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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (June 7, 1914)
Ihe Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Page -
TIT THAT'S In a name" your name, for Instance?
r . A There are only four general classes of
TV English surnames. Fifty per cent of these
are derived from the two sources of place or locality
and of occupation. Many of. these names offer no prob
lem, meaning Just what they say. For example, Hill and
Dyer, But there are many others whoso present spell
ing giveB no hint of their origin.
Good examples of these obscure name-meanings are
found in Hyatt local English speech for high-gate; and,
Calvert literally calf-herd, one who herds calves. In
English mediaeval times and for generations after there
wore no hard and fast rules for spelling. And as there
Were different dialect for nearly every county In Eng
land, phonetio openings were naturally -different. To
complicate matters the Norman Invasion imported hun
dreds of French names of all kinds and derivations,
which suffered a scoro of different kinds of corruptions.
The Scandinavian invaders, too, had left their mark
in names from that language. The whole mass of names
Wis tinctured with those of Latin, old Anglo-Saxon, Ger
miu, Gaelic and Celtic origin. During succeeding cen
turies accepted spellings of names changed as their pro
nunciation changed, often becoming simpler and some
times losing the last clue to their original meaning.
To trace modern family names back to their source
is a. task which many philologists have set for them
selves'. Qu te a number of books have been published
m tho subject, each, adding something to the results
Jhown by their predecessors. The most recent of such
volutaes, highly interesting in an explanatory way and
bearing evidence of scientific methods, is called "The
Romance of Names." Its author is Ernest Weekley
OCCUPATIONS and PLACES Responsible for the Way Many Families Were Named
The Names Travers and Travis Came
from the Term Used to Describe a
Road Branching Off a Main Highway.
The Name 8mlth, with IU Various Combinations, Was
Derived from the Occupation of the Mediaeval
"8mlthy" a Worker In Iron or Other Metals.
The Name Hyatt la Old English for
M.A., head of tho modern language department at Unl
versly College, Nottingham, England. It Is publlshod by
E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.
Tho following list of occupatlve and place family
names, with their derivation, is made up of names that
fail to speak for themsolves in modern terms. Ab hero
defined they will furnish clues to the origin of many
ARRWRIGHT A maker of bins or arkB as they were
ARMOUR Armourer, a makor of armour.
BAILBY Meaning a person in possession, as a bailiff.
BrCKNBLL From the English village Blckenhall, or
BRIGGS North of England dialect for bridges.
CARRUTHERS The name of a hamlet in Scotland.
CHAPMAN Old English for a small merchant who
OHEETHAM Tho name of a place now a part of Man
CH1SHOLM From the Scandinavian "chis," a pobble,
and "holm," a river island.
COWPERTHWA1TE North of England dialect: "cow
per," copper; "thwalto," to cut.
CULPEPPER An old English occupation name, mean
ing literally to gather pepper berries.
CUTLER One who makes cutlery, from old French
LIGHT Your BATH from ABOVE
F you want to avoid the danger of being accidentally
electrocuted, never take a bath In a room where
the electric lighting fixtures aro Installed in such
a way that they can bo reached when you are standing
.-or sitting in. the tub.
This 'is the advice given by scientists who have boen
investigating tho large number of accidents from elec
tric shock occurring in bathrooms. ,
, Theref is pqculiar danger, It Is .found, from coming
In. contact wjth an 'lectio.. current, while taking a bath
owing .to the iact that vrlen( the surface of the -body
Is moist it offers less resistance to tho current than
. Under such conditions currents of as low tension as
46 volts may glvo one a severe shock or even cause
Those who havo studied tho subject strongly advise
against the widespread practise of Installing olectrlc
lights in side walls at such a height that they may be
touched by a person standing in tho tub or on the floor.
The only safe place for electric fixtures in tho bath
room is close to tho celling, so that they can be oper
ated only by turning a perfectly Insulated flush switch
Just inside the door.
Derby hats, have been found' to be another fruitful
cause of death or serious injury by electricity. The
steel wire which forms the framework of every derby
makes the best possible conductor for an electric cur
rent. This is why electricians and others whose work
brings them close to hlgh-powor currents are cautioned
never to wear derbies.
