Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, December 01, 1907, HALF-TONE SECTION, Page 3, Image 17

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Manual Training- an
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' l .'" , . . "WOOD CARVINO XT CASS BCHOOI ' '' ' ' ,! " ', ', WOOD WORKERS AT CASS SC13TOOU ' ' '," ' " ' ' ,' CLAT MODKLINO AT CASS BCHOOT
ITREE yeara aco manual train'
in vii Inatalled In the graded
achoola of Omaha. For aeveral
year prevloua the ayitem had
been In uae at the hlfli achoola
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work nothing- had been added to the currl
yuium of the gradee below the high achool
iiw the War ' of training the mind, and
nanda of children In other than the usual
H-ngllah branches.' The present system la
the working out of a plan of Superintend
ent 'Davidson's, who. before committing
himself to. the Idea of manual training of
ny sort, spent eljrht years In Investigation
and experiment to discover a system which
would combine those elements he deemed
essential to the fullest development of the
child. Breaking of this preliminary work,
tha superintendent said:
"At the time manual training was first
mentioned as an essential to . the child's
education, tha Idea seemed to be to let
the child decide for himself what he would
do with the tools. He was given tools and
material, and If ha wished to make a box
of a mlnlatura house he was permitted to
undertake It. and his success or failure
depended entirely upon how he devoted
himself to his task and how deft he was
with the tools. This system did nothin
for tha training of tha child -In tha way
of spurring htm on to effort, and was soon
abandoned In great part. Then cams tha
Idea that tha children ahould make some
time useful; but they were still permitted
to do as they pleased regarding, the mak
ing. This system still produced potterers.'
A. few years ago a Mr. Larson came to
America from Sweden, and he adapted tha
loyd' system In use In that country to
American conditions. Tha result was that
the system known as tha Larson system
was produced. In which the efforts of tha
child -are directed toward making things
wlilch are not only useful but ornamental.
nd tha aesthetlq part of tha child's nature
la developed. , '
These remarks refer, especially to what
la known as tha "bench work" phase of
manual tralnloc. but this . i . mi
quarter of the system in use In the grade
In a Jaj-ge number of buildings tn. Omaha,
fur tha superintendent does not liold that
tha mere hammering together of wood la
all that is to be desired. While tha Lar
on system took from the other systems
something of tha "free development of
tha young mind" by directing the efforts
Of tha pupil toward the object It waa to
make. and. placed duty to a certain ex-
Omaha Y.
HEN the cornerstone of the new
A TI Young Women's Christian As
y y I soclatlon building at Seven-
teenin ana ti. Marys avenue
settled to place last Sunday
afternoon, to hundreds In th
large crowd that witnessed, the cei emony
K. was the first tangible tvldenco of the
proposed structure. Dut not so with the
business women of Omaha. To them, hun
dreds of them at least, the "building" has
been a reality for more than a year, and
very -detail of Its arrangement has been
fixed and as familiar as though they had
enjoyed It In reality as frequently as In
Imagination. "When we get Into the build
ing" has long- been a familiar - phrase
among tha little army of women who
"work down town" In Omaha, and who, '
frequently to the number, of W0 or 1,000,
dally cheerfully make the best of the
crowded quarters of th association In th
Paxton block.
That Omaha needs a building adequately
equipped for this work for women la no
longer questioned by thinking cHliens)
neither is It often necessary to explain of
what lhls, work for woman consists. In
the course of two campaigns In which
the Toung Women's Christian association
has raised among the cltlsens of Omaha
something over 1120,000 for Its lot and build
ing. Its work has come to be understood
and recognised as the factor It Is for the
Iporal betterment of the community.
