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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 20, 1914)
THE OMAHA .SUNDAY BEr:. SEPTEMBER 2U. 1014.
LAW OF THE AIR IN WAR TIME i;S
Jialei that Should Govern the Con
doct of Belligerent Aviaton.
IimO KEN ARE NOT SPIES
Ferblddea to Bombard 1 -fortified
- TtwMi hat Olkrrnlw t ure
strlrted la Their Una.
BitUf i In the air, the destruction of
tlie mightiest fortifications ty veritable
fcloudburets of explosives and the spylnn
eut of military works or maneuvers from
the deadly vantage point of the aviator,
are . all Ideas which have appealcil
strongly to fiction writers. It la In the
Jrrestn European confllrt that the fleets
tf the air will be riven their first reel
test, and possibly their last one, for
tnanr authorities believe that they will
Add Intolerable horrors to war, and that
a fighting machine! at least they will
e banished by International agreement
before another confllrt takes plare.
-International law Is a complex and
alowly itrowlnif body of rules which has
Veen built up by the association of the
Uatlons of the world with earn other.
The science of aeronautics has grown ao
rapidly that It has outstripped the pon
derous machinery of International con
ferences. As a result the greatest of
rh are not defended Is forbidden.
s was supplemented by the words "by
any means whateer."
I Kxcept for the restriction concerning un-
I Atn...A n.-m l -an he aftM that there
Is no law governing the ue of aeroplanes
and dlrlglhles In the present war. Any
thing which can be done to harass the
enemy la rermleslhle, and it seems
highly probable that sooner or later the
great air fleets of the warring powers will
be heard from. It Is noticeable, however,
that up to the present aviators have had
practically no part In the hostilities.
In the matter of wireless telegraphy
some International rules have also been
adopted, but they are not of much Im
portance In this war, and It Is hard to see
how they could ever be enforced. The
chief provision Is that any neutral country
may order belligerent countries to cease
from sending: wireless messages across Its
territory. It Is very unlikely that such a
er.uree would be taken, because It would
In all probability be disregarded New
NOTED OUTLAW BERRY PICKER
Frank James at "evenly la fndns
trlona F.nangh to Kara His
Owa I.I via sr.
Wars la now In progress, with little or no
preement between the contending powers
a to what constitutes a proper use of
'-4flr vehicles In the carrying on of hos
.'tllitles. In "The lw of the Air," wrlt
rten by Harold I. Haieltlne, and pub
lished In this country by the fleorge If.
Doran company, the laws concerning the
se of the sir are discussed. Ir. Hazel
tine Is an English authority on Interna
tional law, and his book consists of a
aeries of lectures delivered at the Uni
versity of 1ondon.
1 ' Geaeral I'rlnelplea Involved.
t Dr. Haieltlne first discusses the general
j principle concerning the control of the air
l space by the state. Moralise of the short
! time during which tlilr has hern a matter!
of any Importance no very definite con-
. elusions have been rested. Many author
ities on International law hold that the air
Is free to all. aad that any device for
' navigating It has the same right to travel
through any part of It that a vessel has to
voyage anywhere on the high aeaa. A
number of rather Ingenious argumenta In
support of this view have been worked out
,vby those who advocate It, hut neither gen
eral opinion nor any statute haa ever
vecognised such a stand.
The opinion which Is generally held, uud
on which all nations act when they rrea
foreign aeroplanes which fly above thcr
'"territory without permission, la that eaci.
, ''country hold absolute sovereignty if the
'! Ir space above Its territory.
, ? During the Franco-Prussian war of 1S70
; -tome attempts were made to use balloons
I. tor observing the movements of the hns
, lle armies. The statue of aeronauts had
i tot been defined at that time, and His
marcs, ordered that any who might te
i taptured be considered as spies. As ;
enaUer of fact, a number of them were
a laken prisoner, but were treated aa mill
,vtary prlaoners and were not executed. It
l-rtvas not until the first Hague convention,
f in 1W. that. the position of balloonlsta In
I time of war was defined.
