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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (May 1, 1910)
Tim OMAHA SUXDAY BKfi; MAY 1. 1310.
Lord Minto Talks About India's Government and Industrial Outlook
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The. Viceroy'5 Summer "Palace, at Stmij
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cr Minto is. a vekst beauttitl womah
(CopyrlrWt, by Frank O. Carpenter.) in tho palaces of Europe. At one side of
AliCUTTA. 1910. (Special Corre- 18 a raised dais upon wlilcn tna t.au
pondenc of th Bee.)-Durlnsr nd -ounte.su of Minto stand at the time
my stay here I have had an t t'ie''" receptions, and where the vice
audience with Jits excellency. "oy receives the rajahs of the great native
the viceroy of India, at the gov- states. This dais Is covered with a cloth
ernment house. The meeting pf B'J a'" viceroy's throne is a chair ha
arranged through the aid-de-camp in
The GovEKrrMEUT HotrsE. at Calcutta
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Jrj TUS IATEST "PHOTO GRB
j araKlnv, In response to my tall at the gov
f mmenrt mansion, where I presented my
k letters of Introduction and wrote my name
in the visitors' book.
The eoolal machinery of the vioe-mgal
enurt of India 1s more complicated than
that of the White House. The viceroy
Korgeously finished in silver and gold
standing upon it. It was in this room
that I met his excellency, and together
we walked through the great hall to the
dining room at the opposite end of tha
building, where we hud luncheon.
Later in the day, in company with one
of the viceroy's staff, 1 took a look at
other parts of the palace. The building
150 servants to help him. There are
stables of fifty horses and carriages of
state of various kinds. Everything; is done
to make the admiration as impressive us
ti mat iiius. llo impresses one as a plain,
practical business man, and, dressed fur the
part, ho might be taken for a college pro
fessor, a Wall street broker, or a quiet,
was of 1ST?. He aided in suppressing Louis
Kiel's Canadian rebellion in 1SS5, and twenty
years lifter that he camo buck tg Canada
to be Its governor general. He served six
fluencing others, tho governor gen
eral having little actual power in tho
administration of affairs. In India
the viceroy and his council are almost
supreme, and they have a world under their
control. Said Earl Minto:
"liut few people appreciate the extent of
our Indian empire. We have here a conti
nent rather than a country. There are 300,-
posslble to the natives, who Judge all things everyday club man. He Is fife looking and years there, and then was made the "king's Oou.OOOO people subject to us, and they be-
by show. Indeed, I doubt whether there Is
anywhere in the civilized world more for
mal receptions than those of the viceroy
of India. The native costumes are of tho
i ... . . . .
I mparattveiy speaKing, js a greater man .nH w .h, Whit Hn most gorgeous description, the English of-
j than our president. He has more power finished. at a cost of J75O.O0O. It was fcial appear in their uniforms and tho
I at n T.rlnM VjIiamI TTT T Vkp tiihAm Via I at ' ........
tnan iunc .awara vn, oy wnom ne is - ir,jii, v,uii i Trhval,lre soldiers in full dress. There are ralahs.
i ..ppointed. and the peoples he rules are u Jg ,mm.eHglve , COIltra8t wlth tna native princes and officers of the diplo
ids many in number as the population of gll,Bel.bread work ot ollr modern archl- mutic corps in court dress and also the
I KiiroDA. and of as varied nationalities. He - i.ji .i
iL'ciure. aquta inn Liirniie nan is a. ua i ,uiuuoii lauiua ui tilts iuuii in lasmoiiuoiB
r.Uvea in as much state as any European
3 tstonaroh. maintaining a large ettabllsh
i, ment, and going about In pomp. When he
rides out It is in a magnificent landau,
i wiih gorgeous coachman and footmen in
i front and behind, and with gigantic native
I soldiers as outriders and guards. The
' soldiers have magnificent horses and they
! carry long- spears which flash like silver
I In the tropdoal sun.
