 years before
the birth ot Christ. It Is written ou
papyrus, in red ink, and covers a
period of six years. The entries
relate to religious ceremonies, to
the fates Ot children born on given
days, and to the regulation of busi
ness enterprises in accordance with
planetary Influences.
-DO nothing at all this day." is
one ot the warnings. "If thou
seest anything at all this day it
wUl be fortunate," is another entry.
"Look not at a rat this day," "Wash
not with water this day," "Go out
not before daylight this day," are
some of the additional cautions.
This almanac was found in an old
tomb, and fs supposed to have been
burled with its Egyptian owner
when , he was converted into a
mummy for future explorers to dig
up and dissect in the interest ot
science and literature.
Next after this in point of age
among the existing specimens ot
ancient almanacs are some com
posed in the fourth century. They
are Roman Church calendars, giv
ing the names of the saints and
other religious information.
The Baltic nations, who were not
versed in papyrus-making, bad
calendars engraved on axe-helves,
walking sticks, and other articles
of personal use. The days were
notched with a broad mark tor Bun
day, and the saints' days were sym
bolized in various devices, such as
a harp tor St David's, a gridiron
for St Lawrence's, a lover's knot
for St Valentine's, and so on. The
Saxon almanacs are numerous and
contain historical as weU as ecclesi
astical entries. -
It is possible to trace in these
curious records all the changes ot
popular belief and taste. They
were prepared to meet the current
demand and to constitute a syste
matic story of what took place la
successive periods and bow
knowledge increased with the re
volving years. We owe to them
most that we know of the people for
whom they were made and by whom
they were endorsed.
sourf-llke dandruff. The dry form
of dandruff algnlfles that the my
riads ot micro bacilli are getting In
their deadly work upon the scalp
the oil glands are already begin
ning to weaken under the unrelent
ing gnawing of the microbes, and
it Is at this time that the hair be
gins to come out on the brush.
Mot always, though. Some Indi
viduals have dandruff in the most
annoying degree tor years and
years and still preserve a fair
thatch ot hair. But these are ex
ceptions. In the majority ot cases
dry dandruff is the sure precursor
ot alopecia prematura, or "drought
ot the coco."
If Lester's dandruff pomade,
above mentioned, was capable of
producing baldness in a gulaea-plg,
then it is not at all fanciful to ex
pect immunising vaccination with
strains of the same species ot
mtcrobacuius to relieve dandruff.
In practise such relief is common.
By way ot prevention of oily or
dry dandruff and baldness perhaps
the most Important item Is mas
sage of the scalp. Massage is a
sort ot almost-as-good substitute
for scalp exercise,, the human ani
mal baring lost bis capacity to
shake the scalp and wiggle the ears.
Massage may be given with the
finger tips as well as with a good
brush. This Is the proper way to
massage the scalp: Place the
palms on either side of scalp, push
the fingers of the one band toward
those of the other band, thus rais
ing a roll ot scalp between the ap
proaching finger-tips. Go over the
entire scalp systematically In this
way until it glows with warmth
and renewed circulation.
In brushing, use a long-bristled brush and brush
vigorously, giving about a hundred strokes to the
scalp each day. The bftuh should be as frequently
cleansed as the ecalp itself, and after washing the
brush it should be stood in the direct sunlight to dry
and be sterilised.
There are brushes with rubber air pads in which the
bristles are imbedded. Another excellent brush is '
one with removable, perforated bristle-base, permitting
easy cleansing. As for combs, none is necessary for
men's hair; women should use only coarse, rounded
toothed combs, never fine or sharp-toother combs.
How often should the scalp be washed or sham
pooed f As often as necessary for cleanliness every
day in some cases, twice a week in others, twice e
month in others. Why people should hesitate to wash
the scalp, yet never fear a dally bath, is one of those
Inexplicable mysteries bound up with the "catching
cold" delusion. It all soap is rinsed from the hair,
and only pure soap used in wasmng the scalp, and the
balr thoroughly dried after the shampoo, and a wee
bit ot oil, preferably purified petroleum oil (liquid
petrolatum) is rubbed into tbe scalp (not the balr)
following the washing, to replace the natural oil re
moved, there can be no possible ill effect from a scalp
There is not one word to be said in favor of most
ot the various balr remedies barbers recommend. Of
course, there are remedies which relieve dandruff,
whether oily or dry, Just as there are local remedies
whloh will help many cases ot acne or other skin
trouble. But it is notable that none of these remedies
produce any appreciable Improvement without thor
ough massage they must be patiently and regularly
rubbed Into the scalp (not onto the balr) dally for
periods of several week's in order to have any good
effects, and this indispensable massage of tbe scalp
In itself would, in all probability, accomplish tbe same
results without the aid of the medicament
However, there is no harm in mentioning one or
two ot tbe remedies most highly commended by com
petent authorities. Sulphur is suggested by Babou
raud in the following form:
Precipitated sulphur..... drama
Alcohol (90 degrees) 2Vi drama
Distilled water and rose water,
enough to make 4 eunoee
A if air. in Its Home.
