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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (June 28, 1908)
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Figures That Give an Idea of the Magnitude of a Modern Skyscraper
KW YORK. June 37. Did It evr
occur to you Hint If one of
New York's modern s!;vcrp
ers. say tno Metropolian I.tf
1 111 naikor luminal wi n :;s
ViiiJZjJ cloud p-lerring tower, cru!d r.o
picked up bodily iiTi.l dropped on some
prairie there w aid I j.i jc-la ally vvi ry
thlng need. (1 to stnrt a Utile cily, Jin-lading
the population? Iu f irt. when It came !o
bulldlnj rriRterlals there mlcnt, In s
Instances, be 8tu;f It it over fur us-v in
l.rlgh boring towns.
Take the SinKor building, fur Instance.
It contain' l:w miles of various kind of
metal piping. Tlio telephones, elevators,
electric lights, fan mid clo k re tub e 3.4.5
mile of wire, which, if atrciched nut,
would extend from the top of the Sinr
building to the top of Eiffel toner in
Paris, with 3n0 miles left over.
The steel used in the construction of tho
Finger building, If made Into thrce-quar-cr-Inch
wire cable, would reach from N-. w
York to Buenos Ayres, a distance of 7.1'M
mllea. The total length of the steel hair
ing rolumna In the building la about tun
The terra cotta floor blocks In the bui'd
Ing, if spread out on a plalr., would over
830 acrca. Placed end to end tiny would
extend ninety-seven miles, or further tiiun
from New York to Phllndi Iphin. The fire
proof blocka in the partitions placed end
to end would reach from Nuw Vulk to
The new skyscraper contains 6.0.'!i W
bricks, and tneso laid end to end would
reach K mllea, from New York to Detroit.
They would pave a foot path twelve Inchi-e
wide from New York to Host or
Thla modern skyscraper contiilns 101 tons
cf sheet copper, enough to cover 4.04 acres.
The copper combined with the statuary
bronze in the building ould yield a metal
similar to that used by the United States
government in making cents, und lh.it
prairie town would certainly have moo y
to lend to its neighbors If the combined
metals were put to that use. It Wuuld
be possible to turn out 4ii,A.b.uuo cents, or
If the concrete In the foundations of the
building were a. I loaded on two-horse,
trucks It would make a continuous line of
10,10 trucks, thirty-eight miles long, or
twice the distance from the Singer building
The steel In the building would make K6
large type mogul locomotives; that li. a
continuous line of engines for a ndie nnd
a half. It would make a seventy-four-ml.e
stretch of heavy modern truck, rails, tpUes
and tie pieces. Made Into elevator cables
It would extend 7,10c) miles, and If the to'.al
lengths of all tho strands of wire in the
cable were put together thoy would reach,
from the earth to tho moon threo and one
third times, or 809,400 miles.
If the ateel wore rolled out Into a plate
a quarter of an Inch thick It would cover
an area of fifty acres. In other words,
Broadway from Liberty street to Sevnty
econd street could be paved with a. eel
plate of that thickness
There Is 13.3 miles of picture moulding In
the bulldlrg. If all the mouldings for tho
Joors, pictures and windows were put In a
tralght line they would reach tlxty miles,
r from New York to Bridgeport, Conn.
More than C,M1 tons of mortar was usad
In the masonry. This would make a pith
fourteen Inches wide and one Inch thick
!rom New York to Washington, a distance
f 240 miles. About 197 tons of paint was
used on the various surfaces. That is
enough paint to cover ninety and a half
acres with one coat. It would cover a
board fence, six feet high from New York
to Springfield, 128 mllea, with one coat.
There are 25.4 acres of wall area In the
new skyscraper. This I plaster enough,
for about 200 good-stzed dwelling houses.
It would make a line of plaster twelve
Inches wide from New York to Boston.
The glass in the building, 5,203 square
feet, would make a continuous show win
dow six feet high on one side of Broadway
from Liberty street to Thirty-fourth street.
