Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, April 14, 1907, HALF-TONE SECTION, Page 2, Image 18

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    nrn 0M,nA sunpat bek: ArniL h, 1007.
Wi',1 Work Owtt Chinees, Saj the Modern
"Jsw Alloy Pahmipi ;rratr Dnr
ttllty an Tensile s.trenrh
One Rare Metal Fnaad In
Ureal t)oniitllra.
The twl trarli has taken up vanadium,
a rara element, an an alloy, and It has
found that Its una In small quantities makes
a steel that increases t-riBlle strength aril
elongation about So per rent. There Is no
question aa to theno remits. Tho one
problem la to get trie vanadium cheap
The problem uaed to bo to got enough
of the metal Itself. It was supposed to ho
on 9 of those rare things like rHdluni and
other elusive mntnls, hut all thru h.ia l ri
overcome arid It can 12 found In great
quantities In thin country and Is no harder
to mine than copper.
The treatment of the metal, ao aa to
prepare It for alloy purposes, la the only
expensive feiture. The steel train ban
practically overcome that now and those
who are expert In such matters declare
that the period of vandtuni steel tin a come
and that It will occupy a more important
place In the world than did nickel steel.
C nrtoalt) for Year.
Vanadium has be n known since isol. For
eighty years It wan lxkd upon as a chem
ical curiosity. Humboldt mentions It In
his "Cosmo " In the early nineties It was
uad for dyeing purposes. In making aniline,
blnck, ami to form enamels on glass, put-tort-y
and poreoluln. (Melty In greeniFli
gold colors. Hinee 1N'-K the steel trade has
waked up to Its possibilities ns an iillny.
Blr Thomas l.lptun made owe of It for the
spars of Klutmrork III and It was hNo
used for the spars of the German em
peror's American made yacht Meteor. Just
now the automobile men have taken up
the metal and the auto makers say it 1.
bound to bring about a revolution In the
manufacture of their vehicles. Tougher,
stronger steel can be 11.1. d In th" machines
than formerly, with even some lessening
Of weight.
Any process that will make steel nearly
100 per cent more ductile and thus lessen
the breaking quality Is bound to receive
consideration from the makers of rolling
atock, whether It be railway cars or autos
or bicycles. The makers of bridges also
welcome any alloy that will Increase the
train capacity, while the manufacturers
of tools of all kinds say that vanadium
offers a great superiority over all other
teal hardening metals.
Its I'mr In nval Warfare.
The use of this alloy, the experts de
clare, Is bound to have an Important Influ
ence on national development In other
than commercial ways. It will mean a
new kind of nrmor plate and will be used
extensively In guns. Increasing- their elastic
qualities and preventing that moat dan
geroua form of wu- and tear on guna
known as erosion. Indeed, It Is already
being used by the Vickers-Maxim people.
It la declared. Togo had Vickers-Maxim
guns on his ships and vanadium had been
used In them as an alloy. The Russia n
guna were not made of vanadium steel.
Those guns on ships taken by the Japanese
were largely Incapacitated because of
erosion. The Japanese guns were not af
fected in this way.
It used to lie thought that the only place
where vanadium could lw Feeured In mar
ketable quantities was high up In the
mountains of Peru. The cost of gel ting 11
out and preparing It as an alloy ran to
several hundreds of dollars a lnjund.
Freight to Kngland or the rjiited States
was a, so another tremendous handicap.
Wlthrn ten years, however. It has been
found that there Is practically no limit to
the amount of the metal In the t'nited
State. Great deposits have heen found in
Colorado, rtah, New M-xioo mid Califor
nia, and it also exlpti plentifully in other
states. It can now lj produced at about
12.50 a pound, but it Is declared that It soon
can be made lit ft r uso as cheap as 2b
cents a pound, and whn that day cornea
vanudlum steal will rule the metal world.
Tho quality of btittletiess will then be re
moved from Htoel.
