Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, October 11, 1908, HALF-TONE SECTION, Page 2, Image 18

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    United States Purchases Great Portion
. V-'-; : A-
(Copyright, 190S, br Frank O. Carrcnter.)
IMBERLET. tSi.tclal Curre-
rjr 1 tpondpnc of i"i .) The
UL I managur of nil tho Kieat UU-
I . .... .1 I ... t . f trnVlur.
IIIUI1U 'Jiiia nwmii i . i m u--.
ley la an American. Ilia name
Is Alpheua Wllllarna, and he Is
tae non of Mr. Gardner V. WUllaina, who
took charge of the mlnea at the time tha
e Doers company wan organized, and who
managed thnm until three yaars ago. Dur
ing Gardner Williams' control the mines
became the chief source of the diamond
supply of the world. He had charge of
them for about twenty years, and In that
time they produced almost IIWUOOO, QUO worth
of diamonds and paid out 118,UuO.(X In divi
dends. Since his son has been handling
them they have been yielding In the neigh
borhood of $25,MO,CUO a year, and the pros
pect Is that they will produce millions an
nually for many years to come.
Nauftr ( Do Been UsMur I
It Is a big thing to be tha manager of a
company like this. It means the control
of an army of wage-workers greater than
that which Xenophon led on his march to
the sea, and equal to tha standing army
of the L'nlted States before our war with
Spain. During tha laat two years Mr. Wil
liams has had on his payroll In tha neigh
borhood of 28.0UO men. This number baa
been reduced slue1 tha American panic,
but still It runs up close to 16,009 and It will
be increased as the times Improve, All of
these men have to be fed and the aupptiea
which they consume cost millions. Tha
five great diamond pipes which are now
being mined hare are operated with the
most axpenalva machinery. They have vast
works connected with them, and tha weath.
ring fields, with their miles of cable cars,
cover 11.000 aores, or over seventeen square
miles. Most of you can realise the sise
of a 160-acre farm. Tha diamond floor
and washing works of tha De Beers com
pany here would cover Just about seventy
two such farms, and every square yard
of that area Is humming with Industry.
Ncaily every square of it yields mora or
less value; It has to have guards to
watch It, and the greatest economy Is re
lulred to keep tho millions from leaking
away. In the year iJ the wages paid
amounted to over f 10,000,000 and the food
iKcs.iiuies of the native laborer almost
and wer. supplied with M.00O new shirt
and 53.000 pair of trousers. Th. Item, for
mining supplies are even larger. It took
"Ofl.oi o pounds of candles to light the men
at work In th tunnels and more than 1,000
miles of Bt'.-I wire rope to haul the cars.
The new tlmbtj for the mines, which
came from San Francisco, amounted to
moi. than 18,000,000 feet board measure, and
th. Iron and .tee) bar., bras, castings and
bolt, and nuts ran high Into hundred, of
thousand, of pounds.
In addition to th. mine., th company
has a number of other Institution, in and
about Klmberley. It has $00,000 acre, of
land, a great farm for raising Its horsas
and mule, an lectrlc railroad, a hotel
and hospital, and club.. It practically
controls the town of Klmberley, which ha.
a population of SO.000, so ihat altogether
th mine manager ha little time to .pare.
, '
Talk Akxiat Diamond.
It was in th .ffic of tli D Beer
cunipii ihat 1 bad a Uik with th man
who contiuU all the Institution. Mr.
Alpheua V llliaina Is not yet over ia year.
of age H. wa. born in th United stats.,
and educat.d at and th. Univsr-
alty of California bfor he cam. out
bar aora. ya.r ago to be hi. fath.r'
assistant. When the latter retired In
101 h wa loid in his place, and .inc.
then he ha been in charge of all the U
Bear, company' properties h.r. During
my talk with him th subject of ti
diamond demand came up, and he replied
that It had been excellent until our great
panic ooourred. Up to that time hi
world wa taking the whole of th Klm
berley output, and the company bad but
comparatively few diamond, on hand. TU
people were everywhere prosperous, and
th.y were buying diamond a. n.ver be
fore. Thl. waa specially o in th
United State, which wa taking almost
three-fourth of all th diamond, pro
duced her. Then th panlo cam, and our
demand dropped. Fortunately th De
Wr company had an normou amount
oi otu ground on iia noor., and it ha
been abl. to reduce it expense without
any dang.r of being unable to .upply th
demand of th. near future. Today th
force, and they will b operated on a
very con.rvaUv basis until th. tlm.a
American Market.