,. ' Balloaalata Nt "plea,
j 3 The conference decided that balloonlsta
.re not spies If they are sent "to deliver
-!ljatches" or to "generally maintain
communication between the various parts
' 'of an army or territory." This ruling
falls to provide for the treatment of avla
tors who may ba captured In the act of
' training Information, but such activity
J aeems to be provided for In a definition of
a spy which was adopted at the same
;tlm. This declared that "an Individual
f 'ran only be considered a spy If, acting
T "clandeatlnely or on false pretenses, he ob
V tains, or seeks to obtain. Information In
. the gone of operations of a belligerent,
5 ".-with the Intention of communicating It to
.- .the hostile party." Under this provision
; avlatora seeking Information could hardly
-. '. bo regarded as spies, for they operate
-j without false pretenses and without clan-
A oon as there was some Indication
"- tnat y1" machines might be perfected
, the International lawmakers were at once
struck wUh the question of their use for
v . - the dropping of explosives. The same con-
, "renc t which the laws concerning: the
" treatment of airmen taken prisoner during
. war were passed took an Important atand
the explosive question, and one which
.2it Is to be regretted, haa not been contln-
,? ued. In January of 1S99 Count Mouravleff
of 8t Peteraburg. aent a circular to the
; ,ute" to represented at Tha Hague, In
JL' which he urged 'the prohibition of the
r - discharge of projectiles or explosives of
" any aina irom balloons or by any similar
- .1 Powers Wllllna; to Take. Chances.
Th subject waa given brief consldera-
f ,1ion and tho law adopted for a period of
flvo years, which expired on September 4.
, 1S06- Eight years later It appeared that
the action of the tribunal was not
prompted ao murh by humanitarian feel
J ,-Jngs aa by the belief that air craft were
not destined to play an Important part In
any war in me near future. When the
aecond gathering at The Hague took place
in in u was Impossible to Inspire anv of
the great European powers with the senti
ments to whlrh they had unanimously
subscribed In IS. The progress made In
the science of aerial navigation had been
o extraordinary that the military powers
were deeply interested, and very few of
them wished to give up this new method
England and Austria-Hungary were of
the party In favor of the limitation of
... armaments, and accordingly favored re
' atrictlon of the use of aeroplanes. Lord
Reay, the British delegate, argued that It
' would be most unfortunate to add a third
expensive army to the fighting force of
nations already overburdened with the
cost of their naval and military opera
tions, r ranee and Oermany opposed this
view, on the ground that they could not
afford to give up advantages mhlch might
be ery great In the future If progress In
the new science of tho air continued as
rapidly as It seemed likely to do.
After much discussion a vote waa taken
on a measure providing for the contlnu
anoo of tho prohibition adopted at the 1S99
convention until tho termination of the
intra peace conference, scheduled for 1915
Of the forty-four states represented only
twenty-seven adopted tho measure, and
the only Important countries to do so were
England and Austria. The signing of this
declaration by these two nations will have
bo effect In the present war, because It Is
e.presaiy provided that if either of them
has an Mw i .
nnr war wno haa not
aoopiea me measure It la not binding.
Only Limitations Now la Effect
The only attempt made to limit the ac
tivities of air craft was an addition to the
rulo of the Brussels conference of 11C4.
reading: "The attack or bombardment of
towns, villages, habitations or buildings
"There haa been much In my life that
I don't want to think of would to Oo-l
I could forget It. Years before I quit
the old life 1 was aa tired of it as the
i ther people."
CAN'T MAKEJfARS HUMANE
One Populaj Belief that Hai Been
DEVICES FOR DESTRUCTION
llabt Wnnnct! Jfenl Readily, hat
the Really Severe IVonade Made
by Modern Weapons Are More
Panaeroos Than Ever.
The uneakrr was Frank James, modern
Robin Hood, brother of Jesse James, the
outlaw, and at rresent a berry picker at
I'.dgewood, Wash. The place waa O. W.
fJInxenbrook's grocery store in Teroma;
the time, this week.
"We got Into It, and It was our Uvea
against money," anld James.