( oki 1. 1, red W ith McUel.
Tt has already leen found that 1 percent
of vanadium Is cquaj to 111 per cent of
nickel, In addltiK ductility and tensile,
strength to steel. Already several mines
are being operated In this country. There
1 one seam or sund.M- m- In Colorado that
has from i to 5 per cent of vanadium,
and the miners suy it la ua easy to mine us
Although the metal was discovered In
1801 and ita use as an alloy for sti-el has
come before the steel world prominently
only In the a deeudo, It was kn wn as
an alloy In lslM. and then wivs all wed to
drop out of sight. This came about In a
peculiar way. It was discovered In l-3
that the Iron ore from the Tnbcrg mines
In Sweden were produclnj a metal that
had greater ductility than any other Iron
ore known.
The Swedish scientist Reftioni started an
Investigation. r.l although It was known
that a rare metal kn- wn as vanadium had
been discovered In lm It was then redis
covered through fWtrom. Large deioslts
were found In the bad ores of Zimapun,
Mxlco, by Iel Jtio. Once more vanadium
secured a new lease of f,.. but the great
difficulty of extracting the metal and of
making Its use practical served to put it
on the shelf ag-aln.
Ths revival of the use of vanadium has
heen due to thirty year.-, .-f research and
at a cost of fully H1V of his private for
tune on the part of Ir. J Hnxerns de Al
sugaray, a native of Argentina, nnl now a
resident of New York City. Ir H-ixer--Vs
father experimented with, the o- U years
before the son t ok hold of it. Wo Mng
oner the metal beenme a matter of fimllv
tradition. The elder Paxeres owned the
Baikta Martu mines, which had the largest
lodo cf lead validate, as the compound was
known In Its or glnal sti'te. then ln.un
The younger Hnxeres workd for nemiy a
quattet of a century snd his effort led to
the erecH- n of a plant f..r the manufacture
of vanadium p-oducts in I.lanelly, South
Wales, In U. where fcTn- amtriiiini and
Its alloys are now bein-r made
Mast He Pare.
In the early days of experimenting with
vanadium as a steel alloy ut.ntlsf ctorv
results were obtained In m.ii.y en- be
cause the vanadium was not pure Jt con
tained copper, carbon. alMc i'ea. aluminum
and other met t'.a to the prelec
tion cf pood st-cl. These experiment,
wl.lle shewing Increased tera'.le strength
and elastic limit, showed decreasing duc
tility and were regarded as f il'or. .. I ir.
Flaxeres kept on with his studies. II. tried
to fuse the ore with sod.i car' mate an I
coal, but that process w:is abandoned be
cause of Its grat expense. The acid aul
phats process was cheaper and more pia.--tlcal
and has since been improved grrutly
Electrolysis was found to be the lest
method, and work has gone on along t h it
line until now lr. Haxeret s.vs it wid .
possible to prod ice the alloy as cheap aa
tS per cent a pound. Instead of ut Z ; . a
good commercial rate at present.
The effect of vanadl mi us un alloy is
shown lu numerous tables that the experts
h'- p-nduced after nrolor.gel Investlgs
tl n. Cru ihle steel, f ir example, when
mixed with vanadium, has rfwlueod a
metul with a breaking strain of 61.57 tons
to tho siuare lm h and an elongation of
23 p. r cent. llef,,re vanadium was added
tho -t.--l fcroka under a 'ewd of 21.11 t ins
to the square inch and the elongation w is
only Ifi p.-r cent. Caat Iron, with a break
In? strain of aevoo and one-half tons to
the S'l'jiire Inch, was treated with S per
cent of vanadium and the breaking strain
rose to thirteen tons. Ingots of Iron with
an ultimate mreas of 55.GM pound hav-j
been ralsnd to an ultimate striss of HOI I
pounds by Introducing 0.S per rent i f
vataullum. The Increased elongation Is
alsut le per cent. Steel containing about
LIS per cent of carbon, with an elaatij
limit of about thirty tons and an ultimate
stress of about sixty tone, has b"n raised
seven tons In ultimate stress through th
Introduction of lii per cent of vanadium.