. . Put lust what this new HOO.OiTO building
Is to Include Is not quite clear to many,
even among those who have contributed
most- generously to tha fund. -
Beginning with th'e basement which Is
so high it has the appearance of being
the first floor, Is the gymnasium, a model
fur the purposes of women. It la 48x40
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From, J. n to nght ri-hop Wl'Vama. frs TTurfor'l Vrc. Byers, lfr TlMen Mia Bowman.
toiailuH WilUAiui CU.NsiU.RA'ilMU TUB BTONC
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tent in tha place of free will. Superintend
ent Davidson desired another phaae of
work where that "free development" might
have full awing. Long. Investigation
ahowed him that manual dexterity and
artlatlo feeling might be enveloped through
clay modeling In a way not possible with
any other material. . This was then
adopted aa part of the manual training
system. With this was adopted wood carv
ing aa tending to give the pupil training
. In patient and somewhat intricate . labor.
To this, for tha glrla, -was added sewing,
and-the four parts of, tha manual training
system for the grades was perfected.
At first some difficulty was experienced
In securing, proper Instruments for 'the
work-- Tools could, be purchased and work
benches were manufactured for the pur
pose, but as far as known there 'was no
bench made at which 'clay' modellers could
work with the least trouble In. the 'way of
changing classes in the scbools. , Mr. Dav
idson Invented and - caused - to be made
the benchea now In use in Omaha. These
benches . are so constructed that lncom-
W. C A. Buildiii and Service
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feet and twenty feet high,, with a gallery
all around, and occupying Dart of the first
floor. The lockers and baths are all In
the basement and are most complete. Be
sides the several showers and tubs, there
will be the pool which, while not as large
as the women might have wished, will be
sufficient for all their purposes. This pool
will occupy the bow on the north part of
the building and will be on of tha beauty
spots. A public lavatory, a svvdai laundry,
slur reoLus. a vault a. Im sarrto por
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-CLAS3 AT CA8SsSCflbCfti
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pleta work may be 'stored' and kept moist
between classes,' and ' the shelves upon
which this work ' Is .placed are sufficient
for all pupils it work at one bench. , They
are also made ao that the wood carving
classes can store work and In. draw
ers, while ' other t'cfases ore using the
benches. t " ,,"''.
. Three years ego ,thV first class .in. clay
modelling In' the .pubito .schools of Omaha
waa organised at the , Cans school.' Clay
was bought in tow's,' ,a.nd. models .were so
cured from .various .places. One teacher
waa employed and ' she , began her ' Work
with children of .thVfifat' class of tlys Vlfth
grade. .The children Vre '.required to mnke
their clay images 'frofa '.models which' they
can only measure, .with their eye, . except
in extreme cases Where'; rough measure
ments with the modelling tool is perVnlttfvl. '
After six months' penf'at'-clay modelling
the children ' spend ' six'- months In ' wood
carving. .Here for' the first time free-hand
drawing is called to the' aid of the young
designer. After ' selecting his model 'hi is'
. -' r- ' j
tion, which extends the height of the entire
building, the back' stairway ' and freight
elevator, which may - be used for passen
gers If necessary, and ' the heating plant
will also be In this basement
On the first floor tha main entrance on
the Seventeenth' street .. side opens Into a
beautiful corridor nineteen by fifty feet,
and off of thla open the general offiocs
with two small private ' offices for ' secre
tarial use, the general, secretary' office, a
waiting reora where rush may call and
Factor in
required to. draw the design on paper.
Corrections are made as necessary .until
the design is- satisfactory to pirpll and
teacher, when It Is transferred to, the wood
through the medium of carbon paper. Then
begins the real work of tha pupil' With the
wood. Especially designed tools ' are given
him and he la required to carve away the
wood surrounding the draft of tha design,
later smoothing down tha low surfaces.
These exercises in clay1 and wood are
common to both boys And girls. The divi
sion of labor between the sexes comes with
tha first half of the work of the sixth
grade, when the boys go to bench work
and the girls to the sewing room. '. ,
Iq the bench room are especially, designed
work benches, so. arranged that each can
be used by boys who are left-handed as
well as those who are normal In the use
of their hands.. t Each bench Is .supplied
with those tools most generally ' required,
while a tool closet contains tools' not so
frequently needed. ' Here, as well as1 In the
wood carving daises, the first work Is with
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few Or '
wsjt for their wives and sisters and per
haps others. and the living room with its
big bow window on the St. Mary's avenue
side and that Is to be furnished In old
mission and made one of the home spots
of the city. In the service portion Is a
lavatory and the gallery of trie gymnasium
occupies the larger portion of this floor.
