Image provided by: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (July 11, 1909)
ADVERTISE W THE
BEST IN THE WEST
I PART THBXE
PAGES 1 TO 4.
VOL. XXXIX-NO. 4.
OMAHA, SUNDAY MORNING, JULY 11, 1909.
SINGLE COPY FIVE CENTS.
JAPANESE MEMORIAL TO THEIR PORT ARTHUR HEROES
Monuments to Fallen Fighters Rise Amid Evidence of the Ferocity of the Struggle in Which They Lost Their Lives While Fighting for Possession of the City.
. j .. - ; B iri '""' . " -li,r -nr ni',-r 7.1 1 lit ' ' ' '. ' , -
I "-v-T-ii ir . , '. . A .-t -w.iw.a-L.' '" '..'I ji'i3 " I 671 " " .. . ;'sfc-'--s' 'A. .1 V
' f ' .Vis . , ' ' II 1: v : El .
' - " . ' ' . - ill
J It, ' J :
! V 1 . ! 1 1 ... I 1 -- p IF t 'It
SCENE AT THE DEDICATION OF THE SHINTO SHRINE. UNDER .WHICH LIE 22,000 JAPANESE
KILLED AT PORT ARTHUR.
IN ONE OF THE RUINED FORTS.
(Copyright, 1909, by Frank O. Carpenter.)
ORT ARTHUR, Manchuria, 1909. (Special Correspondence
of The Bee.) I spent this morning on Quail hill, where
the Japanese are erecting a memorial In honor of their
heroes who died at Port Arthur. The hill is a saddle-
shaped elevation which rises to a height of a thousand or
more feet out of the arena of the amphitheater in which Port Arthur
Is located. It faces the narrow entrance to the harbor where the
Japanese and Russian gunboats showered shells upon one another,
and about it may be seen the hills forming the rim of the amphi
theater upon which were the fortifications taken one by one by the
Japanese during the siege. '
Quail hill from now on will be called Monument hill. It Is a
fitting site to mark the glorious victory of the soldiers of the mikado.
It overlooks Golden hill and The Tiger's Tall, which with their
fortifications protect the harbor entrance, and it is the first elevation
to be seen coming in from the sea.
It is right upon Its top that the monument is now going up. A
everywhere, and some of them
want deep into the ground. As
soon as the fighting was over the
Chinese by the thousands swarmed
over the landscape and gathered
up every bit of lead and iron in
Bight. They even dug up the shells.
Often they would find one which
had not been exploded, and would innocently pound on the cap with
a pick. The result was another big hole in the earth, and the
almond-eyed diggers scattered over the landscape In pieces.
Today it is difficult to find large chunks of shell, although there
are Innumerable bits of iron about the forts, as well as all sorts of
relics of the Japanese and Russians. There are army buttons, torn
caps and coats and pieces of the barbed wire, which, charged with
electricity, entangled the soldiers as they climbed the hills and burnt
them to death. I saw rotting sandbags and tattered leather coats
worn by the Russians here and there about one of the forts, and I
JAPAN'S MONUMENT TO RUSSIAN DEAD.
glng the rocks in the fort tun
nels. Much of the fighting was
hand-to-hand. In tunneling
into the forts the Japanese and
the Russians were often close to
one another, and they remained
to for days, separated only by
ramparts of sandbags. As I
looked; at one of the ports a
Japanese officer pointed out a tunnel in which he said he had fought
for several days with his fellows, the Russians being on the other
side of the wall, so close that the troops could hear one another talk.
Said the officer:
"We joked with each other, using one of our men as an inter
preter, and we even' passed brandy and tobacco over the sandbags."
"How did the Russians fight?" I asked.
"They fought bravely, but the odds were against them in that
their common soldiers did not know what they were fighting for.
They did not care for Manchuria, and they had no faith in their em-
great temple of ailver gray granite, it will be about 300 feet high . picked up a pocketful of splinters from the shells which the Japanese peror. Every Japanese esteemed it ar honor to die for his country,
and will cost almost $200,000. The stone for it is coming by the
shipload from Shlmonosekl, Japan, and hundreds of huge granite '
blocks are now scattered about the harbor, and at the foot of the
bill. Many of them are as large as a library table, and not, a few
weigh several tons each. A cable road has been constructed from
the harbor to the site of the monument, and a steam engine drags
up the blocks on low cara.