"Suffer! We have been hungry with
cur pockets full of money. We have been
hi.nted like the wolves of tho prairie
" I couldn't write the hlrtory of my llf"
In five years. I have only a short time
to live, anyhow, and money Is no itus?
to me than dust under my feet. I am
going to live a quiet life."
"The first I knew that Frank James
In this part of the country." raid
Mr. Glazenhrook, the grocer, today, "was
w hen I received a crate of berries with
F. K. James' written on the end. I
asked Mr. Hllcigren, the rancher, about It,
and he slid he would take me out to see
James any time I wanted to go.
"We found JameD sitting In the door of
I la cabin, dressed like a logger. As we
came close he stood up. 'I am very glad
to see you sir,' he said, as Mr. Hlldgren
Introduced us. After a while Mr. Hlldgren
left. I told him I was from Kentucky
an'l he seemed to'know how to take me
then. This was two weeks sgo Sunday.
I.t.at Friday he rame Into Tacoma and
spent five daya with me.
"I asked him how ho got started In this
work. He said it wns the abuse he had
received at the hands of the men who
had killed his father all through suspi
cion they were harboring southern sol-
dlers. Ho snld he and Jense 'got' twenty
mo of them and that Clod Almighty got
"After six detectives, as James calls
them, had thrown a bomb Into their
house, killing his younger brother and
wounding his mother, the Jsmcs boys
dressed as cowboys and overtook the
men. They anked them what they would
do If they met the James boys.
" 'We would slick them on the end of i
onr guns,' the men replied.
" 'You are talking to Jesse James right
now and that la my brother, Frank,
standing there,' said Jesse. They pleaded
for their Uvea but the James boys told
them they had ahown no merry to their
brother or their mother.
Frank James emlled when telling of
the detectives. "They thought all they
had to do wss to come over here, pat us
on the shoulders and tell us to come
along." he said. "They never got back."
Of all their "work," Frank Jamna con-
sidera the Northflold robbery the biggest.
Two banks were "lifted" and more than
SO,000 In caah taken. Tho two Cobb
brothers and a man named 'Mitchell lost 1
their lives. Jim Younger waa seriously '
Injured and Frank James lost the most
of his hand.
Jesso James waa killed by Bob Ford In
September of 1HS3 while hanging up a
picture of himself and Frank In thel
house. Frank surrendered In October,
12, and after two years was released on
Several years later, disguised as a
cowboy, he met Bob Ford In a Kanaas ,
City dance hall. He offered to treat tho
crowd ana stepped up to me par. Ten
dollars was laid down on the counter.
Ford returned tZ.U). Frank Jamea told
him who he was. What followed la a
matter of history.
James told ine that when he was In
Tacoma two years ago some men asked
him to take charge of blowing the safes
of the National Bank of Commerce and
the Fidelity Trust company's bank. "1
told them," said James, "that I did not
want to have anything to do with the
work; that I had never been In It for
money, and that I had given all that up
James always speaks of his adventure
as "being on the trail." H says that In
stead of using masks they had a dark
stain. After the Job was over they re
moved the stain quickly and changed j
clothes, often Joining In the pursuit of the !
They never robbed or abused women, i
children or the poor, James says, while '
many a piece of stray Jewelry or money !
haa been found fastened to the doornob j
of some house. They confined their at-i
tentlons mainly to train and bank robber-
tea after the war waa over.
Frank James will be 70 years old next
March, he aays. He haa a wife, four mar
ried children and a 16-year-old daughter
living at Blaine. During tho winter he
worka as donkey engineer In the logging
rampa near Tacoma. Ia summer he picks
He Is slim, has a gray mustache, ia
six feet tall and la cool and collected, alow
spoken and apparently esy-golng. He
aeema to have very little of tho Missouri
dialect. He la courteous but reserved,
and while friendly does not force him
self forwardNew York World.