A Surface of skin. C Hair stalk. C
Oil gland, which becomes weakened by the
unrelenting gnawing of the Sabouraud mi
crobe. D Hair sheath. E Hair muscle.
F Hair root, which the microbes grad
ually eat away, causing the hair to die and
fall out.
Mix. Te be rubbed In between parted hair
at night covering one-fourth of eoala thee
oughly eaoh night, shake the bottle before
The one drawback about all sulphur preparation e
Is the somewhat disagreeable odor ot sulphur, bard
to disguise. And it Is Insoluble, and hence cannot be
sprayed upon the scalp Ilk certain other medica
ments. For Instance, an aloobolio solution ot two per
cent sallcyllo add or of a similar strength of resorcin
may be sprayed forcibly upon the scalp by means of
. a good atomizer whose downward bent tip is beld
lightly In contact with the scalp.
It convenience alone la not the chief thing to be
considered either of the three medicaments mentioned
would be most effectively employed in the form of an
ointment which may be systematically rubbed into
the scalp by parting the hair bare and there, without
leaving the hair unpleasantly greasy. A little oint
ment on the finger-tips and thorough but not too forci
ble massaging with It
W grow bald because we want to, not became we
have to. W don't give our scalps a fighting chance.
HT are shoemakers so liable
to tuberculosis T There is
no reason why there should
be any more hereditary predispo
. sltlen to the disease among them
than among any other class of
workers. They are not as a ml
bard drinkers, and they are well
paid enough to afford comfortable
homes and sufficient nourishment
Neither can it be said that there is
anything about the materials with
which they work that facilitates
the spread of germs of this disease.
Tet the death rate from tubercu
losis among the workers in the
great shoe manufacturing centres
ot England is about 85 per cent In
excess of the average for other in
dustries. And English scientists
bave been making an exhaustive
investigation to try to find out why
GOOD for the NERVES to Read in Bed, but BAD for the EYES
The diagram oa the right shows tbe con
ditions under which tbe eye bas tq work
when we reed In bed. Tbe crystalline lens
is slightly tipped, tbe suspensory ligament
strained end tbe vertical axis tnrown con
siderably out ot plumb. By doing work they
were never Intended to do the ciliary
muscles which control tbe movements ot
the eyeball are able, for a time at least, to
prevent the blurred, distorted image which
would otherwise be the result
Just as a rubber band after being
stretched a long time loses its elasticity and
becomes unable to resume its normal posi
tion, so will tbe ciliary muscles, if called
upon for too much of thla abnormal work,
become lax and unable to properly control
the eyeballs.
Eye specialists say that eyes which have
been badly strained by too much reading in
a reclining position are among the most
difficult cases they are called upon to treat.
The reason is that such eyes exhibit a cer
tain light reflex, known to oculists as the
"scissors movement," that is very hard to
deal with.
this should be so. '
. Their study leads them to be
lieve that one reason for the
prevalence of tuberculosis among
shoemakers lies In the fatigue
caused by the constant exercise of
csre and attention in the execution
of a number ot finely adjusted and
rapid muscular movements. The
men who cut tbe lasts have to bend
over their cutting boards for hours
at a time with their abdomens and
lower ribs compressed and their
chests cramped. No attitude could
be more conducive to tuberculous.
Add to this cramped position the
fact that ehoemaking ia sedentary
work carried on tor long hours in
overcrowded factories which are
often dark, dusty and poorly venti
lated, and it is not bard to see bow
so many shoemakers contract
To overcome these difficulties the
English investigators urge the pas
sage of laws regulating the lighting,
heating and ventilation of shoe fac
tories and prohibiting the dry
sweeping which fills th air with
irritating particles of dust
Employers should be required to
allow their men to stop work tor
Intervals of fifteen minutes twice a
day and play games or take gym
nastic exercises in the open air.
This, it is believed, would go a
long way toward counteracting the
harmful effect of the sedentary oc
cupation and tbe cramped position.
To deal with the actual cases or
tuberculosis the novel suggestion is
made of an industrial sanatorium
where operative can carry on their
trade under medical supervision
for such hours as they are able,
and earn wages in proportion. As
health ia re-established working
hours and earning capacity would
be Increased, until finally normal
hours could be safely undertaken
in many cases and faotory lmploy
msnt resumed.
The plan presents the great ad
vantage ot teaching the operative
bow to carry on bis handicraft ua
der hygienic coadltlons.
Uow Reading in Bed Strains the Eyes.