The monument Is already about one-third completed. The
pedestal has been finished and the first series of Ionic columns
erected. The scaffolding about the structure can be seen for miles
around Port Arthur, and the monument will command both land and
sea. When I visited It today 200 Chinese masons were chiseling at
the stones and the great blocks were rapidly rising into place. The
work is being done by Manchurlan-Chinese, under Japanese over
seers. Most Impressive Monument .
I have visited the world's most tamous monuments, from the
mighty shaft to Washington, which rises from the base of the
Potpmac in our own capital city, and the great sarcophagus of
Napoleon in Paris, to the gigantic boulders on the Rhodeslan hills
which mark the grave of Cecil Rhodes, but I have seen nothing so
Impressive as this. At one end of the mighty elevation stands the
monument, and at the other end, perhaps 800 feet distant. Is a
Shinto shrine of this same silver gray granite, under which lie the
bones of more than 22,000 Japanese heroes who were killed at Port
Arthur. The' platform upon which the shrine stands Is reached
through a great copper bronze torll, and at each side of the latter
Is a granite lantern, like those one sees at Nlkko and about the
other shrines of Japan. The stone platform must be more than 100
feet square, although the shrine itself is comparatively small. These
two monuments cover the whole top of the bill. They are reached
Some Relics of the Siege
The terrors of the siege are shown Dy the museum in Port
Arthur. The government has collected relics from the various battle
fields and placed them in a big building outside the, old. town. They
have made models of the forts, which show the devilish ingenuity
that both the Japanese and Russians ubed in destroying one another.
There are great colls of the barbed wire which was scattered over
the hillsides. The wire was connected with powerful batteries Inside
the fortifications and such soldiers as blundered against it in the
dark were sure to be killed. There were twenty kinds of hand gre
nades, filled with nitroglycerin. They look like miners' lamps, but
when thrown they really lit the way to death.
The Japanese had wooden guns, ten or twelve Inches in di
ameter, which they carried with them into the trenches. Their
projectiles for these were cans of Bhlmose powder holding from a
pint to two quarts, and they caused terrible destruction. They had
also squares of deal board which were burled a few Inches below the
surface. Attached to these were tubes of acids so connected by wires
that they exploded as the-troops stepped on the boards, throwing a
whole company Into the air.
Here also are the min:s which were used on land and sea.
These are acorn-shaped Iron shells ae big as a bushel basket, which
would blow up a ship at area or destroy a company or a regiment
The museum has every kind of shell, from some as high as one's
shoulder down to little follows the size of your finger. It has Japa
nese flags which the Russians used to entice their enemies within
reach of their guns, and a Japanese kite which they used to test the
wind before sending tip their balloons. It has pieces of silk which
they employed during the latter part of the siege to make sandbags,
by military roads, which wind their way up the mountain, and also nd Bteel p,ck8 of 8,1 k'nd8. from new ones, fresh from the stores,
by steps for foot passengers. x down to some which are wbrn to the length of one's thumb by dig-
and the most of us would rather have died than been defeated."
"But would not the Russians have beaten you It the war had
gone on much longer?" ,
"I do not know," was the reply. "We were in a bad way when
the hostilities were suspended. Our money was almost used up and
It Is doubtful if we could have kept on fighting. Indeed, we owe
everything to your President Roosevelt. It was his offer of peace
that saved us, and I can tell you we appreciate his work at that time.
The Japanese worship him, and if he ever visits Japan we will just
kill him with kindness In showing our gratitude." '
Just here I would say that I have heard many such expressions
concerning Theodore Roosevelt. He is a hero to the Japanese, and
they cannot speak of him too highly. His biographies, printed in
their language, have been sold by the thousands, and even the school
children know all about him. During a call upon Prince Ito a few
months ago his excellency referred to Mr. Roosevelt in the highest
terms. He said: "Theodore Roosevelt is a friend of Japan and we
honor him much." The prince thereupon ordered his servant to
bring in a photograph of the ex-president. It was originally of cab
inet size, which Mr. Roosevelt had sent to Prince Ito with his auto
graph at the foot conveying his regards. The photograph had been
enlarged to more than life size and it was beautifully framed. Prince
Ito ordered it placed on a chair facing us, so that our ex-president
seemed to be a part of the interview.
