Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, September 20, 1914, EDITORIAL SOCIETY, Image 21

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    Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Page
The
C
or in& in on
theWkkecl G
rv n
w i j
erm that Maker Little Cri
ppler
iVeu; Experiments on
Monkeys Have Demonstrated
Exactly How the
Cruel Disease Reaches the
Brain and How, in
Some Cases,
the Virus May
Be Stopped
in Transit
a
v
Drilling a Class of Girl Victims of Infantile Paralysis to Correct;
Spinal Curvature and Other Deformities Caused by thai
Dreaded Disease.
Nr"
A'
N Important announcement Just
made by the Rockefeller In
stitute, New York, Indicates
that science Is rapidly gaining ground
In Us campaign against infantile
paralysis.
Infantile paralysis Is not only one
of the cruelest of diseases, finding Its
victims mainly in Infants and young
children and either killing them or
crippling them for life, but It has
been one of the most baffling.
For a number of years scientists
'working under the auspices of the
Rockefeller Institute have conducted
a succession of experiments on
monkeys and other animals In an
effort to shed further light on the
nature and characteristics of this
disease, the ultimate object being, of
course, to find a preventative or a
cure.
Although these experiments and
similar experiments, conducted by
other scientific workers tbe world
over have not yet enabled us to stamp
ut the disease nor resulted In the
discovery of a cure, they bave, never
theless, proven of the greatest value.
They have demonstrated, for In
stance, that tbe microbe which caue3
the disease enters the body by way
of the upper respiratory mucous
membrane. This fact at once led
hospital authorities having Infantile
paralysis cases under their charge to
tee to it that the disease was not
ifiread through infected nasal dis
charges, and In that way the com
munication of the scourge through
doctors and nurses has undoubtedly
been averted to a considerable ex
tent. Describing , Infantile paralysis, or
spldemlc poliomyelitis, as It Is tech
nically called, Professor Simon Flex
ner, of the Rockefeller Institute,
whose research on the subject Is
principally responsible for what wo
know et it to-day, recently declared:
Epldemlo poliomyelitis (infantile
paralysis) Is pre-eminently a disease
of early childhood and finds the high
est percentage of its victims In the
first five years of life, but does not
wholly spare older children or even
adults. It is admittedly Infectious,
and while It Is true that many more
instances of single than of multiple
cafes occur, yet multiple ones are
not by any means rare. The period
of greatest prevalence Is during the
months of August, September and
October In the northern hemisphere
and the corresponding months In the
southern hemisphere, but the epi
demic begins in the early Spring and
Summer months, and the disease does
not wholly disappear during the
Winter months. It does not, there
fore, necessnrlly die out at any
period of the year.
Dr. Flexner, in conjunction with
Dr. Harold L. Amoss, now announce
the result of a series of experiments
which not only demonstrate exactly
how the virus reaches the brain and
spinal column, but bow It may be
neutralized while In transit from the
blood through the cerebro spinal fluid
to tbe substance of the spinal cord
and brain by an injection Into the
pine of an immune serum. In this
way the production of paralysis Is
verted.
Since the virus was known to pass
successively over several days from
Che blood to the cerebrospinal fluid,
In which It seems not to accumulate,
mune serum was available from sev
eral monkeys which had recovered
from infantile paralysis and had been
subsequently reinforced by large In
jections of the virus under the skin.
Experiments conducted on monkeys
showed conclusively that the virus
injected Into the veins of the subjects
was completely neutralized by the
Immune serum injected into the
spine. No symptoms developed, and
the animal remained normal, while
monkeys who had received no In-
ft
fit
: - v :
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4
... X a -mm
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One of the Pitiful Victims of Infantile Paralysis Undergoing Stretching Treatment to Lengthen a Shortened Limb.
A 8plnal Nerve Centre, Showing Diffuse Inflammatory
Process and Beginning Death of Nerve Cells. Recent
Experiments 8how That No Matter Where the Di
sease-Virus Enters the 8ystm,
erses the Spinal Column.
It Ultimately Trav-
but from which It Is transferred to
the nervous tissues, It was thought
that the Introduction of a potent Im
mune serum Into the meninges, the
membrane enveloping the brain and
spinal cord, at Intervals over a num
ber of days would suffice to neutral
ize tbe translated virus and thus pre
vent infection. For this purpose im-
Slagram Showing
the Most Com
mon Route of
the Infantile
Paralysis Virus.