DIPLOCK From North Britain pro
nunciation of deep lnke.
DOL1TTLE Dorlvcd from the obvi
ous meaning of its compounds.
DYER Modern form signifying the
occupation of dyer; from (he Anglo
Saxon fomlnlno, "dlghostor," the
namo Dexter is dorlvcd.
ECCLES A Coltlo surname dorlvcd
from the Greco-Latin "ccclesla," of
ficers of the church.
EWART From tho old English owe
herd, herdor of owes.
EYRE Phonetic old English for holr
also Ayre and Ayres.
FALLOWS Derived from land that
FARADAY Old English for a way
faring or travelling laborer; day
was the word for laborer, coming
from tho root of tho Gorman word
meaning to sorve.
FARRAR From farrier (French
"ferrler"), ono who shoes animals
with iron. (Latin, "ferrum").
FAULKNER From falconer, a deal
er In hawks.
FAUCETT From tho Scandinavian
"force," a waterfall, by an accident
al spelling; whence also "faucet," a
FLETCHER A maker of arrows,
from the French "flecho."
tho F roncli
" fo u 1 o r," to
from tho proc
ess of finishing
GALE From tho
English gaol, a
place of con
finement. HARDEN From
w h 1 c h Apple
gato la a cor
ruption) a n d
yard) aro from
tho samo general source.
GLYNN From tho Celtic glen; ono of many surnames
dorlvcd from words naming features of natural scen
eryas Lynn, a cascade, and Craig, from crag.
GRANGER 'From tho French "grange," a barn.
GROSVENOR From tho French "gros venour," great
hunter, applied to a royal sorvant.
HALL A namo duo to residence near tho "Hall," or
groat houso of tho English neighborhood.
INGLIS Early Scotch for English; at tho same tlmo
Scott is an English namo, Escot, borne by a Norman
family boyond tho border.
INMAN From an Inn servant; derived In tho samo way
as hostler from tho French "hosteller" (modorn form,
JAN AWAY Loc a 1 English dialect for tho Italian city
JARDINE From the samo source as Gardiner, adapted
from tho French "Jardln," garden.
JUKES, JUDKINS Engllah local surnamo forma de
rived from Jordan, river.
KNAPP, ICNOWLES Local English for knoll or hillock.
LACEY In tho Doomsday Book, do Lacl, from tho Nor
man hamlot of Lassy.
LANYON A CornUh surname, derived from "lan," a
church, and meaning churchman. Other Cornish
names will bo rocognlzod 'by Buch prefixes as: Pen,
hill; Pol, pool; Tro, settlomont.
LATIMER English local speech for Latlner, ono skilled
LORIMER From tho Latin "lorum," brldlo-roln; a
LESTER 'English phonetio for the town for Lolcostor.
MERCER Latterly limited to the silk trade, but for
merly was tho English for n dealer In any kind of mer
chandise. METCALF, MEADOWCROFT Different English dla
locts for tho samo name, denoting a pasture locality.
NORCOTT From tho English cot or cote, a humblo
dwelling, and a prefix standing for north. Othor sur
names formed in tho samo way aro Coatos, plural of
cote; Klngscotc; Alcott, oldcote; Caldecott and Cal
cott for coldcoto.
NOIllUS From old French "norele," nurso or fostor
NUTTER Not one who gathers nuts, but from old Eng
lish neathcred, one who herds cattle, In tho north
OSLER From Fronch "olsolour," bird-catcher; also tho
old English names Burdor and Fowler.
PACKARD From Plcard. a native of Plcardy, Franco.
PALLISER From tho occupation of palllstor, a makor
PARMENTER Old English for tailor, whence also tho
PECK With Poake, Plko and Pick, from poak as ap
plied to a hilltop.
POMEROY Qld French, with the same meaning as
Applcyard and Applcgarth.
RUNC1MAN Meaning a man In charge of "rouncles"
SCRIMGEOUR From tho Gorman "schlrmon.' to
tonco; rolatod to tho words skirmish and scrimmage.