A pleasant fiction widely credited Is
that men have been studying for years to
make war more humane as If war could
For example, one of these "humane"
devices Is the small bullet at high ve
locity. Stories are told of men who, after
being shot through the chest or head
with a modern bullet, ubout the diameter
of a email lead pencil, have walked long
distances to the field hospital and have
then recovered In a miraculously short
This Is not true, and that military sur
geons who have seen arttial service know
that really slight wounds made by mod
ern bullets heal more quickly and thor
oughly than those made by the old round
leaden bullets. But severe wounds are
no less severe, and are murh more fre
quent The Germane use a steel-Jacketed bullet
with a core of lead hardened with anti
mony. The steel Jacket often comes off
In Jagged fragments which horribly lacer
ates the flesh.
The Frenrh bullet, a mixture of copper
and sine, la not Jacketed, but is longer
and sharier than the German bullet.
Bent by ricocheting, It often enters the
body as a hook; sometimes It "tumbles"
and enters broadside on, making a long.
These "humane" bullets have three gen
eral effects: Up to a range of ,V yards
they have an explosive effect, splintering
the bone so thoroughly as to explain the
frequent accusation that exploxlve bullets
have been used; at rnnges of .'" to l,.vw
yards the effect Is terrible, grinding the
It Into the wound fragments of soiled !
clothing, thus causing Infection.
The third effect Is contuslve. A modern
bullet fired Into an empty metal vessel
enters and leaves by a small hole. Fill
the vessel with water and the bullet will
enter by a small hole, but will make a
large. Jagged hole In leaving. The bullet
h.is exactly the same effect on the body
or the head. In any case the bullet
strikes a heavy blow aa with a club.
Increased to ITS per tho'irand, and In the
Balkan war of 1912 the proportion was
3T4 per thousand.
The Russians In Manchuria called.shrap
nrl "the devils watering pot" When
they b.irst they scatter hundreds of round
bullets as e!l as fragments of the shell
ilelf They are most deadly within a
radius of ten to thirty ynrds. but even
at l" ards the "dewdropa are lively
enough to penetrate six Inches of pine.
The common shell Is still more teitlble.
The fragments, hested to a very high
temperature by the explosion, burn the
flesh so as to compel ctles of sgony that of disease.
or from the women who followed In the
wake of the army. Then the hnrber he
came the army mreeon. when there was
any. to give way 1,-ter to monks.
Napoleon paid little or no ittntlon to
elrk and wounded. In the peninsular cam
paign about fifl.co French soldiers were
killed In battle In Spain, and ubout
dld of disease.
In tho Russian rampjilpn of I'll, of
5'yfi who rros.sed the Inelper in J.ine
scarcely ;i,on returned In I'ecember. Bul
lets killed some; the deadly old claimed
others: luit the great mnjorlty perished
As Compared with Shells.
Modern bullets are "humane" only when
compared with the effects of shells, and
it must be remembered that a far greater
proportion of casualties are due to shells
than ever before.
In the Franco-Prussian war shell
wounds were ninety-one per thousand: in
the Manchurian campaign the ratio ha1
only morphine ran quiet.
The large shells of the na- y not only
I cut like razors, but asphyxiate, amputate
portions of the body, and rruh. Alto
gether the military surgeon Is not unduly
Impressed with the " humane" aspects of
Disease Una Been Lessened.
Modern warfare Is mrc "humane,"
however, In the care that Is taken to save
tho armies from disease. In former times
the real enemy of the army In the field
was not the man with the gun in hand
under the opposing flag, but disease
which mowed down troops on both sides
It has taken the world a long time to
grasp so obvious a fac t, but the lesson
has been thoroughly learned at last, and
It haa been applied in all civilized ar
mies. Sick soldiers of an earlier day received
no attention whatever. If the wounded
received any rare It was from a comrade
n i n n e -v. ri. offTi-fl y
ifftaii we r i.riina.
1 1 Sj 20 x 42 INCH TOP s
d 'ithle the number slr'.n by B"'r bullets.
TJie total dr.uh ra'e was ier 1.0"0 a
year. N.rf-ly :i per "it of tho total
st'i-neth r iii.-au'ly rVk.
