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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (June 7, 1914)
THE OMAHA SUNDAY BEE JUNE 7, 1914.
ii . j -
Prehistoric Man of America Reproduced in Wax
rcp-odueton at the Vnivwalty of Ne
braska, that, lepds to aelenlttts .the. In
terest iji being able now t5 look upon the
fuual characteristics of Loess man, he
oldest known type of man In America.
fly A i HIHVI.K I,0.0.
ltnniC great links In the chain
of human nnccotry In America,
believed by some to beRIn
nearly K,0:o yearn back, nave
Jurt been represented for th
first time In scientifically tc-
cortn.ctlon wax faces at the College of
Med c.ne. l"nlvers!jy of Nebraska, in
Cmahn. This Is the first plnstllcna rr-conatr-ctlon
work that ha been done on
prrhlMorlc skults Of America.
Sc'rnUsts arc filled with enthusiasm
oser the three gnat types It has brought
out when built on the skulls of the mod
ern lnd an, the cave-dwolling cannibal
of 3,C i years ago. and tho Nebraska
Loc?s Man, fragments of whose skull
were depos.'ted with the Loess clay wnn
the Missouri river bluffs wero built be
tween 10.0CO and 20,030 years ago.
For clfiht years the skulls of the low
browed Loess Man, found by the nrehae.
o.oglst, Robert F. Glider of Omaha, havo
lain In the museums In Omaha, Lincoln
and at Harvard university, whllo aclenic
lias hopelessly longed to know what a
face this prc-elac:ol man must nave
Hut nov German scientists have worked
out an accurate system of facial mem-
iremtnts compiled Into an elaborate table,
by the ueo of which faces can be so
faithfully reconstructed over given skulls
that the true skull of Schiller was ."t
tm ly detected from among a group In
this way at the t'nlverslty of Munich,
fllnco then the measurements have been
applied In building up faces over the
skulls of Haeh, Raphael, ltobert Hums,
Kant, and a heat ofother known skulls,
with such startling success as to estab
lish beyond question the reliability of the
It was Pr. Rradlncer, at Lclpslx, who
suggested some years ago that this sys
tem might be used to advantage lit estab
lishing Identity ot unknown .races. This
struck n spark Into the camp ot archae
ological and ethnological thought.
To date, little has been done along this
lino In Kurort. In 'America the first
work In building up faces of prehistoric
man has Just been comptotcd by ATA in
Myrn, Warner, clay model artist, who has
made a specialized study of this Ger
man system In the art schools of the
Miss Warner was handed the three
kulls by Dr. Charles W. ' MY Poynter,
professor of anatomy of tho University
of Nebraska. She was told nothing about
the origin of these skulls. She worked
faithfully for months, and with tho aid
of tho tablo of measurements, built up
tho three wonderful faces. ' It was nut
Until she had nearly flnlshod that she
discovered one of the three to bo a mod
crri Indian type. Yet without knowing
she was working on a modern Indian
skull, by applying "only her table of
measurements faithfully to the skull as
eho built tho clay upon It, sho pnMticeu
no characteristic an Amorlcan Indian
type that Dr. I'oynter declared the c
curacy of her work on the other two
ukulls, equtoyy unknown to her, could by
no means be called Into question.
Tho cannibal cave dweller type Is thai
of which Mr. Glider found remain In
sunken cave homes along the Missouri
river. He hns uncovered somo forty of
these caves, and has established tho fact
that the Inhabitants belonfc- to whnt la
Known at the "round-headed" branch ot
tho human race. Geologists believe the
Inhabitants ot these caves thrived some
,CC0 years ago.
Out the chief Interest In the recon
struction work at the University ot Ne
braska, attaches to tho race that has
been built over the skull of the "Loess
Man." In all tho fragments of but six
skulls belonging to this type are in roc-
Istcnco today. '
This extromo primitive type of man la
believed by Mr., qildcr .an,d Profj H. H.
Barbour, heed of tho department of geol
ogy, University of Nebraska, to have
stalked over trie wastes ot North Amer
ica before the glaciers plowed their great
gorges, and before the Kansan drift and
the Loess .clay built the bluffs of thP
Missouri river. This man, low-browed
and of little brain capacity, lived contem
poraneously with the mammoth or mas
todon, according, to the period in which
they placo him. " ,
And yet. now that the faces have been
reconstructed, we find no close resem
blance to the hpe type as many of the
most excitable scientists have expected.
