Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, February 01, 1914, PART TWO, Image 18

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    The Omaha Sunday Bee Magazine Pag
PariB, Jan. 20.
AND whero does tho 'smartly dressed little Parls
lonno go to sco tho latest fashions nowadays?
In times gone by It was tho Bols do Boulogne
on Sunday afternoons, tho races at Longchamps and In .
tho studios of tho great fashion creators. But all this
has been changed. Now when sho wishes to learn tho
latest llttlo twist In fashion sho betakes herself to a
picture palace and Bees It In tho moving pictures.
Not only do tho motion plcturo companies requlro
their actresses to bo garbed In tho latest mode, but
many of them ariTproducIng special films devoted to
nothing but fashions. Sandwiched In between tho
smllos and tears of tho plcturo plays sho now sees tho
latest gowns almoBt as soon as they aro turned out
front tho workshops of tho designers.
Tho popularity of tho fashion display in films has
not only added to tho -rovenuo of tho plcturo palaco
proprietors, but has sorved to advertise tho creators of
fashion, for In all tho special fashion films tho namo
of tho designer of tho garments Is always prominently
displayed. Just what arrangement has been mado be
tween tho largo fashion establishments and tho film
companies I do not know, but both should find tho
showing of lashlonablo garments on tho fllmB a profita
ble arrangomont. Tho plcturo houses where such films
aro on tho regular programmo havo become tremend
ously popular, and any aftornoon ono may see a stoady
stream of well drcssod women entering them.
Tho daumont Palace, tho largest motion plcturo
playhouso In tho world, threatens to bocomo as much
tho centro bf fashion as Is tho Bols dp Boulogne and
tho race courso at Longchamps. I am also told that tho
Idea has boon extended to London and America. In tho
lattor country ono company Is devoting a sorlos of films
Illustrating tho adventures of a country girl In Now
York, during which aro shown tho Interior of several
of the FlfUi avenue fashion houses, with living models
d snlaylng tho gowns, while tho girl horsolf Is shown n
So stunning gowns after she has arrived In tho city
to llvo with a wealthy relative. . -
Tho Van Dyck collar in black or white tulle la an
other innovation of tho moment It gives a bocomlng
finish to tho bodices wo select for small dinners and
ovonlrig concerts. Thoso collars, as far as their shapo
?s concerned. scrupulously copied fro mthoso worn
bv our ancestors in tho days of Charles I. A favorite
Sodol In white tullo has a shawl effect completed
round tho shoulders with a square piece. Each por
Hon is mado with a plain width joined to a kilting bo
neatl a Piping of whites atln. Tho satin piping can bo
ni n nrt i! v n tiny garland of multi-colored rococo roses
H srjffSffff as? ana
satin Is chiefly seen over white charmcuso with-sleeves
In shell pink mousselino do sole.
Long hatpins havo mado so many victims In tho
courso of tho last few weeks at theatrical matinees, in
tho metropolitan railway and tramcars, that the Prefect
of Police has Issued strict orders forbidding women to
Wear these dangerous weapons otherwise than "with
"protectors," known over hero as protego-polntes. Tho
Paris authorities havo been considerably helped In
this campaign by tho motion plcturo shows, which not
only reproduced tho beforo-mcntloned regulations in
largo type, but also an amusing sceno between husband
and wife, wherein tho murderous hatpin plays tho prin
cipal role. While laughing at these comical sketches
tho audlcnco cannot help being Impressed with the
serious sldo of tho question, and thero Is reason to
hopo that in courso of time overy Parlslenne and for
eign visitor In Gay Capital will add the indispensable
point protector to her hatpin. At a recent literary
conference a woman was refused admittance until she
had deposited her four long pins (unprotected) In the
Slnco tho smartost evening gowns aro now sleeve
less tho morest suggestion of a sleevo looks rather
prudish, and oven gloves aro becoming an unknown
article. This Is sad news to tho woman who has not
beautiful arms, but It has Increased tho sale of various
brands of "flesh foods" and "tissue builders."
Tho low cut gown has at last reached tho limit of
lowncss; It can bo cut no lower. Tho fashionable eve
ning garment is now open to tho girdle in the back, as
illustrated by tho quaint model at tho loft of tho page.
This charming gown Is of apricot taffeta chiffon,
with the bodice of yellow and gold brocade, veiled by
not and trimmed with an embroidery of silk and beads.
