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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 6, 1908)
THE OMAHA SUNDAY BEE: DECEMBER 6, 1908.
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CORN NATIVE OF OLD MEXICO
1 1 V)riein and Culture Explained ty
Prof. A. 3). Shamel.
REPRESENTS SECRETARY WIISOU
tU-ientlat from Washington Is Sent
tut hr the Department of Ajtrl
rnltare to Aid In the
Indiana Corn Trophy
ii ii ik MMMuaii"W;mft111'"1
Prcretnry of Agriculture Wilson has sent
d p"-onl representalve to the National
C-Til expos:t!an In Prof. A. D. Shamel, ex-rioi-t
n the Bureau of Plant Industy at
V.'pshlnston. Prof. Shamel la the author of
seven 1 hooka on corn and a specialist of
International renown. His advice and
crurrrl have been at tho disposal of the
corn rxpnrltlcn management from the first
e"d litvo been nBneies of much assist
The smiling of Prof. Shamel to Omaha
Is t.'ifccn f clearly denote the lively Interest
Secretary Wilson feels In the exposition
an.l tho deep desire to promote Its welfare.
Prof. Shiimel lias some most Interesting
tht'iK to fay upon corn, Its origin and cul
"Tho 6'lffei'cnen In tho qualities of sam
ples to b' shuvn at tho exposition over
those of list yeiir aod ten years ago, Is the
difference thru exists between the razor
hick hog of the old days and the Poland
China h.03 of i.nlay," said Prof. Shamel.
"There litis been a persistent and unvary
ing Improvement In the selection of Im
proved seed t!v..o. t!9S. when the corn crop
how became, u ;iructtcal fact.
Typical torn of Today.
"The Omaha exposition will show the
typical com of this modern day, and the
result of ten years of experiment, Intelligent
selection and cultivation. The material
result of the corn exposition In that period
has been to increase the yield as well as
the quality. An Increased yield means an
Increased quality. It does not cost any
mure to raise good corn and Increase the
yield than to rals.o bad corn and decrease
the yield. This fict lias been abundantly
demonstrated In Iowa, Indiana and Illi
nois, and 1s being demonstrated In Ne
braska each year.
"Nor has the Increase In yield or Im
provement In quality been the only accru
ing benefit. An equally Important result
has been to Improve tho type of corn and
aa In the case of eortaln Iowa growers,
of securing an early growth type that ma
tures In that latitude before It can be pos
sibly damaged by frost. Another beneficent
feature la in the selection of corn suitable
to different localities, such aa require long
and short periods of maturity. Corn, while
one of nature's most bountiful" products,
la at the came time a most capricious one.
It Is easily susceptible to drouth and frost,
but by a system of Intelligent selection and
breeding, types can be produced that will
meet every condition of climate In the corn
lalscao of Climate.
"In the Omaha exposition these climato
loglcal types will be shown in their per
fected development. The day haa passed
when the corn growers will buy seed ma
tured In the south for planting In northern
field or corn matured In northern f lei Is
to be planted In the south. The result of
such miscalculation haa had more to do
with corn failure than any other cause,
with Ita consequent discouragement and
disaster to the grower. That day haa
passed or la passing. The corn breeders
t Of the different localities are getting to
(ether and by constant Interchange of
( ff 'iff. J- -.-7-.t-
- - mr -
l i. j ... - .
types In the fllfferent localities.
"The leading corn growing stages In pro
portion to their . Importance are Illinois,
Iowa, KanBns, Missouri, Nebraska and
Ohio. The eastern edge of the corn belt
is the Ohio river, and the western edgs
to the center of Kansas and Nebraska,
north to the middle of Iowa and south to
Arkansas, or along the fortieth parallel.
Of course much excellent corn Is grown In
otirfer states outside these stated districts.