SHAW An old north of England word for wood; thus,
Hcarnshaw (Heron), Renshaw (Raven), etc.
TELLER Medlaovnl English for woavor, from the Latin
"tola," a web; a vory common French surname, na
Tolller and Lotolllar; from the old English spelling,
"toyghcler," comes tho namo Tylor.
TICKNBR A Dutch surnamo, from "tokener," draughts
man. TIUVERS, TRAVIS Old English for a road starting
from or crossing a highway.
VAVASOUR Through tho Fronch from tho vulgar Latin
words meaning vassal of vassals.
VICK A contraction of (ho older English surname.
Levlck, which was from tho Fronch, "l'cvoquc," tho
WEBSTER An old English fomlnlno suffix donotlng a
woman fashioner of garments from webs or fabrics.
WHITTIER A medlaovnl English contraction of whlto
tower; thus, too, Stanler and Stalnor from stone
hewer. WRAY A sheltered corner used for storage; thus,
Thackeray, tho corner where tho thatch was stored.
ONE DEATH in Every 100 Due to MEASLES
Why We OUGHT NOT WEAR NIGHT CLOTHES
DON'T sleep in pajamas or a night dress.
If you think you must, use the very
thinnest, eheerost material that can bo
Our present system of clothing with tight
fitting hats for men and hair colled on tho
bead for women gives rise to headaches;
high collars Interfere with the functions of
the thyroid gland and cause nervousness; the
woman's corset and the. clasping embrace of
a man's suspenders or, belt keep the air from
'the body ; clothing that prevents a current of
air from cooling us and tight shoes made of
leather which absolutely prevent the needed
evaporation from the sudorific glands be
tween the toes all are Injurious to health.
Many people would rather suffer head
aches than "seem queer." Many a man will
doom himself to nervous strain rather than
have, his fellowmen think him careless or
slovenly; It Is unfortunately true that un
hygienic clothing Is the rule, and we should
be; regarded as faddists If we were entirely
to break. away from custom. Most people do
not consider good health worth the penalty
of popular disfavor.
Fortunately, however, tho strictures of our
neighbors cease with the privacy of one's
own room. Here, at least, during t,he night,
there Is no need to keep out the life-giving
air, no need to prevent the elimination by
evaporation of the waste products of tho
body. Women aro much more sensible than
men In this respect, for their night wear is
usually thinner and more filmy and frequent
ly contains much lace Insertion which adds
to tho aeration.
A night dress to be healthful should al
ways be sleeveless because of tho glands un
der the armpit, and, when possible, should
be made like a cloak to open all the way
down the front, perhaps fastened across tho
bosom by a single ribbon. Moreover, this
fastening should be loosened before finally
settling for the night,
Pajamas, from the standpoint of health, are
an abomination. For a commercial traveler
sleeping in a different bed every night, a
Summer cottagor or tent-dwellpr, exposed to
the sudden changes of temporaturo at night,
or in similar conditions, pajamas aro a wlso
rSASLES has not genorally been "taken
seriously." Indeed, a certain health
officer Is quoted as recommending that
strong, healthy children, under careful control,
should contract inoasles "to escapo the malig
nancy of tho dlseaso in adult age."
Yet according to a recent study by Dr. F. S.
Crum, one per cent of all deaths may bo traced
to measles, and from one to six por cent of all
cases of measles are fatal. Tho disease choosos
Its victims especial
ly from children un
der ten years of ago,
but occasionally at
tacks an adult. It
shows no preference
of sex, locality, race
or climate, but since
tho time when any
records wcro kept of
precaution against taking cold. But to most
men living in cities and towns the modorn
custom of wearing night clothes It is scarce
ly more than a couple of centuries old
should bo abandoned. A man should go to
sleep, as his forefathers did, robed In noth
ing more than his own freshly-bathed skin.
causes of death "baa levied a heavy toll on the
population of all civilized countries. "
"There are," says Dr. Crum, ''authentic rec
ords of great eptdomlcs of measles in England
and Scotland from tho early part of the sovon
teonth century; .and after Sydenham's descrip
tion of the London epidemics of 1670 and 1G74,
thero remains no doubt of the moro or loss con
tinuous and wldo havoo wrought in Great Britain
and Europe by this particular form of eruptive
fevor. Epidemics of measles were frequent,
widespread and fatal throughout tho eighteenth
and the nineteenth century."