Its Glory Gone
The Port Arthur of today makes me think of one of the Inflated
towns of our great west after its boom has exploded. Just before
the war(began the Russians were preparing to make it one of the
finest cities of Asia. They had erected enormous buildlngB for their
officials and were putting up residences to correspond. Merchants
and other private citizens were doing likewise. New structures
were going up everywhere and houses of fifty and sixty rooms were
being erected. In the new, town, which formed the Russian resl-
. .... A At. - . ,V . . . . . ... . B .
Lome wuu me to iu iuoi oi iu iuuuuluoui sua is a oira seye
view of the battlefields of Port Arthur, as they He here in this quiet
year of our Lord, 1909. We are right in the midst of the amphi
theater In which, for eight months, day and night, went on the
greatest gladiatorial show the world has yet known. Just under us
is the harbor which was filled with the Russian gunboats, and on
Its shores are the old and new towns which were occupied by the
soldiers during the siege. On that sea, outside, lay the blockading
Japanese squadron sending its shrieking shells at the ships and the
cliy. On the hills all about us were Russian soldiers, and on their
opposite sides the Japanese armies, crawling and plowing and tunnel
ing their way to the forts. The story of how, inch by inch, every
bit of the ground was fought over and how at last Japan was success
ful has been told in song and story, and you may find it today in
the books describing the war. I doubt, however, whether any such
story can show the real wonders of the defense and attack, or the
heroism of both bodies of troops.
Desolate Country Indeed
The country about here is much like the bare hills of Montana
or Colorado. It Is dry and thirsty. There is no vegetation except
scanty grass, with here and there a bit of scrub oak. The fighting
was all In the open, and the fortifications hadvto be thrown up out
of rock, gravel and disintegrated stone. The tunnels, made by the
Japanese, were not through earth, but through rock, and in under
mining the forts they could go but a few feet a day. Nevertheless,
while overlooking these hills one sees scores of miles of such
trenches. The work on the embankments reminds you of the great
Chinese wall and the hundred miles and more of military roads
which the Russians built to reach their various fortifications impress
one 4rtth the vast sums which they spent, all In vain. Their form
were of concrete, reinforced with Iron, and they embrace a circle
of more than ten miles. They made Port Arthur the strongest fort
ress ever besieged.
Today all of the forts erected for land defense are in ruJLns.
The Japanese do not Intend to repair them, and the only work they
are doing is upon those facing .the sea. They have added to and
strengthened the fortresses on Golden hill and the Tiger's Tail, and
they prohibit strangers from visiting the battlefields along the eoast.
As to the other parts of Port Arthur one may go anywhere,
provided he leaves his camera at home. There are scores of drosch
ktea which were brought In by the Russians, and are now oVned by
Chinese. These are hauled by little Manehurlan ponies, and they
will take you all over the country at 25 cents an hour or for a Kttle
more than 13 a day.
During my slay here I have visited many of the battlteflelds and
have tramped over the bills where the severest fighting fcook place.
The grounds are scarred by Iron shot and the face ofold Mother
Earth has been pockmarked by the siege. The shells .vera thrown
Gunnison Tunnel Redeems a Great Arid Area
N THE morning of September 23,
at 11 o'clock, President William
Taft will press a button which
will lift a headgate at the point
where the Gunnison river flows
past the mouth of the Gunnison tunnel in
southwestern Colorado. A torrent of water
will swee,p; into the six-mile tunnel, flow
smoothly; down the cement-lined pathway
and emerge into ditches, which will carry it
Into the Uncompahgre valley. The greatest
Irrigation enterprise ever completed by this
or any other nation will be formally opened.
In summing up the facts thus briefly, one
galnr. no Idea of the magnitude of the enter
prise or the vast good which it will accom
plish.. The government, through the Gunni
son tunnel, guarantees to supply a perma
nent and "adequate water right for 150,000
acres of land. Of this 40,000 acres now has
a partial supply of water and Is under culti
vation. The remaining 110,000 acres is
now raw, arid land, but a year from today it
will be as green and fertile as any land in
the valley. Ten thousand families can f nd
homes on this land and earn good Incomes.
A peculiar feature of the enterprise is
that the cost to the government will be prac
tically nothing. The cost of building the
tunnel will be between 15.000,000 and'
16,000,000, but this money is only loaned
to the western farmers, who have agreed to
pay It back In ten years according to the
acreage they hold under the tunnel ditches.