There are ZAOOO square feet of metal lath,
or t i acres. To support these laths 49.1
mllea of structural angle Irons were re
quired, together with 130 miles of tying
wire and 110,000 bolts.
There are 8.85 mllea of elevator cables
In the building and nine fans capable of
Concerning the Island of Cloves and Its Young Mohammedan Sultan
(Copyright, 1908, by Frank O. Carpenter.)
ANZIBAR. (Special Correspond-
f"W I ence of The Bee.) Have you
I ever heard of Judge Riley of
i iiiiiii no was uuc ui
noted figures In Washington
during the administrations of
Grant, Hayes, Arthur and Garfield. A carpet
bag official at the close of the war, he came
in for one of the foreign appointments
whloh were given by the northern presi
dents to the republicans of the south. He
was first sent as minister or consul gen
eral to one of the little South American re
publics and after that was given the con
sulship to Zanxlbar. Before leaving Wash
ington for the latter post he treated all his
friends, dilating the while on the splendors
ot the court of the sultan and his harem
and the black-eyed hourls whom he ex
pected to see. He then left; but nt the end
of six months came back weary and worn
and sad. When asked how be liked Zanzi
bar he replied:
"Zanxlbar! Zanzibar! Where In the blank
la Zanxlbar! I have been cruising over the
world for the past six months and, for
the life of me, I can't find Zanaibar!"
I have been more successful than Judge
Riley, for I have found Zanzibar, and have
even seen It young sultan, though not his
harem. For our oonauls of the future 1
would say that Zanzibar U a coral Island
. I ..i-v v
" - af 3 a.
TO UN O
' ". ' i X .
blowing (S.sL'O.oin cubic feet of air In an
hour, whldi woi.hl mak" It possible for
an ordinary-sized town almost to generate
its own tornado.
Almost any little rlty would be satl'fe.l
with the lighting plant In one of Nw
York'.' modern skyscrapers. In tl e Sns r
building there ai 14 ' incands-rnt a s.
while on the outslle of the f n ty-seven-st-.ry
tower are l.l'O more.
Tf en-, together With the search)!:'-'
which p'.'iy on the tevrr from the roe-' f
tr main building. n-a;e the sk-vscrniiT
IslMe In bold r. ill f at n Kht for n dlta- a
of twenty till!. . The r:iv of t li - p.ir "i : il
s. ireh! sht In the Innt. rn crowning the
tower are vlslhl" rr vent --f i o nibs e-
Tho lighting system of the Plngor '.m 'd
Ing iepro?onts a capacity of 27s. v-m oaio'.e
powcr. Tho boilers of the bull.h::-: to
generate tlnbt. h-nt. power etc it
yearly genrnti J5e.ui Li) pounds or Mt. -'n
This will inke lS.im.iri gallons of v. ter
und Sjo (..Hi of coal.
The tower ele it r curs travel al. eit
fret a mltltite. With tl.e liitiMili? f.r;v
well filled the earn will travd :iiu -i . s
dally ami raake a vsArlv totnl of '. . ',o
mlbn. or about four iinvvs the rnin,n
around the cartl'. Toe I 'li ith of t.ie V !i
et elevator shaft Is fill feet n ne Inc'v.q.
the tower from curb to roof b:ng 'ii ' f.
There have hi en expend' d la the i,t
rtructlon of the !ng'-r oiiMIn? ah'.rt
X0 days labr.r. One mnn would liuve n t 1
lasting years If he cared to tnckle It
The Metropolitan Life building, when It s
completed, will afford inu 'h larrer fiirv! -s
than lhoe. The tower will rot or.lv en
eighty-three feet higher ll.an the K. er
structure but la of larger propoi tlons all
the way through.
