Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, October 29, 1911, EDITORIAL, Page 5, Image 17

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Government is Generous in Planting of Food Fish
. ii-- ,; .J.5.f. - ij . i,s r . -X CL-" nn 7t-s zsJ
(Copyright. 1911, by Frank G. Carpenter.)
ARHIKHTflV D. C, CXt. 28.-
t rl Are you dl.-Kustcd with tno
I yy I high price of meats?
MWWHfl VJ J Jul o I v t i. - , . . ,
roasts oost more than 'ou
Are you growlnff tlieJ of pouring your
money into the pockets of our great
butcher barons?
If so, why don't you eat fish? It will
tnake more brain and just as good mus
cle. It will digest quite as easily, and,
taken fresh from the waters, will make
you so singing throush life. The Japa
nese nation, one of the happiest on earth,
i composed of flah eaters. The Chinese,
one of the strongest and thriftiest, lives
largely on the same food, and all over
Europe nearly every farmer has his own
private fish pond.
There Is no land that will rear fish
better than the United States, and there
Is no sort of animal life which will breed
eo rapidly nor produce so much. Man
has but one, two, or at the utmost three
young at a time, and tho same is true
of cattle and horses, gome breeds of
Bheep produce twins, and the hog often
has ten or twelve pigs at a litter. The
Ilsh multiplies by the thousands. Tho
Pacific salmon has on an average 6.0C0
eggs, the shad 30,000, and the cod Is said
to drop as many as 2,000,000. Indeed, it
baa been estimated that if all tho cod
eggs laid In one year should produce fe
male fish, and they in turn lay similar
eggs, that within a few years tho whole
iworld would be covered, and we could
bave a tower of eggs reaching from here
to the moon.
All this Is preliminary to my story of
the great work which our Uncle Sam
Patriarch has under way to Increase our
fish supply.
riantlng Flth lr the Billions.
During the last week I have been talk
ing with the men who run the fish com
mission. They have a big office here in
Washington, and connected with It are
fish hatcheries scattered all over the
union. Tho government now hatches fish
as farmers hatch chickens and Its output
of the finny tribe last year was more
than 4,000,000,000. Of these there were
something like 200,000,000 salmon, over
400,000,000 whitefish, flOO.OOO.OJO or 700,000,
OiiO pike perch and almost 200,000,000 cod.
The white perch numbered 300,000,000, the
flat fish 800,000,0u0 and the lobsters almost
200,0000,000. In addition to this there was
an enormous planting of oysters and a
distribution of food fishes so numerous In
variety that I cannot mention them all.
Some of these fish were taken from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, and some were
brought from the great northwest to
Maine and other states. There are now
large government hatcheries In twenty
seven different states, and tho fish reared
are increasing by the hundreds of millions
per annum. .Since the establishment of
the bureau, which was about forty years
ago, more than 28,000,000,000 eggs have
been artificially produced, and of these
about half have been the output of the
last six years. I am told also that this
Work Is at Its beginning and that If our
waters are properly stocked and cared
for we may yet shake our fists in the
faces of the packing interests and live
Jipon fish.
New Fluh Laws N reded.
The next congress will be asked to
fnake new laws for the protection of our
fish in the streams and along the ennsts.
well as to the proper munab'emunt of
Our oyster farms. During my stay in the
Offices of the fish commission I had a
that with Dr. Hugh M. Smith, the d"p
pty commissioner. Dr. Smith Is a high
authority on all such matters. He has
traveled widely over the world looking
Up new fish and fish products, In order
that they may be transplanted to the
L'nlted States.
He tells me that the states now have
Ihe right to control the protection and
propogatlon of the fish within their
boundaries. He thinks this should be
given over to the national government.
ftnd says that many of the states are
allowing their fisheries to go to ruin.
(Take the shad, which gives us tens of
pUlllons of pounds of the most delicious
food every year. It Is the leading f!h
Dt our eastern seaboard, and It runs up
the coastal Btreoms of the Atlantic as the
mhnon does up those of the Pacific. Tho
government has beeen doing what it can
to plant shad, and it has placed some
thing like H.0U0 million of the young In the
various streams. All tl.esc fish were
reared from eggs taken from the flhh
Caught for the markets and the flesh of
the fish was eaten. As It la now In iomi
of the states, tho shad are taken when
they first enter the streams. The eegs
are not ripe at that time and are useless
to the hatcheries. The result Is tnat
the spawntakers muut wait for the run
further up stream, and millions are lost.