The embroidery motif is carried out in the belt, from
which falls two gathered flounces. Tho upper flounce
Is veiled with the net, and another llounco of net falls
from tho second flounce to veil the skirt. Tho veiling
of the skirt is fashioned on tho cutaway lines.
Tho skirt Is simple, the touch of smartness being
obtained by drawing It up in tho centro of tho front
An original note is given tho costumo by a do
Medici collar of net, gathered over a band of sable.
At tho right of the page Is shown an evening dress
of "ainbre" supple velvet, embroidered in hugo dark
"pompro" roses and silvor lace. Tho bodlco Is draped
with a high bolt, which ends in two embroidered bands,
one passing over tho shoulder and tho second falling
lower ovor tho arm. Tho gathered yoke of white net
Is edged with a niching, and Is cut slightly V-shaped.
Tho, skirt, fully gathered, Is drawn up at tho front,
and Is lifted at tho back by a double fold of tho velvet,
making a panel. It is opened ovor an underskirt of
silver laco, which pnds in a square train.
Why a Change of Climate Often Accomplishes More Than Medicine
Of tha Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital.
MODERN authorities havo commonly
dealt with cllmato simply In terms ot
nvcrngo local weather. But in Its
medical aspects, nt all events, climatology cov
ers moro than can bo so oxprcssed. When wo
talk of a cllmato being good or bad in a medical
sense, It is not only weather which wo havo in
Doubtless something may bo said for tho view
that the effects, ot climnto aro ultimately results
of meteorological conditions, at least whero tho
inhabitants do not go bnrcfoqt on tho soil, and If
we exclude hydrology. But many ot thoso mete
orological conditions cannot at present bo deter.
Bilnsd; of tho existence ot soma of them wo aro
prbabfy unaware; so that we arp obliged for
practical purposes, to includo in Our definition,
as in our- investigation's, topographical factors
whOKi sactcorologlcal congruences sj.111 remain
to to unravelled. In hwiUlng this compromise
it Is curious to observe, that wo aro but follow
ing ttw lead ot the "Father of Medicine," who
summed up hU subjects as "airs, waters, and
I would thereforo deflno "climnto" and "cli
matology" in their medical aspects tbus:"Tho
cllBMte ot a plucc, in n medical sense. Is tho
sum ot tho influences upon human health and
sickness of Its geographical, and especially ot
it meteorological conditions!" and "Medical
climatology is the science ot cllmato medically
considered and ot their variations iu spuco and
time." So defined, it is clear that climatology
constitutes a great part ot tho environment of
medicine, and that to neglect It is to Ignoro
much of tho natural history of disease.
At tho outset ono must distinguish tho factors
which -enter Into climatology, so far as they
have hitherto revealed themselves. Sixteen
may perhaps bo enumerated, half ot them
meteorological, halt topographical. Thcso are
set forth in this way:
Cllmatologlcal Factors.
and there Is a disinclination to exertion. Tho
abdominal orgnns oro nypercnuc, u'
moro and the kidneys less than in temperate
regions, and danger attends condttious which
Involvo considerable heat production, such ns
fevers, physical exertion, and excess in eating.
In cold climates, on tho other hand, moro food
is rcqulslto to obtalu a healthy activity, but ac
tive exercise Is commonly taken, and tho skin
acts less, tho kldnbys more.
Atmospheric humidity claims special atten
tion from Its Important relations to tempera
ture. The humidity reduces tho tropical heat
but Increases Its oppressiveness, and people in
hot damp climates become lethargic and re
laxed., Tho effect ot cold are also greatly
modified by humidity; whereas In dry cold tho
Geographical pas 1
tlon by which is
meant relation to
lund and sea, hikes,
mountains, etc
Water supply.
Wind shelter and ex
posure. Aspect.
But for satisfactory knowledge of their nctlnn
wo requlro not only to be acquainted with their
relations to human disease, but also to know
their influence on human beings In health, as
well an on tho parasites which produce human
disease, and on such non-human hosts as bar
bor them.