Its btoss weight will he R4.0nO.OoO pounds,
or 87.&13 tons, which Is ab ut twice as
mm h as the gross welcht ot the f'liv r
tower The Sin Tor tow er .a n'xtv-iivo l.-et
4uarv. whereat the nr Madaton square
structure Is 75 by SB feet. The Metropoll- above Broadway. The highest point for
tan tower walls will be of marble from top observation In the Metropolitan tower will
to bottom, while the Singer tower has be a window over the lookout 660 feet
corners of brick and terra cotta and central above the sidewalk.
panels of metal and glass. This will, of One of the chief features of this Metro
course, account In part for the large dlf- polltan tower will be a huge clock with
ference In gross weight. a face on each side of the tower 324 feet
The new Metropolitan tower will be 700 above the sidewalk. The face of the clock
feet high from curb to pinnacle. The steel will be two stories high, twenty-five feet
work In nearly all up now, as is shown In
the picture above. The highest lookout In
the Singer tower accessible to the public
Is the lantern balcony, which Is 6S9 feet
about one-sixth as large as Porto Rico, sit
uated in Indian ocean, 300 of 400 miles below
the equator and from fifteen to thirty
miles from the coast of German East Af
rica. It can now be reached by a half
doxen steamship lines, and the fare from
here to Washington Is something like 1300.
There are four lines which connect ' the
Island with Europe, and the German East
Africa ships go regularly from here to
Bombay, In India, and to Rangoon, In
Burma. There are also ships which have
regular sailings to the Persian gulf and
Madagascar, so that the Island can be
IiUsd ot Cloves.
In coming here from Tanga we steamed
along the Zansibar count for about forty
miles, and there are twenty or more miles
yet below us. Zanzibar Is about fifty
miles long and twenty mllea wide, and It
would irake altogether about 400 1,000-acre
farms. As you look at It from the sea the
land Is low and Its shores are fringed with
oocoanut trees loaded with nuts. The Island
has a dense vegetaticn. It Is ini the heart
of the tropics and Is noted for the fertility
of Its soil. It Is the ohlef clove Island of the
world, and the cakes and pickles of the
universe are flavored by It. Throughout
Europe United States the are mil
, l i n ,v
- ; v r
BULTA.W OF BANZIBAR AK BU KNGU3II
fv. a 4
r mr 111 i!
- i."ii'Nf.-.tJw.-if ,.-c mh ...
I llilM jf'" fit
six Inches In diameter on the dial. It will
have figures four feet in length and hands
twelve feet long.
Two stories above the clock will be a
lions of secret drinkers who hide their
whisky breath from the knowledge of their
deluded wives by the aroma of Zanzibar
cloves. The island produced last year over
26,0u0,000 pounds of these spices. This Is
enough to smother the scent of all the
liquors raised by mam and leave some to
L-urlng my stay I have ridden out to some
of the plantations. Cloves come from trees
which' are set out In orchards and culti
vated. At the age of 6 years the trees be
gin to bear blossoms, and It Is these blos
soms which form the cloves of commerce.
They are bright red In oolor and are full
of perfume. They are picked when they
are In full bloom and then smoked over
low wood fires. During the smoking they
turn from red to brown, and when cured
re almost black. After they are well drl- d
they are packed up lm bags, and in that
shape are sent to Europe and the United
States. The English have another clove
Island, known as Pemba, which lies a little
north of Zanzibar, and Is governed from
here. These tyo Islands produce more thuu
90 per cent of all the cloves raised in the
Tho captlal of Zanzibar is Zanxlbar City.
It U the chief port of East Attica, foreign
v:, ! T f
-t 'i- ff : !
'if, A I
&TTis or jrrAscxrt jszsj z,rf atg
line of projecting balconies and above this
a series of Ionic loggias showing five
arched openings on each face of the tower.
The height of these loggias will be fifty
The highest office floor In the tewer will
be 637 feet above the sidewalk. The observ
atory will be a room twenty feet In dia
meter. The structure will be capped with
a lantern fifty feet high, which will be of
steel and copper gilded.
This lantern will contain an arc light of
great power which will be used to deslg-
goods being sent from here to the main
land and carried across to Lake Tangan
yika and other parts of the continent.