Uncle Sam has spent millions upon millions
In public improvements, widening water
ways, building levees and the like, all doubt
less worthy objects, but this is the first time
in history that the people benefited have
paid the government back the money in
vested. In this esse the only contribution
made by the government is the interest on
the money loaned, and this will be more
than repaid by the Increase in the output of
The westerners might have induced con
gress tOygive them the money, but they real
ized that it would take a campaign of edu
cation lasting twenty-flve years to teach the
eastern men the value of reclamation and
they wanted to start work at once. Hence
the plan for repayment.
The completion of the Gunnlsdn tunnel
is the realization of the dream of a western
ranchman, to whom, more than any one
man, must be given credit for the idea.
Meade Hammond was his name -he died
about ' two years ago and he was a tall,
lanky, raw-boned man, with a voice that
would put a foghorn to shame. He became
a member of the Colorado legislature, and'
there he expounded his plan.
"The Uncompahgre valley Is the most
fertile spot in Colorado," he told his fellow
members, "but what we need is water. A
few miles away the Gunnison river Is flow
ing away to waste In a rocky canyon, so high
that the water can never be taken out at the
top for Irrigation purposes. I want to dig a
tunnel right through the range, tap the
stream and put the" water on the valley."
Mr. Hammond was so insistent, he talked
so loud and so often, that the legislature
finally appropriated $25,000 for the purpose
of making an investigation to determine If
his scheme was feasible. The state of Colo
rado even went so far as to start building
the tunnel, but quickly gave it up when it
came to a realization of what the work
It was about this time that the reclama
tion service commenced work and one of the
first projects called to its attention was the
Gunnison tunnel. With the deliberation
that characterizes all acts of the govern
ment, it spent four years in investigation.
. Engineers were lowered at the end of ropes
hundreds of feet down the steep sides of the
canyon in order that they might measure
the flow of the river at different times and
determine if the supply would be permanent
and adequate. One party went through the
canyon in a boat, the first and only time the
feat has ever been accomplished.
It was at last decided by the government
that the ranchman's scheme was practical
and a contract for building the tunnel was
let. Within a few months the firm which
had undertaken the work quit, forfeiting a
heavy bond, when they came to realize that
the enterprise was one of greater magnitude
than they had supposed, y
Then Uncle Sam took ofT his coat and
went on the Job himself. He built model
towns at both ends of the tunnel for bis em
ployes. He put up schools for the children
and recreation clubs for the men. One
could buy almost anything except liquor in
these camps, snd as a result the workmen
have been singularly happy and well sat
Isfled. Today the men working at each breast of
the tunnel are within 200 feet of each other,
but should a man In one gang desire to visit
a workman in the other fang he must face
a little walk of twenty-two miles up the
mountain under which the tunnel is dug and
down the othr side. The nearest daylight
is two miles away, and that Is straight up
through the top of the mountain.
The exact dimensions of the Gunnison
tunnel are as follows: Length, 30,578 feet;
cross section. 12x18 feel; elevation of portal
at the river entrance where . the water is
taken out, ,6,533 feet; portal where it Is dis
charged Into the ditches, 6,471 feet; ca
pacity. 1,300 cubic feet of water per second.
The statement was made earlier in this
article that the land to be irrigated by the
government would furnish homes for 10,000
families. The number might even be' in
creased without exaggeration. Delta county
ships more fruit' than any other county In
Colorado, although the fact Is not widely
(Continued on Page Three.)
dence section, a dozen or so of such buildings, with the scaffolding
about them, are still to be seen. Some are finished to the roofs and
others to the first floors only. They have not been touched since
the war and are going to ruin.
Such residences as were completed can now be rented for a few
dollars a month. Just opposite my hotel stands a brick house of
three stories which contains fifty rooms. It probably cost $75,000
to build, and It could be rented today for $60 a month. Adjoining
it Is another residence which Is still larger. It is occupied at a ren
tal of $35. On the hill behind me are the foundations of a Russian
cathedral which, if completed, would be as large as any church
building in the United States. It was about ready for the walls
when the war occurred and it was stopped forever. A new hotel
which had been erected In the old city was turned into a hospital
during the siege. It is now the property of the Japanese Red Cross
society and is used as a hospital for the Japanese.