Some charts prepared by Dr. Crum show a
century of averages of deaths from measles com
puted for periods of ton years. Among children
under ton years the highest rato occurcd in tho
decade 1882-1891; the lowest in that of 1002-1912,
Yot, it is stated, measles is now more widely
diffusod, even In tho rural districts, than In the
fifties and sixties of tho nlnetenth century.
Records from fifteen American cities Bhow ept
domlcs of measles, recurring with quite a de
gree of regularity at lntorvals of from three to
five years. The death rate from measles Is great-
est during tho spring months,, although tho per
centage risoB again In November.
Ono chart, based upon conditions iu Glasgow,
contains an especially significant message for
many a city of any land. .In the Scottish city n
close relation was found botwecn tho number of
cases of measlos and housing conditions. .Whore
tho children belonged to families living In one.
room tonomcnts tho rato was ten times as high
as whero tho families lived in threo or four
rooms or more.
One reason why measles Is so difficult to con
trol Is tho fact 'that medical science as yet has
only au Incomplete knowledge of the virus by
which the Infection Is carried. Other reasons
aro found In tho high contagiousness of tho dis
ease and tho fact that a patient is capable ot
infecting otheri btfore hu characteristic urup
tlon has made Its nppoaranco on his own body.
it Is the height of folly to regard measles as
harmless. It is a dlseaso phat Is ficrlous, both In
itself and in its frequent complications and aftor
How to Keep Your CHILDREN from Being NERVOUS WRECKS
How NECTAR Becomes HONEY
THE honey stored by bees and the nectar produced
by flowers are entirely different substances. Both
are sweet to the taste; but whereas nectar is a
thin fluid with a high percentage ot water and gener
ally a flavor- suggestive of the flower from which it
came, honey is much thicker, with far less water, and
with, no odor or flavor of any particular blossoms.
The differences between the raw nectar and the fin
ished honey are brought about partly within and partly
outside the bodies of the bees. The nectar is sucked
up by the bee's long tongUe Into a portion of its diges
tive apparatus known as the honey sac. The newest
theory is that hero a portion of the water Is removed
from -It and that a slight chemical change also takes
On the bee's return to Its home, the new denser
liquid Is discharged from the mouth into the cells of
the hive, and at the secretions of certain glands in the
bee's head are mixed with it Science has demonstrated
that thero is formic acid in these secretions and this
probably serves as an antiseptic and prevents decompo
sition of tho honey.
The honey, however, is not yet "ripe" it is still too
limped. To promote further evaporation of water and
bring the honey to the consistency which we know some
of the bees marshal themselves in long lines mar the
entrance of tho hive and by a rapid vibration of their
wings force currents ot air over the cells or combs
where the honey is stored.
At such times a strong current of warm air may be
felt coming out of the hive by quietly bringing tho hand
close to the entrance. Thin process Is continued all
night to a greater or less extent and' Is the cause ot
tho buzzing that may be heard inside any healthy hive
long after dark on a Summer night
Vhen honey is "ripe" it contains about twelve per
cent less water than the raw nectar and is free from
the volatile oils which glvo nectar Its characteristic
scent or flavor.
CHILD is not an adult in miniature. From tho
moment of birth until full adult life thero
is ono continuous change. Tho brains of chil
dren are large, but contain a high percentage of water.
Certain brain cells aro not present at birth. Tho de
velopment of those that do exist and tho formation con
tinue until maturity.
For tho first seven or eight years the brain develops
rapidly In structure complexity, then the growth bo
In quite as marked a manner the nerve fibres and
cells and the spinal cord itself develop their' maturer
functions. At birth the spine is broader and shorter,
although the spinal cord extends low
er than in tho adult
It Is very supple and easily
twisted. Tho nervous system goes
through a prolonged and complex
changs and does not becomo "ripe"
The brain grows more during the
first two years of life than during all
succeeding years. In Infancy the body
fluids are unstably and their equilib
rium easily disturbed, and uot until
about tho fourth year does the con
solidation of tho body begin, part of
tho spine not becoming ossified until
after tho eighteenth year.