At the same time Ivory, hides and the
various native products are brought here
to be shipped to Europe, so that the place
has a great trade.
As you approach the city from the sea
It makes you think of southern Europe.
The shore Is lined with three-story build
ings, built of stone and brick, covered with
stucco and painted In all colors of the
rainbow. There are blue buildings, white
buildings, green buildings and yellow
buildings, all mixed together. The town
appears twice as big as It Is, and It looks
both Imposing and beautiful. Right out
of the center, on the edge of the sea, rises
the sultan's palace, and farther down to
the south are the buildings of the British
consulate, which look like a white mar
As you come nearer the marble turns to
whitewash; and the sultan's palace dwin
dles in grandeur until It looks like one
of our great seaside hotels. It Is, In fact,
a three-story building of wood painted yel
low, with galleries running about It from
story to story. These galleries are about
twenty feet wide and they are for all the
world like hotel porches. The roof Is red,
and, as It seema to cover a roof garden, the
hotel effect is still more In evidence. It
Is thi-ic that the sultaln lives with Ids nu
merous wives. I do not know how many
dusky ladies there are In the harem. His
majesiy is a Mohammedan and he keeps
such things to himself. 1 only know that
the soldiers are always guarding ti,K Ur-s
and that the cannon at the entrance Kum-i
to frown at mo as I passed by. 1 litre i
no royalty, however, about the looks uf
the palace, and there is but little power
In the hands of the oung man of 13 who
lives there and pretends to reign.
ultan of Zauslbar.
Indeed the gloiy of this sultanate Is
fast passing away. It once controlled al
most the whole of East Africa. The sul
tan had all the territory that now belongs
to the Germans, reaching a far east as
Lake Tanganyika, and also the whole of
the coast lands of British East Africa, ex
tending almost to Arabia. He was one ot
the greatest slave dealers In the world. I
recently went through the slave market
where some of this young sultan's ances
tors sold negro slaves for American con
sumption, and I stopped In a hotel named
after Tlpoo Tib, the great slave dealer who
aided Stanley In his explorations. When
Tipoo Tib died not long aifo he left mora
than 2PO black wives. Within recent years
the British have abolisned slavery, but I
understand that there are same who are
still slaves, although nominally free.
As to the Sultan of today his income Is
largely from the British government, and
from his own private estates. The British
hold the protectorate over his dominions
on a perpetual lease, for which they pay
. - . 't -s i ir
, tf ' p
IT. H . I a .
t m rJ
ltjy'd pTi. tlTI ktfiC AsfaL
WW.'l'1 - v. .. ta !SR4(ST:'T
arwts zs- s6 73 .
nate the time after nightfall. It Is pressed
to do this by giving one red flash for the
quarter, two for the half and three for the
three-quarter hour and a white flash for
Extraordinary precautions have been
taken In this Metropolitan skyscraper both
to guard against wind pressure and also to
insure lasting durability. Engineers have
figured a wind pressure of thirty-five
pounds to the square foot as ample for
most big skyscrapers. In the case of the
Metropolitan the allowance has been In
him $S5,000 a year; and the Germans have
secured the fee simple title to the lands
which formerly belonged to his father upon
the payment ot something like 1, 250,000
I am not sure as to just what the sul
tan Is worth, for his purse Is kept sep
arate from the general revenue of the
country; and the taxes are used by the
British under the direction ot the British
consul general. I only know that he has
enough to live In considerable state, and to
keep up magnificent stables, comprising
the finest of Arabian horses. He has prob
ably a large number of female slaves in
his palaces and I am told there are thou
sands ot women who are kept In slavery
by the Arab officials and merchants here.
Au Aruli City.