In North Carolina the fishermen so con
trol the streams that the greuter part
Of tbe shad cannot go up the rivers to
ipawn. This was doiio to such an es
Unt that the supply of North Carolina
lhad was greatly reduced. The output
(ell to 6,0(0,000 when the officers of the
bureau of fisheries vent to the North
Carolina legislature and secured certain
protective laws. As a rtsjlt, this last
fear the catch has been fifteen times as
great as it was before those la were
passed, and the shad are rapidly grow
ing in number.
The Potomac shad are almost unpro
tected. There are fish nets running from
Washington all ths way down to Chcsa
peaks bay. Tbe fishermen of Virgiula
run their nets as far as they can out
Into the middle of the Potomac. The
Maryland men do the same from tho op
posite bank, and in tho middle of the
stream nets are so stretched that they
catch the shad which swim along the
bottom. The result is that the Potomac
river, which onco had Its shad by the
tens of millions, hnd practically's
year and this fish is likely to be exter
minated as far as it is concerned. Mr.
Smith says that if a law were enacted
keeping a strip one-third the width of the
river free of nets enough Rhad would go
up that strip to give us a plentiful sup
ply. It Is the tame in many other parts
of the United States.
Pish Ponds for the Farmers.
Tho day will come when every farmer
who has a pond or stream on his place
will raise his own fish, and at the same
time produce fish for the markets. Dr.
Smith tells me that this Is the' case in
many of the countries of Europe, and
that It is so in Germany, irrespective of
the fact whether the farmer lives In the
interior or along the sea. From Germany
the fish commission has Imported carp,
and these are now being raised here In
such quantities that they sell for more
than $1,000,000 a year. In 1908 43,000.000
pounds of them were caught In our public
waters, and in addition a vast number
were taken from private streams and
Ills; Money in Oysters.
Some of tho farmers of the south are
now making money out of oysters. This
is so all along the Atlantic coaBt, and es
pecially on tho Louisiana shores of the
Oulf of Mexico. Unole Sam's fishermen
have explored those waters and shown
the men how to smooth over the bed of
the Bulf In various places and cover it
with Buch material that the oysters
cling to.
Dr. Smith tells me that upon many of
these beds there had been no oysters be
fore, but that a year or two after their
making they were producing them at the
rate of about 2,000 bushels to the acre.
Those oysters sold for 60 cents a bushel,
making the shore waters yield a product
worth f-1.200 per acre, many times the
money product of the best cotton or rice
fields In any purt of the south.
Oyster planting is now done to such an
extent that the greater part of our oyster
supply comes from oyster farms. The bi
valves grow In warm water as well as in
cold, and along the Gulf of Mexico they
are eaten all the year around. Farther
north they are not so good in July and
Japanese Oysters for Ban Francisco.
The fish commission has tried the ex
periment of transplanting the Atlantic
oysters on the Pacific coast. They are
found to fatten and grow, but they do
not have any young, the water being too
cold for them to breed. These oysters
retain the flavor of the eastern oysters
snd bring high prices in the markets.
A number of companies are now en
gaged in bringing one and two-year-old
oysters from tho Atlatlc, and transplant
ing them in San Francisco bay. They
grow rapidly and are ready for market
in one or two years after planting. These
oysters are taken west in refrigerator
cars holding about 200 barrels each. They
are planted Inside stockades which keep
out the poachers and certain fish enemies
of tho oyster, and the plantations are
also overlooked by watch houses on plies.
The ordinary oyster of our northern
Pacific is email and it has a coppery
taste. A better oyster is grown in Japan,
and especially in the cold waters along
Hokkaido, which Is the northern Island
of that country. The government is now
Importing some of these oysters which
will bo planted along Puget sound and In
San Francisco bay. They are accustomed
to a colder water than that of our At
lantic oysters and It is believed that they
will thrive.
Oar Croat Fishing Groands.
During my taik with Dr. Smith I asked
him where were the chief fishing
grounds of the United States. He replied:
"Roughly speaking, there are three.
First we have the coasts and the estu
aries of the rivers; second, the interior
streams and lakes, and third, the high
seas. One of our greatest fishing grounds
is the banks of Newfoundland and an
other Is the high seas of the Alaskan
waters. lioth of these places are sub
ject to somewhat the same conditions.
They have food for fishes brought in by
great ocean currents. On the banks of
Newfoundland this food comes largely
from the gulf stream and a cold arctic
current and other currents. The result
Is that the fish are found there In great
numbers. They move over the banks
seeking the best feeding grounds. It is
strange to think of fish out at pasture,
but that Is the condition on these banks.