I will bo easily seen that the child
has quite enough to attend to In order
to develop in a'hoalthy manner with
out being expected to entertain It
elders by amusing tricks, by being
kept awake evenings because it is
so cunning, or because it suits the
convenience of its ciders to take it to
places of entertainment
If a child Is nervously excited, irritability follows,
and repetition or continuation ot the condition causing
Irritability is liable to cause serious Injury to tho nor
voub system. Tho norvo centres must havo rost and
quiet and food Just as a seed must have rest and qulot
and food to grow into a healthy plant. To disturb
tho roots overy few days or even a few times would
caUBO It to wither and dlo. Similarly tho young child
must bo shielded from inconsiderato treatment.
Bright colors on tho nursery walls should bo avoided,
as they aro over-stimulating to tho brain. Romping with
littlo children especially under a year old until they
Jump and shout wllli excitement, should bo forbidden.
As bodtlmo approaches tho atmosphere should bo sooth
ing and peaceful. Tho child Is tired anyway, and a very
littlo stimulation may carry him ovor the border line
ot nervous irritability. The child Is then described as
cross, when In reality it Is sinned against rather than
Nervous diseases among children aro on the increase,
due doubtless to tho Ignorance of mothers concerning
tho hygiene of tho nervous system. Sufficient nlcop,
quiet, fresh air and suitable food are essential.
Dr. Holt Is authority for tho opinion that a young and
healthy child should sleep from sixteen to twenty-two
hours out ot the twenty-four. During tho first six months
tho average sleep required will bo from sixteen to olgh
teon hours a day. At a year old tho child will aggregate
fourteen or fifteen hours; at two years, thirteen to four
teen hours; and at four years, from elevon to twolvo
hours. Whllo from six to ten years children should
have ten or eleven houro sloep, and from ton to sixteen
varfl, nine hours should be the smallest amount per
missible Of course, with younger children tho time
will bo dlvidod suitably Into tho regular night roBt and
On account ot tho dellcato body structure It is much
hotter not to rock baby to sleop, to glvo him a paclfior
or nipple to pull away upon, thus oxoltlng stomach
ncrvco and fluids unnecessarily, to allow him to sleep
with older pooplo, to permit Irregularity In his habits,
to give food unsultod to hi3 age, to nllow him to lie wot
and uncomfortable, or to excite him by attontlonB ho
Is vastly better off without.
Clothes should novor hamper. Change of position
should bo provided for in tho caso of young infants,
also regular oxerciso In the bath, kicking on a blankot
or bed, creeping, etc.
Improperly nourished children aro likely to dovelop
norvous habits, thumb or flngor-suoklng, pulling tho
cars, Btutterlng, stnmmorlng, whllo markod nymptoma
of dlseaso may present themselves as a result of nor
Convulsions, tetany, laryngo-spasm, breath-holding,
opllepsy, chorea (St. Vitus dnce), spasmodic affections
(as hiccough, nodding of head, wry neck, etc.), hys
teria, headaches, disorders of speech, disorders of sleep,
Injurious habits such as dirt eating, nail-biting, head
banging, etc., aro all listed under dlsoasos ot tho ner
Tho mother who nursos her baby must beware ot
becoming nervously tired or Irritated herself, as this
affects her milk secretion more than the diet she lives
upon. Tho milk quantity Is lossenod by worry and the
character quite changed. A baby should nevor be nursed
tor at least an hour after the mother has been men
What to Do When YOUR BACK ACHES
WHEN you say of a backache, "It is noth
ing serious," you make a glaring error.
The truth Is few afflictions befall the body
that are more serious than backache. What a cor
nerstone is to a house, a keel to a ship, its roots
'to a tree, the 'backbone is to the body, and when
tho back aches there is usually something wrong
with the backbone. Not only does the long, curv
Ipg spinal column hold the -body together, but
upon It depend the graco and rapidity of the
body's moyemonts. Besides it keeps up the con
nection and communication between the muscles
and the brain.
