Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, September 20, 1914, EDITORIAL SOCIETY, Image 21
Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Page The C or in& in on theWkkecl G rv n w i j erm that Maker Little Cri ppler iVeu; Experiments on Monkeys Have Demonstrated Exactly How the Cruel Disease Reaches the Brain and How, in Some Cases, the Virus May Be Stopped in Transit a v Drilling a Class of Girl Victims of Infantile Paralysis to Correct; Spinal Curvature and Other Deformities Caused by thai Dreaded Disease. Nr" A' N Important announcement Just made by the Rockefeller In stitute, New York, Indicates that science Is rapidly gaining ground In Us campaign against infantile paralysis. Infantile paralysis Is not only one of the cruelest of diseases, finding Its victims mainly in Infants and young children and either killing them or crippling them for life, but It has been one of the most baffling. For a number of years scientists 'working under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute have conducted a succession of experiments on monkeys and other animals In an effort to shed further light on the nature and characteristics of this disease, the ultimate object being, of course, to find a preventative or a cure. Although these experiments and similar experiments, conducted by other scientific workers tbe world over have not yet enabled us to stamp ut the disease nor resulted In the discovery of a cure, they bave, never theless, proven of the greatest value. They have demonstrated, for In stance, that tbe microbe which caue3 the disease enters the body by way of the upper respiratory mucous membrane. This fact at once led hospital authorities having Infantile paralysis cases under their charge to tee to it that the disease was not ifiread through infected nasal dis charges, and In that way the com munication of the scourge through doctors and nurses has undoubtedly been averted to a considerable ex tent. Describing , Infantile paralysis, or spldemlc poliomyelitis, as It Is tech nically called, Professor Simon Flex ner, of the Rockefeller Institute, whose research on the subject Is principally responsible for what wo know et it to-day, recently declared: Epldemlo poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis) Is pre-eminently a disease of early childhood and finds the high est percentage of its victims In the first five years of life, but does not wholly spare older children or even adults. It is admittedly Infectious, and while It Is true that many more instances of single than of multiple cafes occur, yet multiple ones are not by any means rare. The period of greatest prevalence Is during the months of August, September and October In the northern hemisphere and the corresponding months In the southern hemisphere, but the epi demic begins in the early Spring and Summer months, and the disease does not wholly disappear during the Winter months. It does not, there fore, necessnrlly die out at any period of the year. Dr. Flexner, in conjunction with Dr. Harold L. Amoss, now announce the result of a series of experiments which not only demonstrate exactly how the virus reaches the brain and spinal column, but bow It may be neutralized while In transit from the blood through the cerebro spinal fluid to tbe substance of the spinal cord and brain by an injection Into the pine of an immune serum. In this way the production of paralysis Is verted. Since the virus was known to pass successively over several days from Che blood to the cerebrospinal fluid, In which It seems not to accumulate, mune serum was available from sev eral monkeys which had recovered from infantile paralysis and had been subsequently reinforced by large In jections of the virus under the skin. Experiments conducted on monkeys showed conclusively that the virus injected Into the veins of the subjects was completely neutralized by the Immune serum injected into the spine. No symptoms developed, and the animal remained normal, while monkeys who had received no In- ft fit : - v : n 4 ... X a -mm 0 i ItaWfM . V IK J J mi ' One of the Pitiful Victims of Infantile Paralysis Undergoing Stretching Treatment to Lengthen a Shortened Limb. A 8plnal Nerve Centre, Showing Diffuse Inflammatory Process and Beginning Death of Nerve Cells. Recent Experiments 8how That No Matter Where the Di sease-Virus Enters the 8ystm, erses the Spinal Column. It Ultimately Trav- but from which It Is transferred to the nervous tissues, It was thought that the Introduction of a potent Im mune serum Into the meninges, the membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord, at Intervals over a num ber of days would suffice to neutral ize tbe translated virus and thus pre vent infection. For this purpose im- Slagram Showing