Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (May 5, 1912)
Oeeyrlgat. 111 by Amsrlc
J ' Ai!Vu
htmlMr. flwrt Britain HMi Imwit T ' ' " j. .
THE SUPMAi OF THE SEA
' - ' . . ' - - - . - - r. -. . J- .. .-' . ' '
Hitting Targets I I
THE EYES OF THE GUNS
Above I th Ordnanc Officer, who Sit in tbe Foretop
and Direct by Telephone the Marktmomhip of the
At the Bottom of toe Pace I the Crew of a Seven-Inch
Gun of the Battleship Utah. ,
THAT America gunnere an
more-efficient than ever, and
. that Use submarin tnln
may bued -effectively as ean
ot otfen a wsriatonowf defease,
r to of the Important I fate
brought is by the battle practise of
tit United State Atlantlo fleet juat
completed off tbe Virginia cape.
Steaming at full ped tb gun
ner found little difficulty In kilting
target at range ot 15.000 yard,
a moat remarkable achievement
when it 1 remembered that at that
distance the larger part ot the target
It below the horUon, leaving only
the spper part risible. A little mo
tiou of the ship or the rolling of a
falr-slxed wave wa sufficient to ob
scure the target entirely.
A year or ao ago. Indeed, Rear
Admiral N. E. Mason, chief of the
Bureatt ot Ordnance, reported that
all 7tten of rang ending failed
at distance beyond 10.000, or at
most 13.000 yard, and that a all
the sources ot inaccuracy at short
range were exaggerated a the
range Increased, at 15.000 yard
their cumulative effect wa such a
to make it doubtful whether a hit at
that range could be regarded a any
thing more than a matter of luck,
and it la a fact that the gunner of
European navle regard it a a wast
of effort to aim at a greater range
than 7,000 or 1,000 yard.
Nevertheless, the record show
that at 12,000 to 15.000 yard the
battleship Utah made no lea than
nine bit, while the Michigan took
eoond place with seven.
Tbe secret ot this achievement
Ilea in the effclency ot the men be
hind the guns, on the bridge, la the
engine room, and particularly ot the
Are control officer stationed in the
cagelike masta, characteristic ot
The picture on this page, take
during the battle practise, illustrate
the system which enable our gun
ner to bit targets which are quit
Invisible to the naked eye, and which
appear only one-quarter of their
actual size through the most power
ful telescope available. A the tar
get are only twenty-four teet sous"
the result obtained
After the target ba beet located
- through tbe telescope a "ranging
shot" is Bred at a distance of some
11,004 yard. Tb fire control officer
estimate as accurately as be can
whether the projectile ba gone too
far or fallen too abort, and by mean
' of a telephone, by which he keep Is
communication with th gun crew,
report bl conclusion, and th
second shot is based upon them.
Every hot fired subsequently I sim
ilarly observed by the Ore control
officer, and tb success ot the test
depend largely upon th accuracy
ot tris calculation.
Tb fleet, under the command ot .
Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaua, coo-...
Med of twenty-one battleship, In
cluding dreadnaughts, on armored
- cruiser, two scout ships, twelve col
lier and on mint planter.
This last. Teasel I des
tined to play an Import
ant part In naval war
far of the future, tor at
tbe recent battle practise
It was found that nine
might be med most effec
tively against an enemy.
Every battleship in the
-United Bute Navy now
carrle eighteen ot them,
' end th mine-planting ve
' sel carries a reservs stock
'of four hundred. 1
These mine are hollow
iron sphere about tour
teet In diameter and con
tain a big charge ot gua
toa and other high explo
sives. As soon as a ves
sel come In contact with
them a cap on top ex
' plode th content of tb
mine, which Is powerful
enough to d 1m bit any bat
They are submerged
bout flv feet below the
th surface of the water,
about eighteen teet apart
So expert have our tailors
become iu planting them
that eighteen caa be placed
la a minute.