In the HusoPin-Japi'ic war. which
lasted twenty months. number of
JH;.ane!.e alone in killc 1 and doa'lis from
w.un.' averaged M per 1.0 yr
li'. ace claimed IT. II.'. or Pr 1.C0 a
year, a showing no h. it.-r than that made
by the Germans In the Franco-Prussian
In the last ten years the medical staff
of every army has hcn completely re
orsHiiizrd and brought up to da'o. The
The 1S13 campaign after Leipzig was no i t,),i,.r romes in Conta-t with the medl-
cil staff even before he enll.its. and hn
is ever afterward In touch with It as
loiiff as he Is in service. It watches over
his health in every way. sees that ha
gets pro er exercise, hut not overworked,
watches the food he eatfi and the water
he drinks, vaccinates him against ty
phoid and other dlseasts, advises about
his clothing and even his shoes, pre
scribes rules for the sanitation of his
camps and maintains the troops at the
maximum of physical efficiency. Tho
World s Work.
less disastrous. Of an army of lOci.OOO that
left Ielpzig in October only a few fraz
mntary battalions followed the eacles
across the niiine In November. The total
ruin of this army was due to sanitary
nelect. Soldiers died of disease by thou
sands. In the Crimean campa gn 2" out of
each' 1.000 British soldiers died annually
of typhoid fever, dysentery and other In
Some Improvement Xoted.
In the Franco-Prussian war In lS7o-71.
'he annual death rate from dipease among
French troops was Ho per l.OO; amoni?
the Germans 24.
In the Itoer war. lasting two years and
elpht months. 5.771 Brlti.-h aoldie-s, in a
force having an average strength of 2ns,
Mfi, were killed In battle and 2.1'lS died
of wounds, a total of 7.SS.2, or about 11
per l. a year. Disease killed H,:iO, or
TA per 1,000 a year, which was almost
Two voune Clevelnnders met on tho
Etreet Tuesday. One ot Jihem said:
'o'.;. I umierst mil that our old friend
Gritts has gone and married a wife."
ii not irue. I understand nothing;
of t'le sort."
"What? Well, what did vou hoar about
"I understand that a widow has gone
and married our" friend Gi legs." Cleve-
' land Plain Dealer.
WITH BUT A
and the. thought in both hearts is the home.
Hie young couple that starts life in a real
home a cozy, finely furnished, comfort
able home, practically insures permanent
Hartman's devote more attention to complete home
uuuub man any oth-r furniture cone rn in iht
worliL Young couples about to be married, young
married couples and brides of bygone days, are
itneciaH uryid to visit our store and have our trained attend
ants show you how beautfully and ecn omiro v we can fur
nlsh homes. Don't forget that we offer you the larqtst Mqh
grade stock In the city to choose from, at the Uwe-t reiai
rivj in umana, and our liberal open charge account system
gives you a year or m-ne it ecesani to pay your bill.
CONVENIENT MONTHLY PAYMENTS GLADLY ARRANGED
MASSIVE COtlNIAL BUFFET con
structed entirely of well seasoned
wood, American quarter sawed Imita
tion oak finish. Kuae la of large
size. Krenrh beveled plate mirror
set In a heavy frame. Just what
you are looking for to fill that vacant
space In your dining
room. Our very low
(Regular Price $39.50)
RF.VPN PtlTPIT rniIVIIt nivrvc . ."'?. iVt. rnn.l.ll.. i . .
. - . v w ji.i,u dcji. uuuioiiuj ui massive colonial pedestal table with a
large 45-inch top which extends to six foot and six handRome, box seat dinera upholstered in ImDerlal
leaJhel, K"t,r"et mad of gol,d oak. Elaborately polished. This remarkable set on, sale for thU week
and while they last at this very low price. "
s ; 1 um i x taf
Greatest Metal Bed
Value Ever Offered
I 1 1
AN UNUSUAL VALUE IN A nlGH GRADE MASSIVE
METAL, BED. Made with 2-lnch continuous chllless
steel posts. 10 heavy fillers and heavy bottom rail.
Beautifully enameled In extra fine A-bronze or
Vernls Martin. Haa ball bearing metal
rasters. A bed that will appeal to those
of refined taste
I U. I l UUafJ3 VI
FPLENDID VALUE IX A RICH NEW
DESIGN EXTItA SIZE DRESSER.