At first the pure vanadium was Intro
duced In the molten steel. It was soon
found that owing to Its high melting point
it was not dissolved. Then it became
neomsary to make ferro-vanndlum alloys
of a lower melting point, and sion the
first ferro-vanadlum alloy of 10 per cent
was made. Since then It has been shown
that the proportion of vanadium could bo
Increased to as high as 30 per cent, but
Ir. Haxeres has said that the 10 per cent
mixture la the best.
Another Kevolntlon Impends.
In speaking of vanadium tho other day,
It Hxx'-rcs said: "I veritably believe an
other revolution In the steel Industry is
at hand. The fact that the automobile
men have taken up the use of this alloy
Is sufficient to establish Its worth. It is
only 11 step to bring It Into general use.
Tools, vehl -los, bridges, In fact, all kinds
of structures and utensils, will be trans
formed. It will also meaa a great change
In ship construction. It will change armor
plate. Indeed, that Is already under way.
With vanadium the face of armor plates
will to hardened a great deal more than
at present. The plate Itself will be more
ductile and In a general way softer. The
result will be that if a projectile pierces
the plate It will be buried In the softer ma
terial on the back and will not splinter
the plate to the extent that piercing shots
do now. It will probably mean a lessening
of welj-ht In armor plates, and any one
who know. about warship construction will
realize what that will mean to the navies
of the w irld. Vanadium will also Improve
gun manufacture and bring a great change
In that Industry. All this means a great
change in that Industry. All this means a
great change commercially in the world."
"Tho best part of It all is that the Cnlted
States has extensive deposits of this metal.
Why should the country go to Peru or
Mexico or to Kurope when It has an un
limited supply at home? I have spent a
lifetime practically In making researches
that will make this possible. I have no
direct Interest now In the production of
the metal. If, when the revolution that I
predict comes about, my name Bhall be re
membered as a benefactor in the trans
formation In the uses of the greatest metal
the world has ever known, I shall be content."
sss3sssshMaaSl d
We Present to the People of Omaha this Week a Splendid Oppportunily to
. . , , ( .
Save Money Homefiindshbigs I
Weideusall's Letter
(Continued from Fage One.)
Ing was held. It was well attended. I was
asked to ad.lress It, which I did for a short
time. I had frequent Interviews with Mr.
M. Hideout upon his work and upon the
association work in Europe in many par
ticulars. He is a choice man and true, and
Is doing good service.
I reached Bordeaux, France, on Decem
her 12, ir, and spent two days there. On
my arrival I met the general secretary of
the association, Mr. Emll Pouresv. who
heartily welcomed me. I had an Interview
with him on things pertaining to the work
of the secretary and other association
matters. In which he had more or less
difficulty. At a meeting of representatives
of the association called to meet mo I
presented greetings I had with me from
different parts of the world, then spoke to
them of the great importance of the as
sociation work and that true association
work could not be over estimated. I spoke
particularly of their part In the work.
Many questions- were asked me. which I
answered the best I could. All my sug
gestions were very kindly received, i think
I made clear some things that wore not aa
well understood as thty should be. Na
tional Secretary Sautter was present and
emphasised what I hnd said and thanked
me for It. I appreciated this very much,
for he Is very clear In his association
knowledge. I met also the national student
secretary, Mr. Chr. Grauss, who was In
Bordeaux at this time, and hnd different
personal Interviews with him. I hud other
lnt rvlewsj with the local general recretary,
Mr. Kmll I'ourcsy, who Is a good and faith
ful man.