On the left, an eye with all its parts and the vertical axis o. the
lens (XY) in their normal position. On the right, an eye strained by
reading in bed. Note how the crystalline lens (C) is slightly tipped, the
suspensory ligament (F) strained and the vertical axis (XY) thrown
considerably out of plumb. This condition interferes with the proper
action of the ciliary muscle (G) and the iris (E) and may ultimately
result in injury to the optic nerve.
Why It Would Be Very Hard to STOP EATING BREAD
THERE are few bsbits out of which tbe
average man or woman gets more
real enjoyment than that of reading
In bed. When the cares of the day are over
and mind and body can both relax Is the
time when one's favorite book or magazine
Is most inviting, and an hour or so over its
pages is often the beet preparation for a
healthful, refreshing night's sleep. In fact
physicians often recommend reading in bed
to nervous patients who suffer from in
somnia. But beneficial as the babit may be to the
mind and nerves, It bas quite tbe opposite
effect on tbe eyes.
Oculists bate for a long time been puuled
by a peculiar form of eye strain, wblrh Is
especially common among college students.
Now they have decided that this is a direct
result of the habit of reading In a reclining
College students are more addicted to this
habit than any other class of people. Not
only do they enjoy a novel or magazine after
they get into bed at night, but throughout
the day much ot their reading la done while
reclining on couches or divans.
Just why this habit is so harmful to our
eyee is clearly ahown by the accompanying
diagrams. Tbe one on the left represents
the eye with its various parts in ths posi
tion nature Intended them to be for reading.
The axis of the lens is, it will be seen, ex-
.... A I ,
PROBABLY man would survive if the esrth never
produced another grain of wheat. But he would
not find it easy to get along without this useful
grain, for tbe eating of bread and other things made
from wheat flour is a habit to which be bas been
sddicted for nearly five tboosand eers.
Wheat, it is thought, was first grown in the valleys
of tbe Tigris sod tbe Euphrates. Gradually it spre"4
to the Eat.t, and it la known that in China it was Cul
tivated extensively as early ss 3000 B. C. Wheat
formed tbe chief food of the people ot Biblical times.
Tbe term "wheat" is derived from an old English
word, "hivsete" meaning white.
The wheat of to-day differs somewhat from that of
early history. Through intensive cultivation and cross
fertilisation it bas reached a high state of perfection.
Wheat is tbe most widely known of the cereal grains.
It is found wherever the white man bas penetrated.
It Is grown on tbe Himalayan alopes ten thousand feet
above aea level; oa the great centrel plain of North
America; in the tropical countries of Africa and India. ,
We even find that a far north as the sixtieth parallel
of latitude in Alaska, Puss la, Germany, Franc and
Certt I", by the BUr Cempanr. Ortst Britain Ri
England, thousands of scree ot wheat are harvested
every year. -
The fact that wheat can be readily adapted to various
conditions of soil and climate makes it the most
valuable of all cereal grains.
There sre many different varieties ot wheat due to
tbe differences ot soil and climate, but In general we
divide it into two great classes: Winter or soft whsst
sown in the Fall and harvested during the hot Sum
mer monthsand Bprlng or hard wheat sown early in
tbe Spring and harvested late in the Bummer.
A grain of wheat is. composed of four parts; ths
busk, which consists of five distinct layers of bran;
tbe cereal layer, a thin membrane enclosing the starch
cells, and the germ. During the milling process tbe
brsn coats and the germs are removed.
Graham flour is made by grinding the entire grain
to a moderate grade ot, fineness. Entire wheat flour
is made by grinding the grain and removing the three
outer coats. If the germ were not removed from the
flour, the color and the keeping qualities would be
There are tenty-four steps In the milling process,
fhla Rrv4.
from the time the wheat is weighed until it is sold as
flour. The by-products, bran and middlings, ars sold
to the farmer for the feeding ot cattle.
There are over fifty varieties ot flour made, but we
must classify it chiefly according to the kind of wheat
Flour made from Bprlng wheat is commonly known
ss bread flour. Bread flour la rich in gluten. Gluten
bas the power of expansion after the addition of mois
ture and heat and a flour rich ia gluten, as bread flour
is, will produce a light loaf of bread.
Flour made from Winter wheat ia commonly known
as pastry flour. Pastry flour contains lea gluten and
more starch than bread flour.
Bread and pastry flour may be readily distinguished
from each other. Bread flour is creamy la color and
granular to the touch. Pastry flour is white in color
and smooth like cornstarch. If a portion of this be
squeezed between the banda the Impression of the
Angers will remain.
Flour should be kept in tightly sealed cans in a dry
place. It is more economical in buying flour to get
a good brand, even though tt does coet a half rent
more a pound tbsn an unknot brand.