' 'When one goes to the White House he
. may call at the offices and send In his
card and possibly see the president within
! a few moments. All who wish to pay their
. respects to the viceroy of India must first
announce themselves by writing their
names In the visitors' book. This is much
like a hotel register. It has places for your
room with walls of brocade and tapestry,
and floors of teak wood so brightly pol
ished you cin see yourself In them.
The whole building is magnificently fur
nished. It is managed by an official who
gowns. It is the same at Simla, in the
Himalaya mountains, where his excellency
holds his court In the summer.
Of all the pompous assemblage about
him the viceroy himself is the least os-
his faco shows high culture. He is free
from airs and puts every one at his case.
He is about five feet eight Inches in height,
and docs not weight over 100 pounds. Al
though 61 years of age, he looks to be about
60, and is now at the top of his prime. He
is a great worker and thrives In this cli
mate of India.
Earl Minto has had a long publlo ca
reer. He took part in the Afghan cam
paign out here as a young lieutenant, now
over thirty years ago. He was in the
Egyptian war, which arose out of Arab!
Pasha's rebellion, and was attached to
the Turkish army In - the Kusso-Turklsh
greatest subject," the viceroy of India. His
excel ency was married in 1SS2, to Mary, the
daughter of General Charles Gray of the
British army. The countess of Minto is
a beautiful woman. She Is highly accom
plished and is popular throughout India,
Talk with the Viceroy.
During my conversation with the viceroy
I spoke of the difference In the governor
generalship of Canada and the vice royalty
of India, and asked him how he liked his
present Job. He replied that what the gov
ernor general of Canada accomplished had
to be done almost altogether through in-
long to many nations, and tribes. They
speak more languages than Europe and
the nations are as different us are those of
the European countries. Hindustan has
many religions, each with its own custom;
it has a vast number of classes and castes,
many of which do not harmonize at all
with the others. It is a land of mighty
problems and of: some almost insolvable."
National Forestry Service in California
S NATIONAL conservation Is en
grossing at present a large
amount of public attention, the
following account of the federal
forest service in California by
F. E. Olmstead, who has charge
name, your profession and the date of your of that service in the state, will be of more
arrival and time of leaving Calcutta. It Is than casual Interest. Mr. Olmstead says:
kept In a booth near one of the gates of tho "The national forests In California, as
executive mansion and is accessible to all. well as elsewhere, and the work of the
The list of names so subscribed Is taken up federal forest service is designed first of alt
to. his excellency from day to day. and, at to benefit the agricultural interests and as
his direction, the ald-de-camp sends out fruit-growing In California is, of course,
notes of appointment to such persons as the the dominant agricultural interest tho work
viceroy is willing to see. From the list is also 0r tho forest service should benefit tha
made up the invitations for the dinners, interest above all others,
halls, receptions and other events given -The history of all mountain regions the
by the court. There is no society anywhere world ovel. Bnows that the resources of the
mors splendid than that of Calcutta during Mgh ranges have always been neglected
the season, and the government house Is unllI they haV(J been tak(m canj of ,hr0UBll
alive with festivities from one end of the nece8sl,y. settlement, of course, in the
winter to the other.
How the Vlceror Uth,
The viceregal mansion Is magnificent. It
looks not unlike the White House, save
that it is more beautiful and of twice the
Ise. It stands like the White House at
first place has always been In the valleys
when the country Is opened up, and In
many cases timber and the various re
sources of the high ranges have been Im
pediments rather than anything else.
"California in a way is unique, because
a great deal of the first settlements wr
the end of a great park, with government maie ln the foot n,;u and niountains But
hiilMlnss at the side and back. Below our
White House flows the Potomac, and the
Whits Lot and Washington monument
rounds are the beginning of a park which
extends right through the city to the capi
tol, a distance of more than a mile. The
government house at Calcutta has grounds
at the end or the Msldan, a park a mile
wMe and two miles in length, which runs
along the Hooghly. The two executive
mansions are Just about the same distance
from their respective rivers and each Is
surrounded by acres of beautiful gardens.