Good corn Is grown In Georgia, Kentucky,
Tennessee and some other southern states,
as well as In oractlcally all of the north
ern states. By the process of selection the
cultivation of corn in Texas and other
far-southern states Is gradually Improving
and will continue to Improve. The same
observation will apply to the northern
states not Included In the corn belt.
Corn .Native of Mexico.
"Corn originated In Mexico. From there
It gradually progressed northward until It
found Its natural habitation In the corn
belt. For centuries
but little effort
was made to culti
vate corn In the
It was of the flint
varieties and what
we now know aa
the 'squaw' type of
corn. It was an
early maturing va
riety, the grains
being of a slaty
color or mottled,
ears long, cobs
' small and of the
ariety. The grains
were large and ex
which gave It the
name of flint. The
Mexicans of the
early day know nothing
varieties of corn, which Is
product of the corn belt.
are softer and more
same observation will apply to oats and the
other small grains. Experiments are being
made in wheat culture that are bound tj
result In an Improved product and an In
creased yield. Inasmuch aa corn haa shown
that it will respond to Intelligent care there
Is every reason to believe that wheat, oats,
barley and rye will do the same."
(Continued from. Page One.)
be held In Omaha, we believe we have dona
the best thing for the University of Ne
braska," said George Coupland, a member
of the Board of Regents, at this meeting.
"In no way could the people of the state
be better shown what Is being done at the
university farm than by having an exhibit
and a demonstrator at the National Corn
exposition. If we had more money we cer
tainly would have doubled the amount ap-
GRAND SWEEP 6TAKE3 PRIZES.
intelligent ideas based upon careful ob
servation are producing that type of coin
best adapted to their respective localities.
"The process ,of selctlon of the fittest
corn for a given locality haa revolutionised
the corn growing industry.
"The first meeting of the Illinois Corn
Breeders' association was held In lt)9, with
but five members present. Now It has a
membership of seventy-five broad, brainy
men who are making the study of seed
and breeding their life work. Similar as
sociations or groups of associations have
been formed In all the corn growing states.
They are all active, wide-awake men. There
is a constant lntsrcaange of corn among
them. They sell the seed corn on the ear
only. In order to guard against posttMe
or Inadvertant substitution. They have
learned that It take just aa much good
soil and as much soil nutrltlou to produce
a worthless nubbtn as It aces a prise ear
of corn and just as much work. The ear
Idea of selling seed corn is that the per
fected com may be seen In all its beauty
and strength aa well as in Its maturity.
H.uon for the Zones.
"The prises in corn shows are decided
according to sones. These cones are dV
vlded into twenty-five or thirty subdivl
slona and the awards are made In accord
with the local conditions. Then from these
a committee selects the bst sample to
u.eet the general condition, including early
maturity and productiveness. This Is dona
In order to meet the demand for an uil
. "During the exposition lectures will be
given covering every phase of corn culture,
seed selection, seed preservation, breeding
and cultivation by practical corn growers
from all parts of the country. These lec
tures will be Illustrated by types of corn
and the effects of cultivation upon theae
"A 24-bushel crop of wheat per
acre is worth for each acre as
much as ten acres of a 12-bushel
crop. An 80 acre farm well tilled
is better than 320 acres half tilled."
James J. Hill.
of the 'dent'
Tho dent corns
nutritious and the
grains smaller. However, the dent corns
are being gradually intioduced Into Mexico
by the gradual process of selection and
The corn production of the year 1WS
will closely approximate 2.;O.0iO.00o bualieta.
On the whole It Is ot u better trade than
that produced last year and will grado
ucut-r in me niuraeiu man any ttier cron
or corn ever harvested, and this result I
wnony allrtbutablu to the lessons taught
by the corn shows and exposition which
have steadily Improved the grades of corn
iino muir inception len or a dozen years
Uronn In Other Countries.
'Much corn Is grown in Kuiopean coun
tries, nut It originated In America. Russia
uermuny, France, Austria and Hungary
raise considerable corn, but Its Quality ts
greatly Inferior to the American product,
being an exotic, its use aa a human food
is progressing with rapid strides in the
Europeun countries. There Is but little
question that with the stimulus given to
corn growing through the Omaha exposition
that there will be a tremendously Increased
demand for American corn for lmpoit.