Below the Horizon
That the Gunners
with Ileal Torpedoes
Placing the toae from tb Bow
, . of the) Cutter.
Two : - X;; m-
If ; k
Uwering a Pontoon Raft Loaded with Contact Mine from the
, Battleship Carolina to the Ship' Cotter.
Chesapeak Bay, tb Vew Hamp
shlre being selected to do the firing,
the object being to show the value
of th "spotting" system, to give In
formation a to the effect of modern
gun fire oe an armored vessel and
, to settle some vexed question' con
cerning th flight of projectile eed'
their angle of lmpaot , ,. .VJ ;
Tbe San Marcos' protection eon
slated of a partial 12-inch steel belt,
lMncb armor oa bulkhead a, turrets,
redoubt and conning tower, (-inch
on th ammunition hoist and a I
Inch deck. Each salvo- flred con
slated ot four 11-Inch and four t-lnoa
' "Th result of th firing." de
clared the Secretary of the Nary,
'lave furnished u with th mo
valuable Information on tbe ImporV
ant question that arit In the con
alderation of th preparedaea ot
the fleet tor actual battle.
The firing baacoaciualveiy prove
that our system of training I th
best, and the total wreck of the Baa
Marco ha impressed every ob
server of tb accuracy of fir and
th destructive feature ot our pro
"A th practise was primarily for ,
th education of spotters in esti
mating the error in rang at dis
tance of flv to seven mile, tt wa
Intended to nave tbe talvo so placed
that few projectile would bit th
vessel, so that w might use her
gain next year tor spotting practise.
. "A few projectile were directed
against the masts, ao as to show
wtat would happen to the exposed
communication system. Ait Inspec
tion of th vessel after firing showed
the Immense hole which had bees,
ploughed through from one aide to
the other; many of them being below ;
. wter, and any one or two ot them
being sufficient to make the Teasel
total lose Th armor ot this ves
sel wa unable to withstand th Im
pact at the very great range at
which we flred. and the battleship
was total to after th first two
aaivo were directed at her.
"All tb officer of tb fleet www
deeply Impressed with tbe accuracy
and th groat deatruetiv effect ot
tb projectiles. All th manikin
which were placed at the gun rep
resenting the crew were dreadfully
cut to piece, and the fume and flr '
left by the passage of high explosive
projectile would hav destroyed .
very living thing.
"Th bulkhead In place were
like sieves, due to the action ot high
explosive, and all the compartment
below were completely riddled. It
wa remarkable to note the enor
mou power of some of tbeee projeo- ,
tile, which, at 13.000 yard, went
right through the heaviest armor
and continued their work ot destruc
tion inside the vessel.
- This practise ha demonstrated
beyond doubt tbe immense value ed
tb long-rang firing have been
FHOTos bV ENRiaMuu.esi
Tb Crumpled- Dummyheai of a Torpedo, Which H a Actually Be Fired at Another Battleship Dunn
; - . -; - i wii'U'ei . ,
. . . n' r M,-'. -
. v '. - - .
the Gun Practiae,
Contact mine bar been la tu
for year as mean of defense for
harbor, but It 1 now purposed to
place them in the aea during a naval
engagement, and to' govern th
course ot the conflict la such a mas
ter that th enemy will be either
driven or lured Into their vicinity.
By International agreement, bow
ever, all mine so need must be of a
patter that will eink on hour after
, Great work was doc with tor
pedo, too. Each Teasel had two
tries, and at a range of J.S00 yard
the Delaware got two bite, while th
Florida got one. For th purpose of
ese tests dummy torpedo bead
were seed. Some of them, battered
and bent, are shown la the 'Illustra
tion. . . .
Battle practiae 1 aa annual fea
ture in the American navy. Tbe ship
making the best record receive
what a know as tbe trophy pea
cant, consisting of a black circle oa
a red ground. In addition to thla
very member of the crew get a
permanent increase in salary, and
the members of the gua orew get
medals la addition.