The Arabs are still the lords of Zanzibar,
although the British act as rulers. They
own the greater part of the Island: they
have the clove plantations and they work
the native Africans to the limit. They go
about in turbans and gowns; and the city
looks more like a part of Egypt or India
than of Central Africa. The streets are
narrow and winding. This building are
high, with barred wind iws. They have
enormous dorrs, plated with big-headed
nails, making every house look like a
.-.iV;.... -.far- :
' ft 11 ft
' ' . .1
J i I 7'
i 4 I H I II
iitlllllfil. i ' " " i'j---1 i !
ft. ' ! Vll
to- ' ' . T
'.ri'.' ' J.'. V
creased from thirty-five to sluty pounds
to the square foot, which Is ample allow
ance for a higher wind that has ever boen
experienced In New York.
To prevent the steel framework against
oxidation or rusting It was treated first to
a painted coat of cement paint. All the
abralsed corners have been carefully re
painted, and when put In place the steel
beams have been subjected to a second
coating of waterproof paint.
Besides this, the columns, the knee braces
and the exposed portions of the floor
prison. Some of the streets have the walls
so close together that carriages cannot en
ter them, and all are so narrow that the
cabs have bells like dinner gongs, which
they keep ringing as they drive through
the streets, to warn the people to get out
of the way.
The whole place Is a combination of
squalor and splendor. Some ot the
shabbiest houses have doors of teak wood
so beautiful that they would ornament any
Fifth avenue palace, and these doors open
Into the meanest ot shops and warehouses.
Tho architecture throughout Is Mohamme
dan, and the best-clad people In the streets
are those who wear turbans and gowns.
Many of the Arab merchants dye their
beards a brick-dust red, and I see scores of
women who go about completely covered
by yellow gowns which fall without a
break from their heads to their feet. Their
faces are entirely covered, and each girl
looks out through a network of white cords
woven over a hole not larger than a visit
ing card, and that so closely that one can
not seo the eyes behind.
Ten Thousand Hindoos.
About one-fifth of the Inhabitants of
Zansibar come from East India. There are
more than 1O.C00 Hindoos and also Kllngs,
Parsees and Brahman a. These people are
. .... .;..... - , fJ - - " '
. .--5'Vl - . . . I ; 'J '.
- crzrr -r'
E3DGB OF THB SBA RISES THE BULTAN
t V -
1 ' -f
beams are enveloped In a two inch coating
t.f fand and cement. The Slnper tower
steel beams are protected In prnet cully
the same way. With the cVapp'T of ris
ing anil destruction from in removal
enslneers can see no renson n! y tho
Metropolitan slneild not last f.r ag.'s.
The massive corner columns of this Im
mense structure are two feet qiiflr and
weigh over one ton to th" lineal foot.
When the tower shall bae b v i eo'ti
pl. ted there will be more than s IPS t ; s
of steel in It, enough to lui 1.1 s. . n or
eight twelve-story skys rajf i s with th
same crounri area as tho tow r. T'.o e'"
mated cost of this marble tow-r plr.e-1
at nbout H.notyioa, the ground r.'r sentl.ii
an Investment of about $!.''. n .
The new City Investing InilliVnu, next
to the Singer building, Is ai'. 'h. t th
city's most modern skyscrapers. ;h" tMrl
highest. It possesses no tower but hns
ornate gables running np ov r th "..'
structure to a heicht of 4' fie n v
tho curb. Some li'.-i . f tV l.-l.-o' of
building may be old iln -i 'rnm t'.'o !r nrrt.
showing Its roof nlonvai c he 'ger I 'W r.
The City Invest. tig I n ; I ti.r- v
three stories bh:h and K .I'd t- bo ''
largest slncle office httlldln t l:i th, i."; M,
providing twelve acres i f ivt tnl.'c p n o.