Considering first their influences upon healthy
human beings, tho most powerful of nil clima
tic factors seems to bo temperature. Rauke has
made the pregnant observation that there
seems to be nu optimum temperature for human
beings, which, he nays, necessitates the least
Btnount of metabolism compatible with healthy,
nclivo lite. He has placed this optimum be
tween 59 degress and C8 degrees P., within, In
'.act, about the limits ot temperature which ex
Wrieuce has shown us to be best for t pneu
monia patient Iu hot climates, where leant
metebolbni U required. less food Is consumed
Jft ,0.lheJ Aliments Are Found to Derive No Benefit in Alpine Sanitariums, but
Do Yield to the Warm Air and Tropical Sun ot Old gypt.
removal ot heat from tho body Is determined
by tho bodily needs; In damp cold thero Is a
leakage ot warmth which 13 difficult to Wholly
prevent. Clothes dq not exactly control It, and
wind, It It exists, considerably increases It Hu
midity also acts Importantly in lessening tbe
lutenslty ot light.
Atmospheric pressure has received n great
deal ot attention, chletly becnuso so many ot
those who have Interested themselves in the ef
fects ot altitude have assumed tha$ Us Influence
is chiefly duo to this factor. If, however, we set
aside special effects, such us mountain sickness
(tho outcome of n diminished iutako ot oxygen)
and an enlargement ot tho thorax ot n compen
satory sort, the most Interesting Indisputable
result of diminished atmospheric pressure
seems to be compensatory increase of the color
ing matter ot both plauta and animals In
plants of tbe chlorophyll, in nulmals ot tbe
haemoglobin aud red corpuscles.
Winds have received strangely little attention.
In dump cold the leakage of beat from tbe body
becomes much greater In wind. Then certain
winds are rcmnrkably enervating, like the ,
Kohn. East wind lit Europe Is detrimental to
many persons, although wo havo no witlxfactory
knowledge ot why this Is so. East winds in
these countries seem to have less ozono In them
than southwestern, but what effect thU differ
ence produces wo do not know
Light Increases color and well-being, yet its
preclso action on human beings has received, I
think, very llttlo uttentlon. 0 electricity In
Its natural conditions we know practically noth
ing as a climatic factor. Yet recent experi
ments. In which It has been artificially used to
stimulate plant and animal growth, suggest
that electrical conditions may have powerful
effects lu climnto. Of tho Influences on healthy
men of rainfall, toll, vegetation, wind shelter,
and wind exposure, we know practically nothing.
Thus, so far as what may be called "physio
logical climatology" is concerned, wo know
enough to Indicate tho Importance ot knowing
moro; yet we aro still only on the threshold ot
tho subject
Wo havo learned for certain that the effect ot
climnto on some of the parasites ot man and on
their non-human hosts Is profound. The study
of tropical diseases hns made this plain. Cer
tain disorders nre confined to certain zones of
temperature. Thus, whatever mny be found to
bo in the organism of yellow fever, wo know
that It does not flourish in temperate climates.
The mosquito that carries It and tho mosquito
host ot malaria become rare also at certain alti
tudes whero the heat is less.
Other disease are modified. Thus, phthisis In
the tropics, whilst usually uncommon outside
Copyright, 1014, by the Star Company. Great Britain Rights
While Some Diseases Yield Successfully to the Cold,
Crisp Mountain Altitudes of the Swiss Alps ' ..
tho towns, runs a moro rapid courso than in
cooler latitudes. The gravity of type Is prob-
ably due In part to tho temperature, the rarity
Is perhaps a consequence of the Intensity of
light. Wo know there are optimum tempera
tures for organisms, as Ranko says there arc
for man. Light, again, has a profund destruc
tive Influence upon mlcro-orgaulsms, especially
direct sunlight. Apparently It Is the bltie, vlo.
let and ultra-volet rays to which it owes this
most Important power. The comparative rarity
of phthisis In tho tropics Just referred to, and
in some high altlttfdes ns well, may owe not a
little to the disinfectant power o light-
Rain is popularly supposed to wnsh the, at
mosphere, aud, whilst It Is raining, It doubtless
does so. But It Is sometimes forgotten that
heavy rain after draught causes unusually nc
tlvo development of organisms In the soil, and
that these, when tho air dries again, enter It as
dust Long-lasting drought decreases ttio num
ber and tho vitality of organisms In thu "soil.
Of the action of wind, air pressure, natural elec
tricity, and oll on pathogeulc m'.crobw we are,
1 believe, without information Hero, again,
we havo much to learn nnd comparatively llttlo
has us yet been established.