'The truth Is," says Dr. Poynter, "If man
sprung from the' same original stem as
the ape, the npe branch sprung off so
far back In anllqulty that nono of the
skulls of the missing links could possibly
Ix, expected to withstand the weathering
to the present day, No ono wilt ever find
a skull that will carry man back even
anywhere near the ape days, and the re
motest skull wo can find Is already very
much a man."
This Loess Man then belongs to an age
perhaps hundreds of thousands ot yearns
later than the time man and ape parted
ctmpany anC began to develop along dif
Yet this Loem'rkull has by competent
geologist and ethnologists been placed
next tn ace to the famous Neanderthal
skull found In In a cave tn the val
ley of Neandcr near DusSeldorf, Ger
many. The Neanderthal skull is kpown
the world over as representing tho great
antiquity and taw otder. ot the human.
race, in brain capacity the Loess skull
toasts little advantuge over the Neander
thal, Tho accompanying Illustrations reveal
the retreating forehead with a total ab
sence or the frontal cmlnonces found In
t-IvllUed modern rnan.
The prominence of the supra-orbital
UdRis or bony brows Is. next to the re
ctdlng character of the forehead, the
most notable feature of "this primitive
.Neither the projections of the suora
crbltal ridges, nor the reoedlng forehead I
la an Indian characteristic'' says Henry
V. Osborn. professor of, xoology In Co
lumbia university and curator in the
American Museum of Natural History. Dr.
Osborn was one of the first to rush to
Omaha and stufy this re-msrkable skull
. hen it was found eight yvars ago.
The ate of this skull is established by
Its association with tho layer ot clay
drift In which it. was found. Dr. E. II.
Barbour, head professor of geology or
the University of Nebraska, went over
tbe ground thoroughly and helped to ex
lavate many of the fragments of Loess
man some ten miles north of Omaha.
"From tho geologist's standpoint," saya
Dr. Barbour, "these bone if ragmenU were
uot burled. Instead the'bonsa ware Coubt
lets deposited .with the Loess, the age of
vhlch may be safely reckoned at 10,(05 to
JO.0CO yii or more., and the bones are
at least a ancient aa this formation"
In further support ot the contention
that these bone fragments were deposited
rr mg - - mm 1
asuisiriMiliaii"-wwwrrs m sum nm
Against New Tax
Plate No. 1 Showing sclcntlflcnlly reconstructed faces of three stages of man's development In America.
Left to right: Modern Indian, burled porhaps 100 years ago; Cavo-Dwclllng Cannibal, probably thriving
3,000 years ago; Nebraska Loess Man, doposlted with glacial drift, between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago.
Plato No. 2 Showing tho figures In Plato No. 1 with hair applied.
when the clay formation was deposited,
Dr. Harbour says. "There was no dis
turbance of tho llthologlc structure of
tho clay. Tho structure and color of tho
clay -was perfectly preserved, and there
are prcsont tho vertical llmetubes, oon-
erytlons, und shell characteristics of the
Loess prec'acly ns is customary."
The accuracy with which tho original
faces may bo reconstructed by applying
the system of measurements to n rrlvnh
skull has led. to somo Interesting Incident.
A skull long cherlsiird as thnt of Bchlllor,
had been much admired, If not reverohcd,
in mo museum at Weimar In aermany.
In 1SS Dr. Wcleker. following (he tables
ot reconstruction, built up tho face that
slvely this was not 8chl!lera skull' at all.
In 1311 tho real Bchlllor .hull was dis
covered by this very system among a
group of thirty skulls upon which plastl
lor.n reconstruction work was dono at the
University of Munich.
The system had already been used with
sturtllng results In 1SJC on the supposed
skull of Johan Bcbastlnn Hach, tho mu
sician. Tho result proved Its Identity be
yond a doubt
Kdllormsn has reconstructed the face of
a Ncotltltlo vyoman from the lake village
sit of Auvernler, Lake Neuchatol; and
Mnrkcl has built up tho bust of an early
Low Saxon from an ancient skull found
by excavation In the vicinity of Gott ngen.
belonged to this skull and found condu- j William His, in 1KB, during his studies
on the skull of Bach, made observations
on the thickness of tho soft parts cover-.