"While this exposition In Omaha Is pri
marily for corn, other grain and grass will
not be overlooked. The wide diversity or
area In which wheat Is grown throughout
the world and its universal use as human
food makes It the oldest of our food grain
In cultivation. The time Is not far distant
when we will have wheat and oats exposl
"Whether the growth and cultivation of
wheat has reached the senlth of Its perfec
tion la yet a mooted question. Thus far
It haa not been given that attention In cul.
Uvatlon from the manner of Us growth
that can and baa been given to corn. The
propriated, and still believed the money
'Tho experiments In horticulture and
plant breding being made at the farm are
little short of mervelous. These experi
ments will be shown at Omaha and experts
will be on hand to explain everything. It
Is our opinion farmers from every county
In the state will be In attendance at the
corn show, and every one of them will be
benefited by tho state farm exhibit."
the big show, for Council Bluffs and
South Omaha entered Into the game with
as much interest and vigor as did, the city
which Is host to the exhibit. The members
of the executive committee from these two
cities served faithfully and worked as hard
as any Omahan, and business men in the
Bluffs and the Magic City to the south, did
their full share, furnishing as much money
to finance the exposition as any and giv
ing liberally of their wares for premiums.
Through the co-operation of the three
cities Omaha, South Omaha and Council
Bluffs the exposition was secured for the
west, it being doubtful In the minds of the
directors if Omaha could have swung it
The Influence of the railroads, from
the presidents down, has been behind the
exposition from the start and the publicity
departments of these trunk lines flooded
the country with literature setting forth
the advantages of the show as no other
organisation could or would do. Cheap
rates by these com
panies will also re
sult in a much
to say nothing of a
much larger show.
One man who has
worked in season
and out for the
success of the ex
position is Everett
eral manager of
the ' South Omaha
Stock yards and
another is F. 1.
Haller. Both joined
C. C. Rosewatar
and Mr. Sturgess
In going to other
cities In the Interest
factor In landing
the railroads. Being
Nebraska for first Prise.
"Nbraska must cany off the first prizes
at the corn show," suld Mr. Coupland, "for
1 1 will not do for this state to take a back
seat for any other In the union. The Na
tional Corn exposition will be the greatest
advertisement Nebraska has ever had and
It will do more for the great state than
anyone can know."
Nebraska, as a state, was naturally one
of the first commonwealths to organise for
the show and early 1 In the year the gov
ernor appointed a stato commission to look
after the state's exhibit. This commission
Is composed of William Ernst of Tecumseh,
E. A. Burnett of Montgomery and W. R.
Mellor and R. Hogue of Crete.
Hard and painstaking work was being
done all the lime by the committee mem
burs and others and they secured the co
operation of the governors of other states,
the aid of the railway companies, and sub
scriptions from public enterprises of every
character. Corporations, bankers, whole
salers, retailers, the packing house in
dustrles, all came forward with their sub
scriptions and in a short time the stock
subscription amounted to $50,000, on of the
most substantial that haa been made to
any public enterprise.
Sister Cltlea Help.
Omaha was not alone in securing the
exposition and In the making of preliiai
hary arrangement and perfecting plan tot
proved a gi
a railroad official himself for many
year prior to his present engagement, he
knew the modus operandi. So when he
and Mr. Rosewater went to Chicago to
secure the co-operation of the railroads they
went, not to the subordinate officials, heads
of varlou departments, but directly to the
presidents of the roads. They got the high
est official of each line Interested and
their work was done. They began at the
top and worked down, not at the bottom
to work up.
Buckingham knew the ropes and crawled
"Hello, Buck, sit down; well, where in
the world did you come fromT Olad to
see you. What can I do for youT"
That was the greeting he got at the hands
of President Wtrtchell of the Rock Island.