Made throughout of American quar
ter sawed imitation oak, lias large
base, four drawers, wood pulls and
heavy colonial scroll feet. French
lievelca plate mirror 22x2s inches.
made. Hreclal, at
f It IBM i
I !2m' y?j I ii steel
, XlVr':. . 3;;:' : r yM' te
STEEL RANGE IS SPECIAL
1ADE FOK THE HARTMAN
IN OF RETAIL STORES.
with every modern lmprove
, bo:iy Is of heaviest gauge
Stove rents on sanitary
I bane. Has large slue oven and
lually deep fire box. l'ully
el trimmed Including extra
el towel bar extendi ng a ro.vi
front of the atove. Haa 6-hole
An attractive and if uarunteeil
nomlcal stove at thia special
$2.50 Cash; $2.00 Monthly
2-inch Continuous Po
Brass Bed. 5 Heavy
ACID TEST PROVES A HOT JEST
Wosaaa Hart la Saiclde IIoas ta
Wis a Hat Iodine Barms
To frighten her husband Into buying
her a new hat, Mrs. Mary Towl, wife of
Frank Towl. 413 Midland avenue, Tonkers.
squirted Iodine In her face yesterday to i
"m&k believe" suicide, as she put It
The Joke proved more serious than she
had expected. Bhe did not know Iodine
would burn. Her skin was seared and .
Dr. Karr had her taken to 8L John's '
hospital. Bh will recover New York
Massive New Style
, Mission Rocker
AX EXCEPTIONAL BARGAIN
IN A STRONG LY CONSTRUCT
ED MISSION ROCKER. Frame
is matlo entirely of solid
oak, beautifully fumed.
Tho hack and seat are
upholstered in guaran
teed Imperial Spanish
leather. Haa large seat
and broad back. A rocker
that will grace any home.
Specially priced for this
FREE! FREE! FREE!
WE OFFER FOR THIS WEEK WITH EVERY PfRCHASK
OF $50 OR OVER CASK OR C'REl 1T A HEAUTlFfL, Hlillf
CiRAl)K 5l-PIW'K SET B.'(1LISH PORCELAIN DINNER
SET. The design la rich and beautiful with color combina
tion of white and gold.
We Are Showing a Full
Line of Cole's Famous
Hot Blast Heaters
which are guaranteed to save lr'
of your fuel bill. They are
positively guaranteed to hold
fire for 4 8 hours and will burn
all rubbish. Made with Cole's
patented hot blast pipe which
gives you the benefit of every
bit of heat in your fuel. It
allows no obnoxious gases to
escape in your room. Much
superior to the average modern
priced heaters on the market.
As exclusive agents we are
able to offer these superb heat
ers at prices up from
GUARANTEED ACID PROOF MASSIVE 2-INCH
CONTINUOUS POST ALL BRASS BED. This
splendid brass bed is strongly and massively made
and is covered with the best lacquer. It has twci
inch continuous posts and ten heavy fillers. Can!
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A REGULAR $S.OO HIGH
GRADE PARLOR ROCKER.
constructed throughout of
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Just the rocker you
want for your even
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work. We are pricing
it for this week spe
sb 1 art .'-. "A "t ,-jib-iw. -
. A FrvoklB Pereom.
The most aggravating person In the 1
worm is me man wnom we can a liar and
who then proes his truthfulness by ad
null Ing- the correctness of our accusation.
Indianapolis blax. I fcJB
Size of top 28x48 inches.
OEXUINE SOUD OAK LIluaitY TABLK.
Table top is unusually large, measuring 28x48
inches. Tlie legs or posts are very heavy with
neat panel sides. 'Has two roomy stationary
drawers and large book shelf. Attractively fin
ished in fumed. Offered for KIR 7K
this week at, only PO I V
1414-1416-1418 DOUGLAS STREET
rm rrr t r-Wt..w .
liuft l(L(i (JFFhla.(i IS A 0x12
MOXAhTH BRUSSKI.S KUO. Woven in the
newest oriental designs. These rugs ordinarily
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Will add to the beauty of any C f A QC
room. Very specially priced P I
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