In talking with Mr. William about th
American market, I ask.d hlra what kind
of tone wer. purchased Dy W He re
plied: "Tti. very peat. Tne ana purest
of our diamond go to th United Slate
and within pest years that country ha.
been by far our best customer. For some
tim it took two-third of all th diamond,
.0d during the past year or so
It has bought even more. We send also
many ordinary .tone There Is a
great demand la our country for diamond
ngainat ring. In fact, w are about
the only peopl. among whom every young
maa think, h must give a diamond ring
.M0.fc0 more. Supplies for th men who the dLappolnUnent, of the town folks. In "n'n repumicans wno ,aa oeen carr.ea
have to be fed In w.lled compound, would 0M wnere u M been f,KUred the Zy- .I Xo" came TcW
tax the capacity of our largest department T.ft ,Dec,al would run M does the usual ,ndu,,trr ana nome PrlJe came bacK
stores. They used last almost 6.000,000 l.ThVton band had to race a block 10 C,Unp nd 8hUt the door frm the ln'
loaves of bread and Ilk. 1.000,000 1. to b on time wTth a we- Me' Rnd thPy WlU ",ray " m0re- For
pound, of freah meat Th.y drank 1.000,000 ! m u t 5." 11. and the the Ptlo words of Will Hay ward, then
bottle, of milk, .moked 2.0UJ.0U0 cigarette. JS! chairman of the republican, state commit-
'.'if - " '
t - A - A.A - .. k:AHL..iy.A'f ' '
to his sweetheart to seal the promise of
marriage. This Is so much the custom
that many prospective grooms are now
buying such rings on the Installment plan,
and there Is a regular business of selling
them on long time, at so much down and
at so much per month, until paid. Dia
monds are also uned largely as wedding
presents and as birthday glftn."
Americas Dlaaaoad Cntters.
"In what shape do the diamonds go to
the United States, Mr. Williams?" I
"The most of them are first cut In Eu
rope," was the reply. "We have a duty of
M per cent on cut diamonds, which Is
levied to protect the American diamond
cutting Industry, but the fact that more
than two-thirds of the importations are In
the shape of cut stones shows that tho
tariff is not high enough lor that pur
pose. In 1908 the United States Imported
about 34,000,CO0 worth of diamonds, and of
these only $10,000,000 worth were in the
rough, while $2,000,000 worth were cut
atones. Rough diamonds are free of duty."
"But, Mr. William, are the American
diamond cutters equal to those of Europe?
Can the atone be as beautifully shaped
and polished at horn a abroad?"
"Tea, Our diamond cutter are mainly
from Holland and Belgium, and the moat
of them learned their trade before they
emigrated. Aa It 1 now, we have over 400
uch workmen In and about New York,
which I the center of the Industry. This
1 a small number compared with the thou
sand employed In Antwerp and Amster
dam."' .
Sawing; aad Poliahla; Diamonds.
"Tha business of diamond cutting has
materially changed of lata years," con
tinued Mr. William. "We have now dia
Judge Taft's Tour of Nebrask
(Continued from Pag One.)
to speak as Mr. Taft reached the platform.
The crowd here numbered many thousands.
The Taft apeolal ran on schedule time.
much to the surprise, and frequently to
train was ushered in to the music of the
band. The train was in charge of Colonel
Ramsdoll, sergeant-at-arm of the United
States senate. He stood by the side of
Judge Taft during .very speech. He held
his watch in his hand. When the time was
up he waved to the conductor and the
train pulled out, frequently without a
warning whistle, and often when the
speaker was In the middle of a sentence,
which he never completed, o far a. the
crowd know.
Thl pulling out of the train right on
th dot causd a barrel of fun for th.
people of Wahoo and on tha train and a
hogshead of humiliation to Warden A D.