Denllug next with tho Influence of tho factors
ot climnto on human disease, we enter on a
field where remarkable progress has been made.
Medical geography has become an imposing
branch ot knowledge. A great emplrls acquaint
ance with the effect of places on dlseu&'e Is
steadily growing up. Of this I need say no
moro. Similarly, medical history Is becoming
constantly more considerable and concise. But
when wo come to the theoretical sldo of medi
cal climatology we find ournelves considerably
worse off. It Is not too much to say that the
most striking characteristic ot our knowledge
In this department Is Its uncertainty. .
Tho frequeucy und severity of pneumonia nt
high altitudes have been ns much Insisted on
ns tho rarity of phthisis. It Fooms, lu Jacj. to
be well established that In many niuuutnllou
regions pneumonia becomes coiamoncr.nud more
deadly us altitude tucreases. Whether this de
pends on Increased exposure to certain wluds is
n question awaiting Investigation. Some very
small figures, which I am going to submit to
you, suggest that this may be the case. The
idea that exposure to cold dry winds Is an lm.
portant cause of tho disease Is not new, and In
teresting Instances or coincident prevalence of
such winds and pneumonia havo been given.
Bronchitis Is often considered to be affected
by thu same influences as pneumonia. But this
apparently Is not altogether correct The dis
tribution of bronchitis, In the United States In
1880, was by no means tho same as that of
pneumonia; nlso Sturges stated that at
Gibraltar different winds appeared responsible
for two diseases tho east, which Is damp,
seemed to promote tho occurrence of bronchitis;
tho west, which thero is dry, the occurrence
of pneumonia. It would appear that whereas
dry cold tends to cause pneumonia, damp cold
rather tends to causo bronchitis. On the other
hand, a warm moist atmosphere has undoubted
therapeutic value in the drier varieties ot bron
chitis. Heart disease has a climatology well" worth
looking Into. Havllnnd held that It was most
prevalent In places not well flushed by wind.
BUt very little has been done on the subject
Only a few years ago authoritative statements
were made in reference to a district well known
to mo which were In direct reverse of the facts.
For asthma we havo a good deal of empiric
knowledge, the chief fact being Its capricious
ness. Oout ' and rheumatism, dyspepsia,
anaemia, neurasthenia, neuralgia, and con
valcscence from acuta diseases have, apart
from balneology, each a certain useful cllma:
tology of its own, but discordant statements are
made In respect of them.
.The Importance of considerations such as tho
foregoing may be mado still moro obvious by
also regarding them from tho points of view ot
diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment
J, tore sevntn no doubt that a very marked
dlfferenco exists, in expectation of life gener
ally, between tho great towns and the country
dlstrlcts. If so, surely this must affect the
prognosis of almost all cronlc diseases, nnd as
most of our efforts at prognosis, Inadequate as
they sometimes hnvo been, emanate from our
crowded centres, there surely Is need for exten-'
slvo Inquiry into tho prognosis of these com
plaints In our rural areas, where I am sure the
outlook is different
Moreover, If density of population has this
effect, Is It not possible that by comparing rural
populations with each other we may conio to
discover climatic factors also which tend to
modify longevity? This seems to mo nn in
vestigation which promises to repay the trouble
It would entail.
If It bo true 'that a certain disease Is specially
rare lu a certain place, aud It good reason can
be shown that this rnrlty is not merely fortuit
ous, mny we not hold that a patient prone to
that disease will, by residing lu that place, have
a HPerlnlly cood hope of avoiding the disease?
Such r, consideration applies to tuberculosis,
arid line cnici iv.imui why 1 have dovoted so
much tlrao in endeavoring to establish the
of -shelter from rain-bearing wind in losses-?;
the frequency ot pulmonary tuberculosa Is be
cause I sec. In places so sheltered, the most
suitable plnco of residence for those In whom
tubercle has become quiescent, or for those who
belong to families whose proclivity to tubercu
losis Is pronounced. I feel sure that there are
districts iu England which cases of phthisis
wnild be wise to avoid and where sanatoria
ought not to bo erected.
Similarly, I think that there nre districts
whPre old neojjle with strong concerous family
hbtory should not settle, and districts where
tiar'e wh" htiviv had repeated attacks of pueu
raonja run somo,rlsk In residing. One cannot be
daginhtlc yet' on these two latter points, but
would It not be well It one could?