the Most Com mon Route of the Infantile Paralysis Virus. Entering the Nasal Passages at, tt Trav erses the Olfac tory Fibres Until It Reaches the Olfactory Lobe of the Brain, B, Whence It Is Readily Con veyed to the Medulla Oblon gata at C, and Invades the Spinal Column. de letion of the Immune serum veloped typical poliomyelitis. Further experments were con ducted to ascertain whether a similar neutralization could be effected In a case in which the virus was intro duced directly into the meninges by means of lumbar puncture, and the results were most satisfactory. Discussing the various experiments performed, Drs Flexner and Amoss declare: "We are confronted with the prob lem, as to the site of entrance of the virus of poliomyelitis into the human body, as well as the manner In which the specific deslons of tht disease are produced. The latter question has already been cleared up in large measure. It is now sufficiently obvi ous that the virus possess affinity for nervous tissues In general, but for no element of those tissues In particular. On the bnsls of actual observations It cannot be stated that virus Is attracted by the nerve cells, either alone or necessarily in advance of the other structures mentioned, while the experiments show that It is only when the virus is brought to the nervous organs otherwise than by the general blood that the tissues com posing them are able readily to re move and attach it to themselves. "This latter fact is a cardinal point, and one from which we may derive valuable information on tbe pathogenesis and mode of infection of the disease." Infection by way of the nerves, it is pointed out, is the more certain the nearer they ate to the brain. Where the inoculation is by way of the spine it is sometimes rendered Ineffective by reason of the fact that a part, sometimes perhaps all, of the Virus ,may be carried Into the gen eral blood before It can reach and become attached to the nervous tissues. That is why Infection bv way of the nasal membranes is more certain in Its results than Inoculation sub cutnneously, the distance between the short olfactory nerve fibre and the brain tissue being very short. Some times germs entering tha nose never result in infection, however, because they are washed away before they reach the olfactory fibres through which they would be carried to the brain. Under natural conditions, the in vestigators point out, it is the upper respiratory mucous membrane that Is most often contaminated with tbe virus and moBt readily favors Us conveyance to the brain. That the virus never passes direct from the blood to the nervous organs, but finds its way there through the cerebro spinal fluid, Is taken as es tablished, not only by tbe finding of tbe virus in the cerebro spinal fluid after an Injection luto tbe blood, but also through the prevention of In fection by the injection of Immune serum into the spine after Infusion of the virus into the veins under con ditions insuring infection, but for the protection afforded by the immune serum. 'Thus the experimental evldence whlch is upheld by observations In human cases of poliomyelitis," de clare tbe investigators, "supports tbe view that epidemic poliomyelitis is caused by the entrance into the body of its specific mlcroblc cnuse or vlrm. through the upper respiratory mucous membrane to the olfactory lobes' of the brain, from which by means of the cerebrospinal fluid it Is dis tributed throughout the substance of the nervous organs; but, since the virus may reach the brain by way of any nervous channel, mid even, nl though with great difficulty, from the blood, it is, of course, possible Hint In exceptional Instances other modes of Infection may arise." Another Important point verified by the experiments was that when tho virus wllhln the blood fails to gain access to the central nervous organs, and to net up paralysis, It is de stroyed by the body, in the course of which destruction It undergoes, as a result of the action of tbe spleen, and, perhaps, other organs, diminu tion of virulence, and the general conclusion is reached that infection in man is local and by way of tbe nerves rather thau general and by way of the blood. Whether or not tbe immune scrum 'lilcli enabled the scientists to arrest the development of the disease In ex perimental cases In which. the virus bad not yet reached the brain muy be eventually utilized to cure human patients, has yet to be ascertained. No cure has been yet discovered, but science is on the right path, and tbe near future may witness the discov ery of an absolute remedy. In any event, much will have been achieved if the spread of the disease is pre vented by the use of Immune serums. Poliomyelitis Is not a disease with a very high mortality; Its chief