Jm,r- Tb warden, who weigh. In the
neighborhood of 260 pounds, haa lumbered
ott tn trln 111 who n1 walked to the
rear nd to hear tne candidate. By th
Um nad squared around and become
settled down In a good place to stand the
train started without so much a. sounding
th whistle. The warden made a grab for
the car, but a half dosen were ahead of
him and he missed. Then cam. a grand
rush down the track after the fast dlsap-
Pwltif Taft. Someone saw the warden
and the train waa atopped several blocks
away. Th warden kept a-comlng, while
a dosen small boy. on foot and a boy on a
pony paced him. Th warden was hauled
aboard, puffing and blowing, but Judge
Taft enjoyed hi run o much the warden
kept hi tempr, even If he wa "Jo.hed"
by th. bunch.
Durlng the trip through Nebra.ka, no-
cording to those on board the train, Mr.
Taft developed a considerable amount of
humor which lie used In some of hi
speeches. For Instance, at one stop Mr.
Taft waa speaking of the Biyan remedies
and ha quoted thla, which waa an inscrip
tion on an ancient tombstone:
I wa. well,
I wanted to be better;
I took medicine
And her. I am.
But Mr. Taft 1. by no mean, a humorous
speaker. He doe not pose vsn as an en-
tertalner. He U a tudent and hi udden
humorou remark wer so unexpected by
tho on m, ,raln that they bc.m, .
fop lern corr,.ponUnt..
While tn every town where th train
t0PPM there were large and enthusiastic
crowd, th night m.ettng in Lincoln
topped them ell. Omaha greeted the can
didate with an Auditorium completely
filled, but at Lincoln r.d fir wa burned
and a parade, th Ilk of which wa never
before seen her, wa given ha hi honor.
It wa. In hi horn, town that Mr. Bryan
attempted to take th edge off the dera
ontrtlon by telegraphing hi. brother to
"Y ' ryn piciura ucn uuwn.
The telegram, instead of being taken a a
compliment to Judg. Taft by th. repub-
llcaaa, waa tak.n. Just the other way. Most
of the Bryan picture, had com. down long
ago. Thoe that were up when the t.U-
gram came evidently remained up. for
while the city wa. profuMly dacoratcd
with Taft pictures, ther. still remained
in plain sight uum.rou. Bryan banner at-
mond saws by which we can cut pieces
from a diamond and make two or more
diamonds out of one. Here, for Instance,
Is the kind of saw which is most commonly
At this point Mr. Williams handed me a
copper disk about aa thick as my thumb
nail and as big around as the bottom of a
tea cup. The metal was comparatively soft
and I could not see how It could cut a
diamond, which Is harder than the finest
of steel, until S!r. Williams said that the
wheel was dipped in diamond dust and the
dust did the cutting.
"It la on this same principle that all
diamonds are ground and polished," said
Mr. Williams. "The only thing that will
cut a diamond Is a diamond Itself, and
all polishing must be done with diamond
dust. In the cutting establishments this
Is, done on flat wheels of soft iron as big
aa a dinner plate, which are so moved by
machinery that they go around at the rate
of 2,000 revolutions a minute. Theso
wheels are covered with a mixture of dia
mond dust and water, and the precious
stones fastened Into cement are pressed
upon tho wheel and ground off Into the
facets, which so Increase their brilliancy.
Tthe splitting of diamonds Is done by
other diamonds, which might be called
diamond knives. The latter are fixed In
cement and are used to split tho dia
monds at the flaws which tho stones fre
quently have. There are something like
10,000 men and women employed in tho
diamond cutting and polishing Industry
of Amsterdam, and they handle gems
worth many millions of dollars every year.
The greater part of the De Beers output
Is cut In Europe, and the center of the
Industry Is Amsterdam. It Is said that
more than $8,000,000 Is paid out In wages
to the diamond workers of that city
tached to the front of buildings In which
there were Bryan sympathizers.
The magnificent welcome given Mr. Taft
in Bryan' home almost overwhelmed him.
Following the meeting he expressed his
deep gratitude for the interest shown.
tee and now secretary of the national com
"Where Bryan brings his pennies to Lin
coln, we will bring dollars; where Bryan
brings his dozens, the
republicans will
bring their hundreds."
A nice feature of the parade in Lincoln
was the fact that Mr. Taft rode behind a
team of beautiful grays in whose veins
runs the best blood In the horse world.