I arrived at Marneilles, France, In the
nlRht of December 1, W, and spent two
rull days there. I called at the rooms of
the association. The general secretary was
not In. He left a note for me that he was
to leave Marseilles for Cannes to attend a
convention and his president was to leave
also, and nothing was appointed for me to
do. This made it Impossible for me to do
anything for the association. This was
about the only real miss I had made In my
world trip, where 1 had expected to do
something. The general secretary after
wards wrote me a letter and gave satisfac
tory reasons for what he had done. This
afforded me a greater opportunity to see
the city of Marseilles.
I arrived in Tarls from Marseilles at 10
p. m. December 31. lfcs.. I had calculated
to do many things during this visit in
Tarts, but the weather was so wretched
that I was caught by the grippe or In
fluenn. which prevented mo from doing
much of anything I had Intended to do.
However, I bad frequent interviews with
National Secretary Sautter, Special Secre
tary Hideout . with the president of the
Fn ii eh association and with others. Hut
I had to take care of myself. All In all, I
had a good time In France. I w is sure I
bad afTordel the French association real
help, wrlch was appreciated and so ex
piissed In wotd and letier I learned more
fully their methods of work.
The national committee and secretary are
doing a noble work upon the true associa
tion b.-.sls, winning young men to Jesjs
Christ is their personal Saviour. The na
tional work Is wo 1 1 organized. Paris Is the
heme ua: ters of the national c immittee,
which consists of nineteen persons, nine on
the executive headquarters committee In
Pari, nine others representing different
parts of France and one representing the
stud' r.t work. The country Is divided into
nine distrUts. not political divisions; each
district his its own committee of from five
to seven members to plan the work for the
district and provide for its support. There
are now three paid district secretaries and
more will be added as fast aa good men
and their support can be secured. Every
h. H-ipiloii must first become a member
of the rational alliance and is then assigned
to u district. A formal adherence to the
Paris basis is essential to entering the
alliance. There are now 1A) associations
belonging to the alliance. There are eight
college as, eiattons. Five cities with paid
general secretaries, some of theni with
assistant. The national force consists of
Nttlonal Secretary Kmll Sautter and two
assistants, Mr. Ch. Schneider and Mr. S.
Williamson, also Mr. Chr Grauss, the
student secretary.
un Board the Ualuc, Atlantic Ocuau, Feb
ruary i, 1W7.
X this pajo today wo toll of omiino savins; ojiortunitios. which should provo oxoootliiiRlv intor-
....'- i it i. . 1 11. 1 1 r i 1 1 a 1 .1 1 1.
in .ooi onus; iu inoM." iit Know uic rc.u nmo 01 iiione aiui w 110 uosire 10 inaKo ineir dollars accom-
yJjkQ) I'lii-h most in tho purchase of rcliahlo lmusi't'iirnishinirs.
This is a special value sivinrr. week at Tlartman's a work of extraordinary prioinir. All the re
sources of this -Treat organization, with its twenty-two lii-r stores, are exerted in our endeavor to force
prices downward. The splendid values here illustrated and described are on sale all week.
Every article is of Ilartinan's high standard of quality und every offering is a value of most unusual
2C Piece Sot Rogers rnrr
fii1 '-''sm
C-lvn frte with a S10D purchase
or sold for 86.98. Terms, 1 cash,
75o a raon'.h.
If set Is bong-nt and at any time
during a year purchaser bays ilOO
worth of goods from ns, we will
oredlt cost ,of same to their account.
Wr Invito yon to talto alvantaro of this (Trent movement
and sliaro In tlie rich savings. We invite you to open a t'retlit
account ami enjoy the g-c of your gorxlw while you are puyiiii;
for them. No payments required when yon are ill or out of
$9 cash, $8 Monthly
In this otfsr we In
clude everything
needed for Parlor,
Bedroom, Dining
Koom and Kitchen.