Off from the gallery is the office of the
physical director, with th examination
room and a private stairway leading down
to the gymnasium.
On the second floor is the same corridor
foyer, fifteen foet long and twelve feet
wide. Opening off of this Is the 'library,
a beautiful room on the north aide, fifty"
feet long with a balcony out over the bay
window, and the ideal north light for
reading. Here will arranged a circula
ting library occupying one-half of the room
and In the other half a reference library
with all tha magaslnes and papers neces
sary to a well regulated library. ''On thla
Boor also Is the business office. ' where
everything pertaining to the management
of the building and lunch room will be
carried on and the board room .and club
- room with its own serving room and dumb
waiter extending from th basement to
the fifth Boor. .The main entrance to the
auditorium, which will occupy part of two
stories, also opens Into the corridor of this
floor. The auditorium will seat 600 persons
and Is so arranged that it may also be
entered by a stairway from the 8U Mary's
avenue side quite Independent of the rest
of the building, so enabling the association
to use it for purposes of revenue. On the
landing part way between th first and
econd floor Is th office of the extension
On the third floor is the targe assembly
room, which will seat 2u0 persons and will
be used for the large classes and for
some of the lectures and tnustcales. ' On
this floor also are a check room, two class
rooms and the balcony of th auditorium,'
besides the Covenant room, a place Bet
part exclusively for prayer and religious
work and study. - --
Omaha Public School System
the, pencil. After the design to be repro
. duced Is settled upon the pupil Is given
penoll, paper and ruler and drafta tha
declgn of his article. Particular attention
is paid to these designs, the object belngs
to.inake them so plain that any, boy can
' work from the design of any other. After
the work of the design is approved, by the
teacher the . boy goes to the lumber pile
and selects such lumber as be needs. From
this time on every movement is decided
' by the notes and lines on the , drafting
paper. , The completed article is finally
' sandpapered and covered with a coating of
shellac,-, and . ready to .be placed : in, the
' exhlDlt of tha school or taken home by the
pupil., . . ,
Th. workj In, the sewing room: la along
.similar lines, although more attention Is
(pald;to sewing in Itself, than to- designing
I and , drafting. After six months at the
bench, or In . the. sewing room the boys and
. girls go back to clay modelling., and six
months later to the wood carving benches.
Then follows six months more ' of bench
It Will
aa assess
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ine enure rouitn floor is devoted to th
school of domestlo science. The large main
room will be used for the cooking achool
wber mistress and maid may receive In-
tfiuttlnn Tn. . A 1. 1 - .
stfuotlon. Rooms for dressmaking and
millinery classes, with proper fitting rooms,
and .also a model bedroom for the teach
ing of chamber work will also be on this
floor, as well as Instruction rooms for
everything pertaining to a school of do
mestic science. Including the supplementary
woiK to th model laundry in th base-
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werk and sewing, and then six months of
clay modelling, the grade instruction end
ing with wood carving, which occupies tha
last halt-W -the eighth grade work.
The time devoted to this work la 100 min
utes a week to each child, there being two
recitations of fifty minutes- each.
While the manuaj training system In use
at tha high school does not articulate upon
that of the lower grades at this time, they
are coming closer Into contact as thi years
pass, and In tha course of time It is to be
expected that the system will be made uni
form. The Larson system Is In use In the
lower grades, while tha Woodward system
Is that used In the high school. This sys
tem waa Installed before the work In the
grades, and meets all requirements at this
time, being the system In use in all of the
high schools of the Mississippi valley. Here,
in addition to work of a more advanced
character, but somewhat similar to that in
the grades, the turning lathe and scroll
saw are added to the tools, and some of
the articles made under the direction of
ment Hie rooms for th maids emnloved
n the building, together with their lockers
nd valory. will also be located on thla
r. nd last but by no means least, th
st rim that ' ret rat tnr tha Hr-A K.,.1-
rest room that ' retreat for the tired busi
ness-women. It Is so arranged aa to in
sure perfect quiet and will be equipped
with many couches and soft lights.