The grand sire of the two horses was Lin
den Tree, a horse presented to General
Three Short
One on Debn,
UGKNE V. DEBS, the socialist
leader, tells tho following story
on himself:
"I was to address a publla
meeting and there was Intense
prejudice aga'lnst me, so the
young man who had to Introduce mo
thought he would try to disarm It.
" 'Deb Is hated by soma people,' he said,
'because he has been In strikes. This Is not
right. It Is the law of nature to defend
yourself. Why, even a dog will growl
if you try to deprive him of the bone he is
gnawing, a goat will butt if you get in
his way, and you know what a Jackass
will do If you monkey with him. Ladle,
and gentlemen, this Is Deb, who will ad-
ores you.' "
On Rranlt of Prohibition.
Oovernor Burke, iu the smoking compart
ment of a sleeper, was telling how ha
used to water the cows on his father's
farm In Iowa.
Those cow. wer. fearfully thirsty at
times," .aid the governor. "At times I
have carried ten pall, apiece for every on
of the twenty cow w. had."
On. of the party remarked that he had
watered cow. tlm. and again, but never
saw on. drink more than four pall, at a
"Perhaps you're right," admitted the gov
ernor, "but you must remember that those
were dry time. In Iowa, when we had
prohibition law.." Minneapolis Journal.
Pat' Convincing; Henson.
It wa. a sorrowful looking group of news
paper men. They had gathered at tha
asaauging station becau. th. politician
were there instead of at the official head
quarters, relates th New York Time.
And the gloom settled deeper when, In-
.te.d of talking of affair, of state and
tn. essential things or tne campaign, the
men who operato th card Index, col-
ct money, aanign .peaker. and deny ru-
mors, began to retail a lot of stories, th
m.Jority of which had done service slnoe
th. tlm. of Jackson.
Just why one story remind, on. of an
other of an entirely different sort is a prob
lem which the psychologists have not as yet
solved. But Just permit one fellow tn a
( : ' , ' '' ' ' - . .- "-i,
1 ht "' ' l , 1 1 ' '
every year and that there are something
like sixty factories In which the cutting
and polishing Is done."
Diamond Output Not Falling;.
I asked Mr. Williams whether we would
ever have a diamond famine, aaylng that
I had heard that the mine were playing
out. He replied:
"Any statement of that kind is not true.
We have enough diamonds In sight to keep
us busy for many years, and we shall
probably be supplying most of the dia
monds of the world for several genera
tions to come. As It Is now, jve havo
something like 10,000,000 loads of the blue,
containing the diamonds, weathering upon
our floors, and there are between 60.000,000
and 80,000,000 hiore loads In sight. In the
Do Beers mlno there are more than 5,000,
000 loads yet to be taken out above the
2,000-foot level, and In the Klmberley more
than l.Soo.OOO loads above the 2,600-foot
level, which we have now reached. In
the Weaselton there are 10,000,000 loads
above the 600-foot level, and In the Du
toltspan 31,000.000 loads above the 750-foot
level, while tho amount In the Bulfontcln
mine above the flno-foot level, to which
we have sunk the shaft. Is about 7.800,000
loads. All told, wo - have somewhere be
tween and 70,0no.noo loads of blue
ground on our floors and In sleht. Tho
total amount washed and crashed last
year was over 8.50O.O0O loads, and that
produced diamonds which realized about
$28,000,000. At the same rate of washing
the blue on the floors and In sight would
last for over eleven years and would pro
duce considerably over $300,000,000 worth of
"Have you yet reached a point In any
of the pipes where the diamonds have
played out?" I asked.