If this building were slai e ' ,l n . a t u
prnlrle there would be a city l'-.tmi in
habitants. There Is IS Vfl tops of st.el In ni Loll
ing, which would make a rod one n. h la
diameter I.noo miles long In p a' rg
up the building 4.41."r.: holes were u ' 'i. it
In metal, and the weight a'' !'ie .; tal
punched out and thrown away was ithna
135 tons, or 870." ) pounds
The blue prints requ'red for the i.'nn
of the building lf laid "lit on a flu! u
face would cover two acres. The '.-I Us
used In the building, if I ild . i ! 1 1 -ml,
would stretch l.H.l inior, ir further liuu
from New York to tivem:.. i'r.. pi i "let
in the building If spr'-n.l out would cover
an area bounded bv F'li'v nl-i'li sr.' on
the south, Cenlial I'll,. We.-t on t u- east,
Seventy-eight street on tile n.rt'a anil
Columbus avenue on the v-e.-t. 'r v.i"
mUiit plaster Proadw-nv with It from Iho
Hattoty to One Hundred and Tweaiy fifih
There are 10 mibs 'f ilectrh- wir In
the building, tven:y-lwo t i 1 s- of run liili,
eighty tons of copper, seventeen miles of
pipirg. The three pua s wiiliii suopl
the water for the buii'lt.g have n rum
blncd capacity of l.'!2l.--m cnll.mi a day,
which Is enough to supply a city or 40,"nO
There are 22.000 tons of the fireproof lug
In the building. This would laalc- .'.00
truckloads, reaching fn ai 1,1b ity street
to llaverstraw. N. Y., twenty-nine ml'.cs.
If loaded on barges it would lake 110 .ai
ges, or a continuous tow two miles l.jiijj.
It took 22,() yards of el ay to tainufio
ture this material. Taeh tilo'-': v..ti iiun
dled about twenfy-slx times fr mi -'iay
bftnk to the building. This is eqalvaieut
to one man handling one hi a-.v -',' . t
times. The marble In tho build n ; .v old
cover Broadway from curb to curb .am
tho Hotel Astor to Twenty-third .-dieet. It
would talto one man 4; year of raiiLii : ma
work to pri pate the marble alone.
There are 21.7ri9,!V"0 cubes of moimU- In
the building. The 8,T?o.OOO pounds of mar
ble In the building wotdd mtilto a c .:nnn
one foot square ninety-eight times us high
as Washington monument.
Next to tho City Inveatlns building for
height come the Park How building, whh.h
runs up 3W feet, and then the Times nulld
Ing which is 362 feet high.
Tho old tketch of New York In 1679 pre
sents u study In contrasts. It shows Man
hattan from what Is now Fulton street to
the Battery. The original drawing la In
the possession ot the Long Island Historical
The cross marks the present site of the
forty-seven story Singer building at Broad
way and Liberty street. The wagon n the
left Is going down the original Maiden lane.
The house and lot on the corner, which
belonged to John Haberdlng, were sold In
1722 for $000. The rural acres of 1679 are
practically covered now with buildings
ranging from sixteen to forty-seven stories,
may of which count their acres of floor
space on plots that John Haberdlng
wouldn't have thought big enough for hi
from all parts of Hlndoostan, and they
wear many strange costumes. I see llttlo
black girls whose arms and legs are loaded
with gold and silver Jewelry. They have
tight pantelets which fall to their unkks
and are fringed there with lace. They have
also a coat which comes to the knees.
There are dark-faced women with hoso
buttons of gold and silver, and fat, grea.iy
looking Indian men, who strut about' wear
ing pi II -box caps made of velvet and doth
of silver. These men have on long coats
buttoned up to the throat, and under them
calico pantaloons which fit tight to the
skin. Others have round-about Jackets with
gold studs down the front, which look for
all the world like dress-shirts with the talis
These Hindoes do most of the retail busi
ness of Zanzibar. They have long streets
of bazaar-l'ke stores In the city Itself, nnd
their peddlers go all over the Island. They
use rupees as money, and their chief cus
tomers arc tho Kwuhllla and the other
The Hrliish government bandies the col
ony as th iin.'li It v.i re a part of India. The
laws are those t:sed In the courts of Ilin
doostan, aad the government ftfcclf I mod
eled upon that of East India.
(Continued on Page Threi.)
I" it sKiVii---