That women complain more of backache
than do men Is due to their wearing tighter
clothing and their habit ot taking lesB exer
clso If' you have a weak back strengthen it, and
the way to strengthen it is to give it adequate
exercise. Exercises -will strengthen the
muscles of the back, the backbone, the spinal
cord and so the nervous system. They must
be well chosen and not too violent
For women there Is a simple exercise that,
persistently followed for two to five minutes a
day, will greatly strengthen the back. Bit on
the floor, stretching the? legs before you. Place
the palms against the ankles, bring the palms
together and slowly raise them until they are
above the head. Then move them, still clasped,
as far behind the head as you can. Bring them
slowly back to tho position from which they
A second movement for strengthening the
back is to lie fiat upon the floor, then rise
slowly until the body rests upon the palms end
toes, the back being arched, slanting from hack
to fore, as does a kangaroo's.
When she has become expert In this she
can add value to the exercise toy raising one
leg on a level with the body. After consider
able practice she can use the legs alternately
with direct advantage to the spine.
(Men, because of their greater strength, may
benefit by heavier exercises, directed toward
strengthening the spine. The backward kick
is a good one for the beginner. Standing erect,
with shoulders thrown back and hands on the
blps kick vigorously backward, first with one
leg, then the other. Begin with a halt dozen
repetitions of the exercise and as the muscles
become accustomed to them repeat them fif
An exercise that strengthens the spine and
the abdominal muscles, being ot equal value for
each, is to bend the body slowly forward and
hack from the waist More difficult is the
bending the body at the waist and turning It
to the side, touching the 'floor "with the finger
tips or palms. Reversing the posture to the
other side, repeat the exercise, which consists
of three parts. First bending walBt forward,
turning the body eldewlse, and, last touching
the floor as described. This must be slowly
and never too forcibly done.
A Hall Where YouCAN'T HELP HEARING
HE monster auditorium In the
Goorge Washington Memo
rial which Is to be erected )n
Washington will be tho first hall ot
any size In this country to embody
all the latest theories of acoustics.
The auditorium will scat 0,000 per
sons. The architects promise that
everybody in this large audlonco
will be able to hear distinctly a
speaker's voice even though it be of
only moderate carrying power. Only
sufferers from deafness will have
any reason for preferring front row
seats to those in the extremo roar,
for there are to be no "deaf spots"
and none of the confusing echoes
which destroy the usefulness of so
In their plans for this auditorium
the architects have followed the ad
vice of Professor Wallace C. Sabine,
of Harvard University, ono ot the
greatest authorities on the subject
At Professor Sabino's suggestion
the auditorium will be built In the
form of an c .pso. Tho elliptical
plan was recommended becauso It
has been found that the "lino of
equal sound," extending from the
speaker's platform around a room Is
A man sitting in tho last row fac
ing the speaker hears just as well as
one who sits nearer but off to ono
side. Tho ellipse, by permitting
more pcoplo to sit facing tho speaker
within a given area is therefore re
garded as tho most efficient ar
rangement tor a largo auditorium.
The auditorium will have a flat-
domed root which will bo con
structed of porous tile, eopeclally
adapted to absorb sound. This tile
1b a new Invention which wob used
for tho first tlmo In St ThomaB'
Church, Now York.
Besides Ub excellent ncountlcs an
nthor feature of the Georgo Wash
ington Momorial will be its ample
means of ontranco and exit. The
gallery, for example, will seat 2,000
persons and leading from It will be
eight stairways wide enough to ac
commodate tho ontlro coating capa
city at one' tlmo.
YOU MIGHT TRY
When Making Potato Salad.
IF potatoes are being cooked for snlad, boll them with the skins on.
will he less oggy.
Caovrlaht. 191. fcv th Star Comoany. Great Britain Rights Reserved.
To Keep Fruit Cake Moist.
IF you wunt to keep fruit cake moist for n long time.'' put a piece of bread in
the tin box with It ...
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