Last year the Klcbigan woa the '
- championship, but It sow goe to th
Utah. The Delaware, the Michigan, '
th New Hampshire and the Rhode
Island made excellent scores, and
Were not very far behind the winner.
Those ship which did not do o
well were handicapped by weather,
coo dittoes or unsuitable material a.
- Last year the skill of America,
gunners wa put to a more practical
teat than la afforded by the square '
target erdtaarfly used. . The old
battleship Texas, renamed the Saa
Marcos, wa used as target la
Aim .ii hTta r th last two years, and
- "'- " .lu.. .-. ... - , . .
" - - m vur wsuioag or training
are positively th beet .
"Our officer hav seen all the
practise against th canvas target
creen. and hav been thoroughly
atiafled with th work of our gua
pointer and fir control parties, but
It needed juat soch an exhibition a
thla to prove that their eathuaiaatie
and continued efforts to bring the
fleet to the hlghet state of actual
battle efficiency bar met witk .
.H? JTf.0- The apotter ha,, to,
the first time gained the necessary
Information which cannot be learned
by nring against anything but a real
Thia Ut, la connection with the
more recent work of the gunner at
""fake Bay few wIgo
todicatea that no enemy would bo
proof against America guns any.
whero within a radiug of nine mile.
living Ink Bottles AH
Along. New England's Coast
so that they would fall at varying
distance for the education ot the
potter, but In order to observe the
flr' of our projectile oa aa actual
armored vessel a few of th salvoe
were directed at the target Itself,
end we got a great many hit from
these eelToa. I noticed o one salvo
that four lJ-ioeh projectile fell la a
bunch, an of them striking th ves
sel and causing dreadful havoc
The New Hampshire placed the
salvoe anywhere h wanted, and
when the gunner wished to hav
some bit en th conning tower and
th turret armor. In order to observe
the effect, they bad a trouble plac
ing th shot at from 10.000 to 12,000
yard rang at just th point deatrad.
LONG the rocky shores of New
England Is much indelible
Ink. It I better than any
that can be bought beautiful
crimson la color, and when applied
to fabrics absolutely unchangeable.
This Ink I contained la little bot
tle put ap by Nature herself tee
receptacles la question being eertala.
' whelks, or sea snails, of the specie
knew to edeee ss purpura lapll
tas. If the shell ot one of thee
whelk be broken, there will oe
found.' Juat under the akin ot tbe
back, a Blender whitish vela contain
ing a yellow liquor. The latter, wbea
applied to linen with, a (man brush
and exposed to the sua, tarns first
green, then blue, then purple, and
finally a brilliant crimson. Nothing
will wash Rout ' "
Lest tt be supposed that the no
tion of obtaining dye from marine
eslfesks t at all new, it m worta
explaining that tbe famous Tyriaa
purple, uaed by the ancients, which
I th most famous of all dye, wa
got from two specie ot sea analla.
U.ol" rfewned too splendid
fr any bat royalty and the nobility
i.tbe day, of la, r"
' htSUVil!" la ; .
The dy separated by a
process, the whelk, being
jounded la mortar, and the liquor '
thu. obtained diluted with a mUtarl
V" D1 urine. Thus was pro.
duced what would be called today a
purpura of ammonia." which wbea
applied, to wool gave to the tetter
the moat beautiful color effect. .
changing from metallic greea topuH '
pie la different light.
8ucb was the celebrated Tyriaa
purple ot tbe ancient X mac) -impier
and cheaper method ot pra
doclng It from guano, la now under-
stood though jt 1 etui know-commercially
as "murexide," after th
Latin name of the molluscs front
which the stuff waa originally de
rived. A glance at any good dlctloa- '
err. ccirr th ward "murex." wiii
lend brief but Interesting eooflrma
tioa to tbe statements hex given. -
Powered by Open ONI