"The Alaskan banks are about 120 miles
or more long. They have considerable
width and are inhabited by millions of
cod and halibut. I have a photograph of
' ; ir . .-.-v...- v v
jjijjir W!wa yVVssttBi
a catch of cod and halibut which our
men took In twenty minutes on the Alas
kan banks. These fish are so plentiful
that the catching of them will some day
be a very great Industry."
Oar Alanknn Fisheries.
"Give me some idea of the Alaskan
"They are of enormous value. Including
the seal we have already gotten about
IISO.OOO.OOO out of Alaska fish products.
The salmon has netted over 1100,000,000
which Is more than fourteen times what
we paid for the territory. We are now
receiving upward of 10.0o0,000 a year out
of" Alaskan salmon alone.
"In addition to that there Is tho Alaska
herring," Dr. Smith continued. "There
are bo many of them that they arc caught
and Bold as fertilizer. They should sup
ply the United States and take the place
of those which we are Importing.
"The cod and halibut are likely to yield
a great deal. The halibut Is now being
caught In Alaska and taken down to
Seattle and Vancouver and shipped to the
east. They are as good as the Atlantic
halibut, and they are so abundant that
It is possible to carry them this long
distance and sell them at a lower cost
in tho markets of Uoston. When the
Grand Trunk Pacific railway Is com
pleted these fish will go to Prince Rupert
and thence to all parts of the United
States and Canada."
"Are the Alaskan fisheries well man
uged?" "Yes. They are under the United States
government and the fish commission con
trols the planting and catching. As a
result the planting ate being preserved,
and they will give us salmon fur all tlnu
to come. We aro now regulating the
methods of catching and marketing and
have our agents on the ground to Fee
that our regulations are respected. We
require license taxes, but omit them upon
all fisheries or fishing companies which
return 1,000 young salmon to the streams
for every ten cases of salmon they can.
Some of the canning Interests have pri
vate hatcheries and aro planting mil
lions of young fish. The government has
Its hatcheries. There is one at Yes bay
which during tho last two years has lot
free 61,000,000 salmon."
Fiiih 1 lumlitranta.
"Are you planting new varieties of fish
In different parts of the United States?"
"Yes, we have imported fish of various
kinds, and some have proved valuable.
I have already spoken of the carp. This
wai brought In from Germany. It is an
excellent fish for private culture and
home consumption; and the carp ponds
are increasing very rapidly.
"We have also brought In a number of
European trout. Moreover, we are carry
ing fish from one part of the United
States to another. For Instance, the shad
Is now one of the most abundant food
fishes of California. It can be found from
Los Angeles to Alaska and It Is about
as common on our Pacific coast as on
the Atlantic. This comes from shad
which have been taken from the Atlantic
and planted there. The total cost of the
experiment was something like M.0Q0 and
at the present dute tho shad taken out
and marketed In that region runs high
Into the millions of pounds. It has netted
tho fishermen over a third of a million
dollars, which is a big dividend on a
11,000 Investment.
"Another fish which we have Bent west
Is tne striped bass, which we planted first
in San Francisco bay. We took less than
600 from New Jersey, and from them the
Pacific coast has been populated. Tho
buss has become the leading game fish
of California, and It can be bought at a
lower price In San Francisco than In New
York. The cost of transplanting It was
less than $1,000, and the value of the catch
already sold has been more than $1,000,000.
Uncle Sam threw $1,000 Into the water,
and lo! $l,0u0,000 has come back. It beats
the bread of the scriptures.
"We are also sending western fish to
the east. We have tuken the rainbow
trout and distributed It throughout the
different states and territories, and we
are now trying to transplant Pacific sal
mon. It grows well and thrives in the
lakes, but whether It will breed remains
to be seen."
The Great Lakes.
"How about tho fish of the great lakes?''
"They are valuable, but we have a great
deal of trouble In controlling the Industry
because we have no national or Interna
tional laws regarding It. Each state does
as It pleases, and the Canadians do as
they please. The result Is that there is
a great destruction of fish and especially
of the whitefish and other valuable va
rieties. Nevertheless wo are annually
getting 185,000,000 pounds of fish from
those lakes and our Interior waters, and
tho greater part of this comes from the
lukes. We are doing what we can to In
crease the lake supply. We have one sta
tion on Lake Erie vihere, In 1907, our col
lections of whitefish eggs reached a to
tal of 330.000,000. We bought those eggs
from the fishermen for the most part and
gathered the rest ourselves. We have a
number of such stations on the lakes and
also well equipped hatcheries.
"In the same way we are collecting the
eggs of the pike, perch atvd- lake trout,
and are doing much to Improve the sup
ply of these and other valuable fishes."
Hot FUh Are Distributed.