ter ror lies In Its appalling power to pro-' duce deformities. When death does occur It 1b not the result, as in many infections, of a process of poisoning that robs the patient of strength and consciousness before Its imminence, but is caused solely by paralysis of tho respiratory function, sometimes with merciful suddenness, but often with painful slowness, without in any degree obscuring the cossclousness of the suffocating victim until Just before the end is reached. No more terrible tragedy can be witnessed. When the acute disease has passed away and deformities have begun to make their appearance, it is neces sary to resort to mechanical treat ment. The Rockefeller Hospital doctors give many suggestions as to the character of this treatment. Man sage is said to be a most helpful aid In the treatment. Heat, and espe cially baking, exert a good Influence on tbe circulation. Of all method by far the most valuable one is muscle training. The slow recovery often continues for a very long time, and to be sure that the muscles have regained all the power they are capable of con scientious treatment ought to be con tlnued for a year and a halt or two years. 5: Your Tongue Shows What You Are Anna Held Showing the Long, Broad Tongue That Denotes Generosity. HARDLY any form of amusement is more pop ular wherever young people get together than that called "Reading Character." This is one of those professional occupations which attracts armies of amateurs of both sexes. Characters in the hands, the face, the shape of the head, In handwrit ing, in the voice, the walk and the way of wearing one's clothes, all are fascinating subjects for study and practise aa a social diversion as well as a means of livelihood. The newest discovery in the way of character reading is called "Glossomancy" a sort of twin sis ter to Chiromancy, in which the tongue plays traitor to its owner, revealing all the merits and deficiencies of his character to the expert. "Put out your tongue," says the doctor to his patient and he has been saying so for centuries. The reason for that, as everybody knows, is that the condition of the tongue is a fairly accurate in dication of the state of the stomach and the rest of the digestive tract. It la the earliest and simplest means of diagnosis. It seems strange, therefore, that professional readers of character have not long since discovered the tendency of the tongue to "give away" its owner with respect to personal traits as well as to his ability to digest welsh rabbits. In the first place the "Glossomanclst," as readily as the doctor, can determine unerringly by a glance at your tongue what is your physical temperament, the foundation of your physical temperament, whether acid or alkaline. A superfluity of hydro chloric acid (gastric Juice) in the system produces physical disturbances that are reflected in habitual irritability, a pessimistic view of life and spells of melancholy. For ordinary "rposes pf character reading by the Copyright, 1911, by tho Star Com tongue the directions are much simpler than the test for Irritability and melancholy Just given. The shape and general dimensions of the tongue are re lied upon to tell the story. Here are the general rules governing the science of Glossomancy: A long tongue is indicative of a frank and open nature. A short tongue reveals a habit of dissimulation, concealment, If not downright deceit. The broad tongue denotes an unreserved, generous nature. A narrow tongue indicates a great power of con centration, which is of more Importance than the suspicion it suggests that Its owner is of a close and grasping nature. When the tongue Is long and broad Its owner stands convicted of being a gossip; but when the tongue is long and narrow he is likely to be only moderately outspoken. Those with the misfortune of a short and broad tongue are by nature untruthful. The most unfortunate tongue of all is the short and narrow one. It's owner is bad tempered, and of a sly, scheming nature. It should be understood that there is no authority yet tor cataloguing Glossomancy as a "science." You ran. perhaps, satisfy yourself about its value by practising on your friends, with whose charac ters you are already familiar. Parents, by systemat ically experimenting aa their children develop, may perhaps discover another guide as to what traits are to be watched for and Influenced Into worthy channels. It is apparent, however, that Glossomancy ought to supply a new and amusing "parlor game." And It should teach bad tempered, sly, deceitful and otherwise detrimental persons to "hold their tongues" that Is, keep them carefully concealed from public view. pany. Great BrlUln niaTbts Ktssrvso. i il ,Anna Held Imitating the Short Tongue That Denotes Untruthful nssa.