The entrances to the home of the vice
that was merely a scratch and the real set
tlement camo afterwards through the build
ing up of agricultural Interests ln the great
valleys. In this state, as well as in most
parts of the states of the west, the need
for some kind of systematic care of gov
ernment forests di first felt about 1S90.
Forest Reserves Created.
"From that on what were then called
forest reserves were created ln California.
They now practically Include all the great
mountain ranges of the state. They begin
the agricultural lands in the Sacramento
and San Joaquin valleys are wholly sur
rounded by forest reserves almost without
'In the first place the forest reserves
roy are more imposing than those of our tne Oregon line and run south along the' were created and nothing else was done
president's home. You pass through gates
upheld by massive pillars connected by
arches upon which hugh .white lions are
crouching. Below, on each side the gates
are dark-bearded East Indian soldiers ln
uniforms of bright red, with blue turbans
as big as half bushel baskets. They carry
muskets and swords and present arms as
you ride through. At the end of the drive
are more dusky Sikhs In red. and at the
house entrance you are met by the serv
ants of ths viceroy, clad In the brightest
of red, with tlue turbans. They wear
Ivory-handled dirks ln the belts and look
stately and fierce. On each side the front
door are more soldiers, with flags In their
hands. Like those at the gates, they are
giants, each six and a half feet ln height,
end their turbans make them seem taller.
They stand like statues and look neither to
the right nor left
In else the Goranite Hoaae.
Entering the front door, which opens out
on a wide portico upheld by Greek columns,
1 came Into the audience or throne room.
Tills is an Immense hall running along the
front of the building, with another great
room extending out from It at the center.
Tha ceilings of both are, I Judge, 100 feet
high and ars supported by columns ot
n.srble with capitals of gold. They are
frescoed by artists. The floor shines like
a mirror. It is of dark marble ln the
throne room and of white marble, veined,
lit the dlnlmr room adjoining.
The throne room Is as Imposing as tha
East room at the White House, and It
impresses me mora Ihtu any I have seen
enure crest ot tne sierras and on the other for their administration and use, and that
side along the entire crest of the Coast naturally brought out opposition and a good
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How India Changes.
"But it is also a land which is rapidly
changing, is it not?"
"Yes," replied his excellency, "India is
changing. The people are different now
than they were five years ago, and the
policies which the state has successfully
used in the past are not adapted to the
present. In that lies one of our, great
troubles. I mean the making our people at
home understand that they have a new
India to administer. They are apt to think
a policy should be adopted because one
of the Anglo-Indians who left here twenty
or thirty years ago said It worked well in
his day, and that it ought to work well
now. They appear to think that a man
who served ln.ila ten years ago should be
able to suggest and advise as to today.
This is not so. We have here a new India,
and a new people. The conditions are en
tirely different and they grow more and
more so every year. Many of the changes
have come about through the policies which
we ourselves have Inaugurated. We havo
cicatcd an educated class, and this Is
made up of natives who are thinking for
themselves and who believe that they
should have a greater share ln the gov
ernment. In the past our administration
was practically autocratic. We must rule
the country today, but we shall have to
adopt conciliatory methods. We shall have
to use more diplomacy and give tho natives
a greuter share In the administration. This
chunge is the nutural growth of movements
which we ourselves have started, and I
think It Is a chunne for the better."
Awakeulnii of India,
"Does this change exist amiins the com
mon people, and does it cover ull purts of
"The awakening of India, if you call it
by that name, is going on In nearly every
part of the peninsula, although it is more
pronounced in lienai than otherwheres.