Th fifth floor . will be given entirely to
th cafater, a lunch room, kitchen and
serving rooms. Luncheon will be served
on th same plan aa In th present quar-
j '
tha director of tha school are rightly cotx
aldered excellent examples of manual train
Ins school work. '
At this time, under eight teachers, ap
proximately 2,000 pupils are taking manual
training in. the grades, and with three teach
ers and one bead of department, about 260
children are taking Instruction In this work
In the high school. The first manual train- '
ing department In the grades was opened
at Cass school three years ago. A year
later a room at Pacific waa equipped for
the work. Last year rooms were opened
at Comenlus and Mason schools, and at tha
beginning of this year a room was opened
at Lake school for regular work, while half
time work waa inaugurated at Walnut Hill,
Saunders, Columbian, Windsor, Leaven
worth and Monmouth f?ark buildings. It Is
the Intention of the board to extend th
system to other ward schools aa rapidly
aa possible, although the work will be slow)
in some wards, on account of the crowded
conditions of some of the buildings.
In tha work of the department it has
been found that natural talent goes farther
than experience In producing good work.
This is especially so In clay modeling, whera
pupils In the eighth grade are aurpassed by
many In the fifth grade In accuracy of de
sign and certainty of execution. In soma .
of the exercises pupils are required to do .
sign "from memory, and In these exercises
the younger pupils seem to excel. At Cass
achool, the cosmopolitan school of th city,
there la something of a rivalry between
races. In the classes air Japanese, Chinese,
negroes and Syrians, as well as pupils from
almost every country of Europe. Th
teacher points out a model of a lion's head,
the work of a Japanese boy of 14, as a
sample of what Is to be desired from pupils
of this age and experience In the school.
In wood carving one of the clearest cut de
signs Is that produced by a Chinese boy
of about the same age, while In free-hand
drawing a negro boy receives commenda
tion, and the work of a Syrian at the bench.
Is one of the best samples shown by th
The work of th nuplla Is encouraged by
a mild form of rivalry, the best samples,
all bearing the name of the makers, being
kept on display, but the display aa at pres
ent shown la of the average work. Ar
rangements are made whereby pupils, upon
payment of cost of material, which is In
considerable, may take their work horn
and many of th- homes In wards where th
system Is In vogue display with pride th
handiwork of a son or daughter.
ters but In addition to this there will be
a dining room where patrons may be served
by psylng a little more for the service.
Summed up, the building may be consid
ered as an administration building, a rest
ing place, a lunch room, a night and a day
achool for educational purposes, a Blble
school, domestlo science training school and
physical training school. It will afford
wholesome social lire . for hundreds of
women who would otherwise be condemned
to loneliness or seek the questionable en
tertainment aJTorded by tha cheap placea
of amusement and It will supply an Influ
ence that must give moral tone to th
young womanhood of Omaha. But th
question Is frequently asked why the build
ing Is to include no dormitories, and many
whose subscriptions have been solicited
have declined to contribute to the fund
because the enterprise makes no provision,
for housing women.
Several very good reasons exist why th
Omaha Toung Women's Christian associa
tion should not combine the dormitory
plan with Its other work. First, the asso
ciation has not enough money to carry th
building up to th proportions necessary
for dormitories and it canpot go in dabt
for any part of Its building. It Is sug-
w ,, .
might be eliminated, then, to make room
for tn, dormltorlea. but thos In touoh
wth the association's work, know that not
."UW 1111 HOI
a single one of Its present branches can b
given up without- losa to a greater num
ber of women than could possibly profit by
the Installation of dormitories. By abol
ishing the lunoh rooms and th school of
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(Continued on Pur rjv.i