That tells the whole story.
Orlctn of the Institution..
The first National Corn exposition given
in the I'nited States, was that at Chicago,
beginning October 9, 1M. Chicago Is not
in the heart of the corn belt, as Is Omaha,
and the Chicago exposition was purely a
corn show, no other cereals being placed
on exhibit. Omaha is the very "buckle"
of the "corn belt" and the Omaha expo
sition, now almost ready for the public,
will be four times larger than that held
in Chicago, one year ago. Corn will natur
ally bo king of the show, but other oereals
will be shown as well.
Arid the central location of Omaha cen
tral us regards the corn belt, central as
regard the geographical location, cen
tral aa regards the agricultural popula
tlon was a big factor in getting the expo
sltlon of this city.
The Nation Corn exposition I the result
of evolution from the corn club, township.
district, county and state corn shows, and
in this evolutionary prooea ha reached
, th attUNuidou limit that wUl be Illus
trated in the exposition now about to opea
In Omaha. The first big attempt at a corn
exposition was in Peoria, Illinois, in 1900 or
1901 and Us sucoess Insured their annual
recurrence, being given under the auspices
of the Illinois Corn Growers' association.
From these state associations sprang tho
National Corn association and the National
Corn exposition. This corn association
works in connection with the National
Corn exposition association, which 'ore
creations of the cities in which the expo
si tlons are held. These exposition associa
tions are not a part of the National Corn
association, but simply work In conjunction
with the latter. Exhibitors at the National
Corn exposition must be members of the
National Corn association. The exposition
associations are compased of commercial
and their bodies In the communities in
which the expositions are held.
Relation to Institute.
The local corn show of Illinois, Iowa and
Indiana and other states, where they are
held, occupy an Important and extremelyv'
valuable relation to the farmers' institutes,
corn clubs, county and state fairs. '
The corn exhibit at the national exposi
tions Is practically the survival of. the fit
test, or prize exhibit shown at the corn1
clubs, institutes, county and state fairs,
and state corn shows. Only , the best of
these exhibits are shown at the exposition
next above In Importance. This was the'
rulo applied at the National Corn exposi
tion at Chicago and will be applied here
The Judges of the National Corn expo
sition are selected from the members of th
National Corn association and comprise the
best corn breeders and corn experts of tho
All of the corn exhibited at the National
expositions become the property of tha
exposition association. Tho prize corn 1
auctioned off on the last days of the expo-'
sltlon and fancy prices are often
bid for the most valued specimens. At
Chicago last year tZSO was bid for the first
prize ear of corn. Tho corn breeder are
lpvarlably the bidders for these prlaes
exhibit. The corn not securing prizes I
returned to the breder making the exhibit.
DIAZ BUST ON A SILVER MEDAL
President of Mexico Will lie Honored
at the National Corn Kx-
The photographjc likeness of President
Diaz of Mexico will be mounted on a silver
medal and presented as a prize-mark by
the delegates from that enterprising lillle
republic, three of whom have been com
missioned by the government to attend the
exposition. Besides these, others, Includ
ing Hon. Zeferlno iKimlnguei. the distin
guished philanthropist and student of agri
culture, will be here and take an active
part. Indeed the latter has ofered a
trophy valued at $1,600, himself. The Dla
bust will be the official medal of Mexico.
Mexico Is the place of nativity of King
Corn and it Is highly gratifying to tho
management of the exposition that the
government there should exercise so great
an Interest In the show. The distinguished
Mexicans will be accorded every courtesy
and honor while in Omaha and they bid
fair to attract an unusual amount of Interest.
Only Tuld One story.
"I hope you were a good little boy while
at your aunt's and didn't tell any stories,
said his mother.
"Only the one you put me up to, ma,'
replied her young hopeful.
"Why, what do you mean, child?"
"When she asked me It I'd like to have
a second piece of cak X Bid ifQ- thuUT
Lyou fr bad anourn.'
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