Ing the bones. He used a large number
of bodies. Including females, and estab
lished numerous Important points.
Wclckcr established the average thickness
of tho flesh and soft parts by tho Uso of
a gruduated knife, blade which lie thrust
through the flesh to the bone In the luces
6f dozens ot normal bodies to establish
averages from which to make up the
table now In use. He used (he bodies of
twenty-four sound suicides so 'as not to
get measurements of bodies with the soft
parts wasted by disease.
Thus science everywhere hau come to
accept tho system as Infallible. It Is this,
tho necessary accuracy of tho preamt
BBItLIN, Juno 6. The proposed ex- .
I tension of the existing amusement tax j
j now levied upon variety houses, moving
picture 'theatres, . c'.rcusos and other" j
amusements In Berlin, so as to apply to I
the dramatic stage has evoked strong !
protests from many sides. The tax has I
already forced one circus to cloe Its dcors
after an existence of many years, and
has driven a number of cinematograph
houses out of business. The theatre
managers declare that the tax will 'be i
even more disastrous . for legitimate
There is no reason to doubt the mana
gers' assertion that the conduct pf a.
theatre in Dftrlln is an extremely risky
VtntUre. Within tho last four or five
years at least sixteen theatres have gone
Into bankruptcy, and tn the last two years
only two new ones have--been opened,
a number Out of all proportion to former
figures. Even the most successful pay
small dividends, as low as five per cent
In tho case of one ot the leading houses
of the greater city. A director of three
of the best known and most profitable
theatres of Berlin declnre thnt, In case
an amusement tax Is placed upon his
business, In and his comrades will Im
mediately begin liquidation, since further
exlstennce will be profitless and moot
probably result In direct losa.
Tho president of the Association of
German Actora has-filed with the city I
authorities a formal protest against the j
proposed tax. Not only will It make it'.
Impossible in most cases, to maintain
existing theatres, ho declares, but It will 1
also result In a lowering of actors' 1
salaries and In making conditions In the
business, already notably bud, still worse.
Hurry in, fellows,
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week at Benson &
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snapped up at
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All the popular
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Sam W. Peck made
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USE OF MATCHES IS
BEHLIN, June . The match Is losing
ground,, A few years ago the German
factories were supplying an average of
5,200 matches for each person each day. 1
Tho use of electricity and tho Invention'!
of automatic igniting dovlces have so re-'
duced the consumption of matches, thnj
manufacturers say, that the rate of use)
Is now only 1,250 matches
In ll A w auiu up iu ijiou.uu
I JlJ for $23.00, , ";v 1 . 1
I x , And choice of any I
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1 ' Silk or Wool Suit I
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Women's and Misses'
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Women's and Misses' ' ' , ,
Silk Dresses that
In this Illustration Is
pictured every article
just as It will appear tn
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nor has thore boen any
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The .Bedroom Includes :
A very beautiful two-inch bont post
brass bed, with cotton felt mattress
and an all-metal supported spring. A
gonulno oak or mahogsnlred birch
dresser, as pictured, with rocker and
center tablo to mutch. A handsome
Princess Brussels Rug.
The Living Room Contains :
A turned oak living room or don set
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The Dining Room Contain?:
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Six fumed oak wood seat
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The Kitchen Contains ;
NA solid oak front kitchen cabinet,
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bin, metallic bread und cake box, etc.,
and a four-hole Standard gas range.
$3.50 Motal Stand to hold
Hammock, special, $2.50
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RUPTURED ONCE, NOW HE
CAN "SWING" FAST TRAINS
Railroad Conductor Tells How
His Health and Position
Were Saved by Won
O. W. Hardest) of 2145 Park avenue. In
d'anapolls, lnd., has tn a conductor on
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For many years he was a victim of a
Aa time progreised hla rupture became
Tho demands of his work, "iwlnglng"
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felt at lait that he would have to five
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"Statement of Tribute
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