The Japanese officials occupy many of the Russian public build
ings. The civil offices of the Manehurlan government are in a gray
structure in the new town; the military department is in a white
building farther back and the Russian naval offices, which covered
an acre or so, are to be turned into a Japanese military academy.
The hotel in which I write this letter is the once famous restaurant
known as Saratofts, where the Russian officers gambled away thou
sands of rubles and drank their vodka. It has the same bar room
and the same Odessa billiard table, but the vodka has disappeared
and a Japanese bartender dispenses .saki instead. Japanese girls
wait upon you in the dining room and Japanese boys act as your
chambermaids. The hotel belongs to the South Manehurlan railway,
which is now a Japanese corporation, and It has become a most or
Russians in a Panic
I had a talk this evening with an official who was here when
Port Arthur fell. He tells me that the Russians were crazy to get
away and that furniture of every kind went for a song. Said he:
"Sofas, tables and chairs could be had for the asking and grand
pianos brought $25 apiece. Costly hangings were thrown out into
the streets, and some of the houses were set fire to by their owners.
After we took possession I found our soldiers tearing up valuable
books and using them for fuel or throwing them out into the snow,
and I besought the general in charge to allow me to go through the
town and save the libraries. He did so, and as he saw how many
books there were gave me a detail of soldiers to bring them in. We
collected altogether about 20,000 volumes. The most of them wero
in Russian, but there were a thousand or so In French and English.
Several hundred were in Italian and some Chinese and Japanese.
There were nine sets of encyclopedias, all Russian or German, and
a great many musical books.
I tried to catalogue them, classifying them first by languages and
later by subjects. The most of the volumes were fiction, but there
were many scientific works. There were Russian translations of
Shakespeare and Dickens, and also of Mark Twain's "Innocents
Abroad." The Russians had every luxury here. They lived well
and at the close even better than we Japanese; for by the terms of
our capitulation we gave them fresh meat, although we were living
on canned stuffs ourselves. Nevertheless we could not satisfy
The Port Arthur of Russia was far different from that of Japan.
In the old days there were soldiers everywhere. Military officers,
dressed in big caps and long coats, swaggered through the streets.
There was a large garrison, everything was booming and money and
drink flowed like water. A circus building was erected In which all
sorts of shows were held, and there were famous cafes and restau
rants. Today the circus has been turned Into a bazaar and about
two score Japanese women sell all sorts of goods at the booths
within it. The soldiers have disappeared. The Japanese have only
one regiment here, and nothing like as many troops are to be seen
as In the towns of Korea or even Japan.
City Is Dead
As far as business is concerned the city is dead. It consists of
about 6,000 Manehurlan Chinese, and the military and civil officials
of the Japanese government. The Chinese are poor. I see full
grown men going around with baskets on their shoulders picking up
the droppings of manure from the streets. When a man's wages
for a whole day are equal to a half bushel of such stuff he must be
The Chinese do the rough work of Port Arthur. Many of them
are now engaged in getting out the blocks of stone with which the
Kusslans sank their merchant vessels when they knew that Port
Arthur must fall. More than thirty ships were destroyed In that
way, some thousand stone blocks being used for the purpose. One
will be erected as a monument in each playground to keep alive the
memory of the heroes of Port Arthur.
"Will your people continue to hold Manchuria and Korea!"' I
asked this question of a high Japanese officer.
"Yes," was the emphatic reply. "We shall hold on to Korea as
long as there Is a bone left In a soldier's leg to stand upon the soli.
We are in Manchuria to stay, and we will die before we will allow
either the Chinese or RuHsIans to drive us away."
At the same time I find a kindly feeling for the Russians among
the Japanese. They have erected a little granite temple with a
Greek cross upon Its top as a monument to their dead among, their
enemies who fell at Port Arthur. This Is situated on a low hill
about two miles from the city, and surrounding It are the graves of
thousands of Russian soldiers. There Is a brick wall Inclosing sev
eral acres about the monument. In this space the officers are burled,
tne grave of each being marked with a stone or Iron cross. Outride
on the slopes of the hill stands a thicket of white wooden crosses
rising to the height of a man's shoulder, and marking the graves of
the privates. The Inscriptions on the monument are in Japanese
and Russian, and they state that the memorial was erected by the
emperor of Japan in honor of the bravery of his great enemy, the
Russians. , FRANK O. CARPENTER.
Powered by Open ONI