There are several sections of the country
in which the movement is quite active.
sources and locking them up absolutely, that monopoly can be broken, or at least The unrest began previous to tho Japan
That opposition brought about a very good very much modifltd by the government Russia war und has grown rapidly since
thing which was a law providing for the selling its own timber if any such neces- then. The natives, who are Asiatics, then
use of ail the resources of the forest re- slty should arise. saw an Asiastic nation victorious over a
serves, and a short time ago the very name "The first thing to do, of course, is to European one. They began to Inquire that
was changed to get away from that idea protect the timber we have, and the main If this were possible for tho Japanese why
of reserve. . thing is to keep out fire. It is pretty should it not be possible for ihein. They
"They are not reserves any longer; they hard, but we are doing it better and bet- asked their fellows why India should re
are national forests, and the timber, the tor all the time It is simply a matter muin under the rule of the British and dis
range and the water, and everything ln the of keeping enough men employed und cussed that question here and there all over
way of resources is for use and is used, keeping those men traveling the moun- the country. I think that war was, to a
tains ln fire season and Jumping every considerable extent, the cause of the great
A BOUTITERX CALIFORNIA VINKA'AKD.
Range, with some few exceptions, so that deal of it It was like taking the re- Is being held up at an exorbitant price;
First is the timber. There are about a
hundred billion feet of merchantable tim
ber In the national forests of California.
fire at Us start.
"As soon as a
unr'st of today.
forest fire gets a good
If the British Left India?
"But, your excellency what would be
the result if you should leave India? Sup
pose the British rule should be taken
Most of it is ln the northern part of tho btart it Is almost hopeless to control It
state, some of it in the south. It these before immense damage is done. The
timber lands had remained in the public main thing is to stop the little fires at
domain and had not been thrown into the start. A great part of the work had
national forests what would have hup- been to create a good public sentiment ln away?"
pened? regard to the fire question, and thut has "j don't think there
"They would have passHd very quickly already been dune, and California ln that
from government ownership, and the respect is away ahead of the rest of the
tendency has been and still would be for country; they are very much more care-
privato owners to gradually , form large ful here tiian in any other part of the
Holdings 'and monopolies. That had al- west.
leady happened ln some parts of the state. "Forestry is a sort of agriculture and
lu other words, the Interests of the peo- e treat it as you would an agricultural
pie, bo far as timber resources go, would crop. The objeet is to make that land
oe in danger of not being properly tiuarded. produce that crop which is mot valuable
CALIFORNIA. PLUM OBrHARl-NX)TICU THE PLOWED GROUND.
Secretary tin tout but Mouopolr.
"As it Is now, the government owns
only a small proportion of the merchant
able Umber in California, but it owns
enough at the same time to have a very
strong influence on market conditions. For
example, there is no question whatever
but what It could control local market
conditions in the great valleys of Sacra
mento and San Joaquin, because the sec
retary of agriculture Is empowered to sell
Umber at whatever price he thinks bett
und whenever he thinks best. If It Is
round that through monopoly of any kind
the price ot timber in any particular region
md wnlch that land can best support and
to keep that timber growing continuously.
Fur instance, we are selling timber all
the tune, but the trets are cut ln such
a way that instead ot the lands becom
ing barren, burning up and becoming
waste, a certain proportion of the stand
is left, trees of all agg, und files kept
out. so that those trees left set up the
land aguin, and you have new trees com
ing all the time and thus you are always
assured a continuous supply of timber.
That Is the object of the timber business.
"Not only do we want to keep timber
growing on the land, but we want to lm-
(Conllnued on Pag Four.)
is any possibility.
or at least any probability, of the British
rule being taken away from India. We are
bound to hold our place here as a matter
of nationarduty, not on;y to ourselves, but
to tho East Indians and to the rest of the
world. If we should leave the result would
be chaos, and some other power would
have to rush ln to quell the internecine
war that would ensue and stop the car
nage. "tine cannot imagine tho conditions w hich
would obtain upon our departure," his ex
cellency continued. "There would be wars
of religion, wars of caste and wars arising
out of long-time personal grievences. The
Nepaleae would rush don upon the Bcn
galese and massacre them; the Mohent
medans and Hindus would go for one an
others' throats, and ths native rajahs of
certain localities would wags war upon
each other. The result would be anarchy.