Book of Birdville Jingles Free
Every child which cuts tho fourteen illustrated jinsrlos which ap
pear in our Sunday announcements between now and July 1st, saves
them and mails them to us at that time will receive a beautiful bound
volume of these Birdville Verses FREE, printed from fine plates and
beautifully illustrated in colors. Wo would like to have every child in
Omaha and vicinity get one of these interesting books of Birdville
In JBirilvJllc
'.is . . .1
TV TrWliQrinUiiflnfRiWlvilU
my p I O vVT iiiu
1 ir l . ' .
jl a nicy sciy lies very wise, 7
he has a double chin
-And a diamond tie pin.
And a stomach of wondrous size.
Copy rif fit, t907 thy Asrtmmni
sain ! -'J XJ-f
TB.ES Bet of
Toy Ilok ory
rarnlture, four
pleoes, with all
Oo-Carts of 4
f.xartiy iiro llluatratlon; has new Bailgor
finish, which can't he told from real quar-
iei-nnvpu, iiiiiHsivn colonial legs, with slieir
eeiiejtin. itirge hiko lop; ex
clusive Hartman design,
iiiiulo to Kpeciul order
gs, wnii sneii
cut. Mammoth French hov
1 plate mirror, oval shnne-
i-ioj tegs, maue or oeaiitl
fuliy polished quarter-sawed
onk. full swelled front, as shown.
Kxtru aptclal for all week.
1 r iT.S aaaNa 4J W HL Tonx
m a Hartman'a
Jlonsy, -JfS&f
s? ftLjMiy
Hartman'a UtY I
cut, inaili; of solid oak, has heavy podea-
tHl ItHse, hr shown, and claw feet, aa
shown; extendi to tt feet, size of top Is
42x42 Inchon, nicely tln-
Islied. extra well made, has
Hurt man new easy running
biiuea, special at
Hartman Special Fold
lng Reclining Go-Cart..
Solid Oak IT 7P
China (lose! Us J
HanriHomo hent end designs,
set with heavy douhle Ktri tigth
fltins and adJiiNtatile slnlves.
Ixtra well made throughout
and neatly ornamented with
hand carvings. Fancy French
bevel mirror on tup.
This handsome Oo-Cart Is of the new folding tvpo
and occupies small space when folded. It has full
Imported reed body and dash,, cane haek and em
bossed cane seat; springs heat tempered steel, patent
wheel fasteners and brake mid large rubber tires.
A handsome and dependable cart. This is the Mart
man special a Go-Cart made specially for the great
Hartman chain of at ores a very elegant cart and
offered at a price that la surprisingly low. We ask
you to come and tiKH the cart. (Curanol and cush
ions extra.
Ths Inlton, Allwln or Knox Collapsible Oo-Cart,
strongest and best carts of the Kind made, has
leatherette seat and bin-k, rubber tire wheelH, T CA
easy to to ailiuat and fold, collapsible
Beclinlng- Folding Oo-Oart, reed back, wood seat,
rubber tire wbeela. dash In front, Iron X "JC
pusher and handles, regular n, at
roldlng- Beclinlng Oo-Cart, buck and seat of cane,
dusli In front, rubber tire wheels, royal f QC
green finish, at t-JJ
raiding Oo-Cart, miule very strong and light, veneer
neat and back, rubber tire steel wheels. f fie
gearing finished In green l.OJ
i i i
tcw? c--s':. 1 1
Solid Oak
This Chiffonier In built of solid
golden oak and has a beautiful pol
ish finish. It is made exclusively
for Hartman's and Is of moat rie-
iiendable construction; has large
ench beveled plate mirror.
In Plain.
Elegant Oak Q 7 J?
Dresser, now Os J
work on this
Special Kitchen
Cabinet, Only...