"No. The number and value of the
Grant by the khedlve of Egypt and later City, la., through his entire trip over the the office of president Is a very responsl- find no reason why anyone .hould In this
presented to General Colby of Beatrice by slato by Senutor Elmer J. Burkett, Sen- ble position to fill. He did not attempt to state vote for the democratlo nominee In
General Grant. The horses are now owned ator Norrls Brown, Governor George L. 'minimize the duties of the office, but, on stead of for the republican candidate,
by a Lincoln livery man and they are used Sheldon and National Committeeman Vlo- the other hand, he gave the people to un- Nebraska Is strictly an agricultural state,
only on state occasions. tor Rosewatur. From Sioux City to Lin- demand that he fully realised that the and If the farmers have any fault to find
And Mr. Taft pleased the Lincoln audi- coin he was accompanied by C. O. Whedon, man who Is president of the United States with present condltlons.I fall to know what
ence and the hundreds from out In the state committeeman; W. B. Rose, deputy holds the most responsible position In the it is. The farmers of Nebraska have been
slato who helped to swell It into the thou- attorney general, and C. B. Edgar, editor world. through a siege of hard times during tha
sands. He was so different from Mr. of the Lincoln Star. These formed the Governor Sheldon, who wa with Taft last democratic national administration
Bryan that the fact was remarked upon. Lincoln reception committee. In addition auring the trip through Nebraska, had and I believe they do not care to run tha
Ho had no funny stories to tell the audi- to these theie wire local newspaper men thla t0 Btty of tn9 republican candidate: risk of going back to those times. They
ence as does Mr. Rryan. He appealed not and at every station a local reception com- Judge Taft n eyery way emlnently r, prosperous, their products are selling
l" "" ol" "'
he made no attempt to array the masses
against the classes, as the democrul'ia can
didate has done for twelve years. He Just
talked good, hard, every-day common
sense In a business-like way, scholarly as
students can who thoroughly understand
their subjects. C. O. Whedon remaiked at
the close of the address:
"It was the best address I ever heard."
And there were many who endorsed the
Mr. Taft was accompanied from Sioux
Campaign Stories Told
crowd to start the story telling game and
every other fellow In the party seems to
think that he is duty b und to be reminded
' of another. "As a matter of fact," growled
one reporter who had been esilgned to
gather all tho yarn3 he could, there
la nutliing funny In politics. I've ben hang
Is nothing funny in politics, I'vo been hang
fur a week trying to get enough stuff to
gether to fill a column. The boss wants a
of World's Diamond Output
stone In the various pipes have not in
creased a we have gone down, but they
hold their own. At the Klmberley mine we
are now working a half mile below the
grass root and the blue ground there Is
about a rich In diamonds as it was all
the way down. In the De Beers we are
down 2,000 feet and In the Klmberley and
the De Beer they have oeen working al
most constantly for thirty-six years, and It
Is believed that the mines have still a long
life before them. The Wesselton, Bulfon
teln and Dutoltspan have altogether an
area about four and one-half times as large
aa the Klmberley and De Beer combined,
and, although an enormous amount of dia
monds have been taken from them, there
are still 60,000,000 loads of blue ound above
.the 500, 600 and 760-foot levels. There Is no
reason to think that the diamonds may not
go a far down In these pipes as In the De
Beer and the Klmberley, and the prospect
I that there will be no diamond famine
for many, many years to come."
Diamond Pipes.
"Tell ma something about these diamond
pipes. Do they occur anywhere else In the
world than here?"
"Yes. There are some other In South
Africa, a notable one being the Premier
diamond mine, near Pretoria. There are
similar pipes near Syracuse, N. Y., and
elsewhere, but, with the exception of South
Africa, the ground within the pipes does
not contain diamonds. I understand that
the Brasillan diamonds are found in a
sort of spring sandstone."
"Are the pipes regular in shape?"
"No; thoy vary aa they go downward.
The Klmberley mine at the top la shaped
like a pear. At a depth of a few hundred
feet It becomes somewhat like a gourd, and
it changes as It goes on. In some places
a Succession of
ties of their towns. Congressmen Boyd,
Pollard and Htnsiiaw were on the train,
each through his own district.
In appearance Judge Tuft was an agree- '
able surprise to many who saw him. He
had been pictured as an enormous fat
man, ponderous and unwieldy. Nebraskaus
saw him as an athlete; large, but not un
proportioned; big, but graceful. They en
joyed his quiet humor and were Impressed
with his dignity.
Mr. Taft made the Nebraskans feel that
few thousand word, of light and airy pre-
slflage. but I haven't been able to dig up
anything worth while but a few remarks
of 'L'ucle Joe,' and his contributions are
so picturesque that Dan Campbell wouldn't
let the sheet go through the mails if they
wero printed, even if Bill Murtln didn't,
knock them out as chestnut and howl
about uch drllvel taking the placo of real,
live news."