Entering the
Nasal Passages
at, tt Trav
erses the Olfac
tory Fibres
Until It Reaches
the Olfactory
Lobe of the
Brain, B,
Whence It Is
Readily Con
veyed to the
Medulla Oblon
gata at C, and
Invades the
Spinal Column.
de
letion of the Immune serum
veloped typical poliomyelitis.
Further experments were con
ducted to ascertain whether a similar
neutralization could be effected In a
case in which the virus was intro
duced directly into the meninges by
means of lumbar puncture, and the
results were most satisfactory.
Discussing the various experiments
performed, Drs Flexner and Amoss
declare:
"We are confronted with the prob
lem, as to the site of entrance of the
virus of poliomyelitis into the human
body, as well as the manner In which
the specific deslons of tht disease are
produced. The latter question has
already been cleared up in large
measure. It is now sufficiently obvi
ous that the virus possess affinity
for nervous tissues In general, but
for no element of those tissues In
particular. On the bnsls of actual
observations It cannot be stated that
virus Is attracted by the nerve cells,
either alone or necessarily in advance
of the other structures mentioned,
while the experiments show that It is
only when the virus is brought to the
nervous organs otherwise than by the
general blood that the tissues com
posing them are able readily to re
move and attach it to themselves.
"This latter fact is a cardinal
point, and one from which we may
derive valuable information on tbe
pathogenesis and mode of infection of
the disease."
Infection by way of the nerves, it
is pointed out, is the more certain
the nearer they ate to the brain.
Where the inoculation is by way of
the spine it is sometimes rendered
Ineffective by reason of the fact that
a part, sometimes perhaps all, of the
Virus ,may be carried Into the gen
eral blood before It can reach and
become attached to the nervous
tissues.
That is why Infection bv way of
the nasal membranes is more certain
in Its results than Inoculation sub
cutnneously, the distance between the
short olfactory nerve fibre and the
brain tissue being very short. Some
times germs entering tha nose never
result in infection, however, because
they are washed away before they
reach the olfactory fibres through
which they would be carried to the
brain.
Under natural conditions, the in
vestigators point out, it is the upper
respiratory mucous membrane that Is
most often contaminated with tbe
virus and moBt readily favors Us
conveyance to the brain.
That the virus never passes direct
from the blood to the nervous organs,
but finds its way there through the
cerebro spinal fluid, Is taken as es
tablished, not only by tbe finding of
tbe virus in the cerebro spinal fluid
after an Injection luto tbe blood, but
also through the prevention of In
fection by the injection of Immune
serum into the spine after Infusion
of the virus into the veins under con
ditions insuring infection, but for the
protection afforded by the immune
serum.
'Thus the experimental evldence
whlch is upheld by observations In
human cases of poliomyelitis," de
clare tbe investigators, "supports tbe
view that epidemic poliomyelitis is
caused by the entrance into the body
of its specific mlcroblc cnuse or vlrm.
through the upper respiratory mucous
membrane to the olfactory lobes' of
the brain, from which by means of
the cerebrospinal fluid it Is dis
tributed throughout the substance of
the nervous organs; but, since the
virus may reach the brain by way of
any nervous channel, mid even, nl
though with great difficulty, from the
blood, it is, of course, possible Hint In
exceptional Instances other modes of
Infection may arise."
Another Important point verified by
the experiments was that when tho
virus wllhln the blood fails to gain
access to the central nervous organs,
and to net up paralysis, It is de
stroyed by the body, in the course of
which destruction It undergoes, as a
result of the action of tbe spleen,
and, perhaps, other organs, diminu
tion of virulence, and the general
conclusion is reached that infection
in man is local and by way of tbe
nerves rather thau general and by
way of the blood.
Whether or not tbe immune scrum
'lilcli enabled the scientists to arrest
the development of the disease In ex
perimental cases In which. the virus
bad not yet reached the brain muy
be eventually utilized to cure human
patients, has yet to be ascertained.
No cure has been yet discovered, but
science is on the right path, and tbe
near future may witness the discov
ery of an absolute remedy. In any
event, much will have been achieved
if the spread of the disease is pre
vented by the use of Immune serums.