"How Is It posslblo to carry fish over
the country su that they will keep alive
and grow when planted?"
"We do that In various ways. We have
special cars each of which Is walled with
twenty or more large water tanks in
which the fish aro carried. There are
also compartments which hold more than
a thousand gallons of reservo water. We
have, a boiler room on such a car, and a
plan t to pump water and air into the
tanks. There are also sleeping places,
and a kltchAi and a pantry for the men.
These cars may. b attached to a regular
train and dropped oft as needed. In send
ing small shipments we use ton-gallon
cans, which are carried in baggage cars.
The cans are handled by our own mes
sengers. In some years our cars una
messengers travel over 300,000 miles In
distributing young fish."
It Mtartled lllm.
Alexander had just returned from his
Persian campaign.
The fifty picked trumpeters who headed
the triumphal lino suddenly broke furlU
with a wild and tremulous snort.
The world-beater held up Ills hand. '
"What In the name of Mars and dll
nerva Is that?" he demanded.
"It's the trumpet phalanx playing the
new conqueror march." replied Chlorldus.
"That's all right," said the great Mace
donian. "1 was afraid for a moment It
was 'Alexander's Ragtime Pnnd.' "
And he continued to hnw right and left
to the cheering populace. Cleveland
plain Dealer.
Da.Bc.Nj F BaiixvV
This institution Is the only one
In the central west with separate
buildings situated in their own
taraple grounds, yet entirely
distinct and rendering it possible
to classify cases. The one building
being fitted for and devoted to the
treatment of noncontagious and
nonmental diseases, no others be
ing admitted. The o(her Rest
Cottage, being designed for and
devoted to the exclusive treatment
of select mental cases, requiring
for a time watchful care and spe
cial nursing.
Terrible Suffering
Zctema All Over Baby's Body
"When my baby was four months old
his face broke out with aciama, and at
sixteen months of age. his face, hands
and arms were in a dreadful state. The
eczema spread all over bis body. We had
to put a n. ask or cloth over his face and
tie up hi hands. Finally we gave hhn
Hood's Sarfcaparllla and in a few months
ha was entirely cured. Today he is a
healthy boy.'1 Mrs. Ines Lewis, Uarlng,
Hood's Sarsaparilla cures blood dis
eases and builua up the system.
Get it today In umiak liquid form or
chocolated htlsM tailed Sat-sataba,
TvCUJ. Uma. dcUnJ"
False puffs, switches, braids and rats are a
poor substitute for your own hair. No matter
how much care Is exercised In arranging the coif
fure, It is bound to look unnatural and artificial.
Your own hair growing on your own head is the
only hair which looks natural and right.
Newbro's Herpicide
makes it possible for every woman to have beautiful hair. It is merely a matter of care.
Applied regularly Herpicide keeps the scalp clean, destroys tbe dandruff and prevents tbe hair
from falling out. Nature does tbe rest Maintain a healthy, sanitary condition of the scalp and the hair
will grow luxuriantly. That Is the way to have beautiful hair.
One Dollar Itottles of Xewbro's Herpicide are guaranteed by all druggists.
Single applications at the better barber shops 15c Ladies may obtain applications at the bent hair
lretthlfi jmu-Ioih. It is the OUKjlNAh remedy. Stops lulling of the scalp.
Bend 10c in postage for sample and book to The Herpicide Company, Dept. ili., Detroit, Mich.
1 1 v -v 'tumy jL. 1 '
fit rr
f f w
Where You Are Certain to Get a Good Piano
There are so many grades of pianos
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To the average layman the interior of a piano is as mean
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This store makes it a particular part of its business
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A man may not be able to know a good piano from a
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With every piano from this storo (iocs the Hoxpe guarantee of
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given satisfaction, for we IIAVK PIANOS TO HUT KVKUV I'lKSc
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fVeptern representatives for Mnnon & Hamlin, ranlch and Harh, Bush &
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For thou dewing to shop by letter our big 224 ptga illustrated Buyer' Guide
ofleii helpful tuggettiou. Sent (res on request.
(E.tLli.h.J In 1837)
Ri SBsr(laoas from mnv part at
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llalarr kna, l.arx laill Sl.OOl
hwl IS. 4 far klel V.
Josephine Le Fovre Company
Vhlladslphla, Fa.
Sold by lieatim 1-iiug Co., ths Hell rriijt
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to got tho colored comic
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If-hX A'V I H
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SHERMAN & McCONNELL DRUG CO., 16th and Dodge Sts., Cor. 24th and Tarnam.
LOYAL PHARMACY, 207-9 North 16th St.
Special Agents.
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