Industrial Move of Great
. i
1 i
1 1
.,.. -.4; - "J:".'
the rocky walls bulge out and In others
they contract, so that we cannot tell Just
how they will run, although their direction
Is comparatively straight,"
Ion Grade Proposition,
"There Is one thing that should be said In
respect to the diamonds of this part of the
world," continued Mr. Williams. "The
mining of them Is a low-grade proposition
and It pays well only because it Is scien
tifically and economically handled, and that
on a large scale, Indeen, it Is wonderful
how much work It takes to get out the
diamonds. In the Dutoltspan we have to
handle four tons of earth to every carat,
and It is about as bad in the Klmberley.
Now, when you remember that a diamond
weighing a carat is not as big as a .pea,
and that It has to be found and taken out
of this great mass of earth and rock, you
will see how difficult the problem Is. In
the first place, we have to blast down tli
blue ground. We then carry it to the sur
face and allow it to He out In the open for
one year to soften It. After that It must
be washed and crushed and handled again
and again to find the stones. All this
means an enormous amount of labor as
well as expensive machinery, which must
be carefully operated."
"Yes, but It pays," said I.
"It does pay. The value of the De Beers
mino per load Is about 24 shillings, or $6.
It costs us $2 to get out the diamonds, so
that we have a profit there of something
like $4 per load. In the other mines the
profit varies and all told about half or
more of tho values are eaten up by the
cost of operating the mines and getting
out the diamonds. A load weighs In the
neighborhood of three-quarters of a ton.
The values of the blue ground and the
..... . .... .-.....,. , fM .,....
try. He Is a real statesman; a broad-
mlnded man; a man all through. His ex-
perlence has been such that ho can as-
sume the duties of the presidency without
fear on the part of the people. The nation
will reap the benefits of his experience In
tho different departments of government
when he becomes president.
"Insofar aa Nebraska Is concerned. In
my opinion there is no doubt Its electoral
vote will be cast for Judge Taft. I can
About Political Candidates
"Kver hear the one about Bryan running
so often?" Interjected the new member. Of
courso all hands knew Just whut was com
ing there are but seven stories in th.
world but the new member had Just or
dered and was entitled to Sumo courtesy.
As the gloom deepened he told this one:
"Well Pat, I suppose you are going to
vote for Bryan?"
"No, Bir."
Importance to the
...... ... t vr.
oost of production vary 1n different mines,
but altogether they pay well."
Train Robbery TVhlrn Failed.
After the diamonds have been mlnml and
oleaned they are sold to the diamond syn
dicate. I visited the offices of this organ
isation In the De Beers company building
and took a look at the steel vaults In which
the brilliants are kept until shipped to Lon
don. They are sent there by mull and
isually In registered packages. They go on
mall cars to Cape Town and from there to
Southampton on the big steamships of the
Union Castle line. The trains which carry
them over the 800 or 700 miles of track
from here to the Cape of Oood Hope are
equipped with safes, which have been es
pecially built for tho purpose. The steel
floors of the safes are, as I understand It,
a part of the floor of the car.
Not long ago a would-be diamond thief
got the Idea that If he could cut out this
steel plate $1,000,000 worth or more of dia
monds would drop Into his hand. He pre
pared for his work by crawling under tho
car before It started. He had a board un
der him and lay there on his back during
the first part of the Journey, while he
drilled forty-nine different holes up through
the safe. He had the floor plate Just about
loose and was sawing with a steel saw
from one hole to another when something
made htm think he was discovered and he
dropped out and ran. The alarm was a
false one and he might easily have gotten
the diamond had not his nerve failed him.
That attempt was made many years ago,
and since then the safes have been so Im
proved and fortified that It would be Im
possible to cut through them. It would
seem, however, that they might easily be
held up by train robber and that a little
dynamite or nitroglycerin would suffice to
lay their contents bare to tha thieves.
for hlah Drlces and their lands are in-
creasing In value.. Judge Taft is so evl-
dently qualified to continue the work of
President Roosevelt I feel sure In my own
mind how the people of Nebmska will
Nebraska wns the first state In the union
to endorse Judge Taft for the republican
nomination. For that reason, and many
others, It Is Important to the republlcun
party, and to the state, that It make goKl
In November. II. H.' P.
"No. sir."
What? You a democrat and all your
family and friend, democrats, and you ro
not going to vote for Bryan?"
"And why not, Pat?"
"Because 1 can only vote for Taft this
once, while I can vote for Bryan any oi l
" Va,,
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