Poliomyelitis Is not a disease with
a very high mortality; Its chief ter
ror lies In Its appalling power to pro-'
duce deformities. When death does
occur It 1b not the result, as in many
infections, of a process of poisoning
that robs the patient of strength and
consciousness before Its imminence,
but is caused solely by paralysis of
tho respiratory function, sometimes
with merciful suddenness, but often
with painful slowness, without in any
degree obscuring the cossclousness
of the suffocating victim until Just
before the end is reached. No more
terrible tragedy can be witnessed.
When the acute disease has passed
away and deformities have begun to
make their appearance, it is neces
sary to resort to mechanical treat
ment. The Rockefeller Hospital
doctors give many suggestions as to
the character of this treatment. Man
sage is said to be a most helpful aid
In the treatment. Heat, and espe
cially baking, exert a good Influence
on tbe circulation. Of all method
by far the most valuable one is
muscle training.
The slow recovery often continues
for a very long time, and to be sure
that the muscles have regained all
the power they are capable of con
scientious treatment ought to be con
tlnued for a year and a halt or two
years.
5:
Your Tongue Shows What You Are
Anna Held Showing the Long, Broad Tongue That Denotes Generosity.
HARDLY any form of amusement is more pop
ular wherever young people get together than
that called "Reading Character." This is
one of those professional occupations which attracts
armies of amateurs of both sexes. Characters in the
hands, the face, the shape of the head, In handwrit
ing, in the voice, the walk and the way of wearing
one's clothes, all are fascinating subjects for study
and practise aa a social diversion as well as a means
of livelihood.
The newest discovery in the way of character
reading is called "Glossomancy" a sort of twin sis
ter to Chiromancy, in which the tongue plays traitor
to its owner, revealing all the merits and deficiencies
of his character to the expert.
"Put out your tongue," says the doctor to his
patient and he has been saying so for centuries.
The reason for that, as everybody knows, is that
the condition of the tongue is a fairly accurate in
dication of the state of the stomach and the rest of
the digestive tract. It la the earliest and simplest
means of diagnosis.
It seems strange, therefore, that professional
readers of character have not long since discovered
the tendency of the tongue to "give away" its owner
with respect to personal traits as well as to his
ability to digest welsh rabbits.
In the first place the "Glossomanclst," as readily
as the doctor, can determine unerringly by a glance
at your tongue what is your physical temperament,
the foundation of your physical temperament,
whether acid or alkaline. A superfluity of hydro
chloric acid (gastric Juice) in the system produces
physical disturbances that are reflected in habitual
irritability, a pessimistic view of life and spells of
melancholy.
For ordinary "rposes pf character reading by the
Copyright, 1911, by tho Star Com
tongue the directions are much simpler than the
test for Irritability and melancholy Just given. The
shape and general dimensions of the tongue are re
lied upon to tell the story. Here are the general
rules governing the science of Glossomancy:
A long tongue is indicative of a frank and open
nature.
A short tongue reveals a habit of dissimulation,
concealment, If not downright deceit.
The broad tongue denotes an unreserved, generous
nature.
A narrow tongue indicates a great power of con
centration, which is of more Importance than the
suspicion it suggests that Its owner is of a close and
grasping nature.
When the tongue Is long and broad Its owner
stands convicted of being a gossip; but when the
tongue is long and narrow he is likely to be only
moderately outspoken.
Those with the misfortune of a short and broad
tongue are by nature untruthful.
The most unfortunate tongue of all is the short
and narrow one. It's owner is bad tempered, and
of a sly, scheming nature.
It should be understood that there is no authority
yet tor cataloguing Glossomancy as a "science."
You ran. perhaps, satisfy yourself about its value
by practising on your friends, with whose charac
ters you are already familiar. Parents, by systemat
ically experimenting aa their children develop, may
perhaps discover another guide as to what traits
are to be watched for and Influenced Into worthy
channels.
It is apparent, however, that Glossomancy ought
to supply a new and amusing "parlor game." And
It should teach bad tempered, sly, deceitful and
otherwise detrimental persons to "hold their
tongues" that Is, keep them carefully concealed
from public view.
pany. Great BrlUln niaTbts Ktssrvso.
i
il
,Anna Held Imitating the Short Tongue That Denotes Untruthful nssa.