Exactly as shown. Convenient top,
large size base, size 2 fi X 4 1 inrhes, 2
large flour bins, 2 drawers mid 2
boards; extra well mude. .Made
throughout of solid oak, nicely finished,
heavy legs.
rT ' Twin
4 ---vC W
r-d - rSS ' Eaactly
?f - V. i .? Xlks
Vzt Al Hartman's Imperial Monarch 1 075
.ijjfe Runs. 10 at 1-
The cabinet
dresser Ih very high grade,
made strong, best of solid oak.
nenuuiuny rinisneil. Is hand
somely carved, has large top
front drawers and large
t rench bevel mirror.
Special ComV
Book Cast and Desk
The i"ss nue no mitre seam, ere of
hlgbeKt i-huracter Huus of most duruhlo
auallty. They are made of worsted, anlllna
ved, strictly high grade. They are not
"printed rugs," but are woven runs. Tlioy
are not mude of printed carpets, such as
niuny rugs that are being advertised In
Omaha. Kasy terms given.
Reynold's Cylinder
kefriyerat r at
Kxactly like cut. Made entirely f
metal, cylinder in shape, two separate
food ompartmer.tii. iu.,st economical
and eiinltary. all new Improved f. itures
l.rt I 'Igrrutor.
l-en tins Wonderful
for ao Years
k.B.i. Ml.iJ'lJM aijsxs
L t sSTil ataaastsflMI fSl I i Ml
Exnctly like Illustration.
Large oval .French beveled
mirror, nicely carved top,
large sire bookcase with ad-
Justable shelves and con v iol
ent desk. Made throughout
of solid oak. nicely flnleh'd,
exclusively Hartman de
sign: made In large quanti
ties for our ft stores.
This, Rlegtnt
lr.-n lis I, for
Jut like llliistriitlen. V.x -eedimily
ornaim-nted di-xign. extra miisivf and
finished with three coats of heavy
bnl ed-on eiiano l. A must extraordi
naiy value.
AU Ooods Marked
In Plain rigures
at Hartman's.
MasslvB Solid 1
Harlman s Special
Steel Ranges
Complete with high warming closets,
ns shown above, of large size, full
fl.e 8-inch holes, large Hiimre oven,
made of superior materials, ele
gantly nickeled trimmed and guaran
teed In every particular.
Oak Mde hoard
These Sideboards are made to
order for the Hartman chain of
stores and every effort has
been given to the detail of
workmanship and finish. They
have extra large French bev
eled mirrors, are elaborately
carved, serpentine swelled
front, as shown.
Special Sale
Felt Mattresg,
ipir-j"7 I
Relrlqcralor Spec
lal Sale Price
Best grade Kelt Mattress, usual $12
value and S'dd for tnat elsewhere In
Omaha, heaviest ticking, best filling,
guaranteed fully, special sale all this
strongly con-
Ps cut. It Is
iruciea. or great durability and
most economical. It is lined with
galvanized Iron. has metal
shelves, naterit drip cup and oilier
Improved features.
Hew Special
Fully guaranteed, five
drawers, solid ik case.
Cullipl, te W itll full Set of
at taehineiit s aul .n'-f
sorbs. new lrup-li"ad
style, easy running. told
u easy terms.
Ostemoor Mattresses
Imperial Smyrna
lum, Kashmir Regs,
Kelly Morris Chairs,
X&rptu Oi.arar.usa
22 Great Stores Throughout the U
(enter lable
I.Ike Illustration. Mad
of finest iiiarter-nued
oak, nil. bed and pol
ished, or in beautiful ma
hogany finish. has
huped tip, size IMxlM
in , nicely carved and
fancy shelf below.
agents roa.
B 1 1 b 1 Oas
Banges, Perfection
Oil BtoTes, McDougal
Kitchen Cablnsts,
Itannsy Bcfrigera
tors, Vsnlnsular
Kanges, etc.
sswriftsi iswwi raws
-ssstsasasssasMsassa Jt
The paper lhaJ oes to ike home brings Ihe returns to advertisers
The Omaha Eveaie
Within everybody's reach
reaches everybody
A clean and reliable paper for the home
is barred from no self-respecting household
6c. Per Week Delivered