The majority of the better classes of India
know this would be the case, and It is
in their fear of such a situation that lies
one of our elements of streugth. They
realize that, oil the grounds of humanity
if for nothing else, tho great powers of the
world would have to rush in to keep order,
and that this would result in India having
a change of masters, and also that tho
change might not bo for the better."
More Nallte Official.
"Does your excellency think that the new
policy you havo Instituted giving the natives
a larger representation ln the government
will bo of permanent good?"
"Most certainly yes. The principle of
selection which has been adopted for the
new assemblies, both national and prov
incial, means that from now on wo shall
have about the best of the natives ln tha
councils. The native representatives will
be men of reputation ar.d influence among;
their own people, and also of men whose
property interests will make them naturally
conservative. These men want peace and
good government, and they will be back
ward In advocating anything that would
bring about a revolution. We have many
Indians of ability. We have some who are
conservative and many patriots who ara
anxious to do all they can for the perma
nent good of the country and people. I
think they are growing better from year
to year, and that ln time they can be
made to take a much larger part ln public
affairs than they do now. I believe In giv
ing them as much to do with the govern
ment .as is possible, consistent with the
good of all the people. I believe that the
natives now appreciate that we aro trying
to do the best we can for them, and I con
sequently look for an increase iu the
friendly spirit toward us and our rule. The
number of offices ln tho hands of the na
tives increases from year to year, and al
together very few British subjects are em
ployed by the government. All of the small
places are held by the natives, and also
ninny lmmrtant ones which carry fairly
About the Anarchists.
"But your excellency must appreciate
that there is a large number of these peo
ple who are bound to drive out the Brit
ish. How about the anarchists'.'"
"Wo undoubtedly have anarchistic or
ganizations, but 1 think we have wiped'
out most of them und practically sup
pressed the others. One can never tell as
to such bodies. They ure made up of secret
societies and they may lje dormant for a
time and then suddenly spring Into action.
There has been an extensive organization
of this kind in India. It hus had its
branches in France, Canada and, I think,
in the United States. We have traced them
to i'arls, London, and also to Vancouver
and Seattle. They have been active ln
throwing bombs here and in other parts
of India, and you may remember the shoot
ing of Colonel Wyllie of the Indian office
in London. From such men no one can tell
whun he is safe."
India and the Tariff.
The conversation here turned to the In
dustrial conditions of Hindustan and their
future. The viceroy spoke in highest terms
of tho ability of his subjects, saying that
the labor was Intelligent and quick to learn
tha handling of machinery. Ha thought
India would be benefited by a protective
tariff, and thut if it could have the proper
protection it might soon be manufacturing
not only for tho markets of China and
tha far east, but for tho world.
His excellency referred to the Swadeshi
movemei.t, tho watch try of which is
"India for the Indians," and which ad
vocates the boycotting of all goods not
made by native labor. The viceroy said
he was surprised that the Swadeshi agi
tation hud not made the protective -tariff
thHr watch cry instead of the boycott, and
that protection would have seemed a' nat
ural demand. I asaed him whether so, i,
a tariff c-7)uld be Instituted. He replicl
ho thought Great Hi Haiti would riot al
low it on account of t lie objections
Manchester and Birmingham, which rffl
so largely to the Indian mai krt.
His excellency tells me that machinfry
Is gradually coming ii,t u,ie, although
gieat many of the manufactures are now
produced by hand labor. He bays that the
weuvlng and spinning uIIh are Kl ad
lly growing In nunibtr, and that Iron and
bteil mills are a question of but a few
years. Technical scluoola have recently
been established Hi many parts of the
country. The government Is doing what
it can to teach funning, and on tho whole
India is advancing agriculturally, com
mercially and Industrially more rapidly
than ever before.
FltANK O. CA1'E.TEK.
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