Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, September 02, 1906, HALF TONE SECTION, Image 19

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    unday Bee
Pages 1 to 8
A Paper for the Horn
Best West
Southeastern Europe Possesses Much that of Great Interest to the Student aad Yet i little Known to the PuhUc, Owing to Its Peculiar Situation on
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travel and little known to usp If I can measure the
knowledge of others by my own. In order to learn some
thing of this section we came northwest from Constant
nople through Bulgaria, Servia and Hungary.
We passed through European Turkey In the night and morning
found us In Bulgaria, where .nothing but an occasional minaret rot
malned to remind us of he orient Strange that so great a difference
exists between two populations separated1 for centuries by nothing
but an Imaginary line! No more the Turk with his wealth of leisure,
his baggy trousers and his gay headgear, but the sturdy peasant Is
working In the field with his unveiled wife or trudging along the i
road carrying his produce to market; no more begging for baksheesh .
by lame and halt and blind, but a busy, Industrious throng, each
laboring apparently with a purpose and a hope.
All day long we rode past well cultivated fields and watched
tidy villages. The Bulgarians, Judged by appearance, might be.
thought a mixture of German and Italian, but they are really Slavlo
In their origin. I had the good fortune to meet a former minister,
a very intelligent man with a good command of English, and learned .
from him that there Is a strong democratic sentiment In that country
and that the people are making constant progress in the matter ot
education and political intelligence.
He said that during his ministry he had introduced into Bulgaria
the American homestead law and that It had resulted In an increase
In the number of peasant properties. It was gratifying to know that
American example had been helpful to people so remote from us.
He also spoke of the establishment in his country of state Insurance
against hall, that being one of the greatest perils the farmer has
to meet. He said that the system bed. worked, well. The railroads
and telegraph lines are also owned by the state in Bulgaria and are
operated very successfully.
The capital, Sofia, is a prosperous looking city, viewed from the '
railroad, and has an elevation of some 1,600 feet.'
Over the Balkans to Belgrade
We crossed the Balkan mountains and the second morning
reached Belgrade, the capital of Servia. The city has 'a fine loca
tion on a bluff at Junction to the Save with the Danube. A day's
visit here gave an opportunity to see something of the population, as
It was Sunday, and the streets and parks were filled with well
dressed, well-behaved and intelligent-looking people. The Servians,
who are also Slavlo in origin, are members of the Greek church,
and at the principal church of this denomination ' there was that
day a large congregation and an Impressive service. ment has taken In hand the matter of furnishing general inforroa-
Klng Peter, It will be remembered,1 Is the present ruler, having tion to the farmers and farm laborers. It encourages the formation
been called to the throne three years ago when his predecessor was 0( worklngmen's clubs, co-operative societies and parochial relief
assassinated. The brutalities attending the murder of King Alex- funds. It has established more than 1,000 free libraries and pub
ander and his wife were widely discussed at the time, the bodies lishes a weekly paper with a circulation ot about 60,000. More than
of the king and queen being thrown frqm the window of the palace hint of the copies are published in the Hungarian language, the rest
Into the park. While the new sovereign was recognized by most of being divided between five other languages, the Slavic coming next
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the powers of Europe, England refused to send a representative to
his court because the king retained some high officials who par
ticipated in the assassination. ' ? d .
As Servia has a parliament which controls the, ministry, and as
this parliament ' was hostile to 'the former king, King Peter' was'
powerless to comply with the conditions imposed by England at work undertakea by the agricultural department of. Hungary because
least this was the explanation given me. I heard next day at Buda- I think that we might with advantage adopt some ot Its. features,,
pest, however, that some satisfactory settlement had been' reached Our national appropriation for -agricultural purposes -bears a small-
and that England would soon be represented at Belgrade. King
Peter Is not of humble ancestry, as I had supposed, but Is a grandson
of a former king who was conspicuous In the war for Independence.
Peter himself was In exile in Switzerland at the time of his elevation
to the throne, and having during his residence there Imbibed some
thing of the spirit of constitutional liberty, Is much more popular
than was his predecessor. There Is quite a close connection be
tween Servia, Roumaula, Bulgaria and European Turkey, and It
will not be surprising if the last remnant of Turkish territory in
Europe Is, before many years, released from the sultan's rule and a
federation of Balkan states created. A majority of the sultan's
European subjects belong to different branches of the Christian
church, and but for their quarrels among themselves they would
long before this have been able to Imitate Servia and Bulgaria In
emancipating themselves.
Up the Danube to Budapest
The ride up the Danube valley from Belgrade to Budapest and
from Budapest to the Austrian boundary gives one a view of one ot
the richest sections of Hungary. While the Danube hardly Justifies
the poetic praise that has described Its waters as blue, it is a
majestic stream, and Its broad valley supports a large agricultural
No American can visit Hungary without having his sympathies
enlisted In behalf of Its people, for thelr's is a fascinating history.
Their country is one ot the most favored In Europe so far as nature's
blessings go. The Carpathian mountains, which form a wall around
'It on the north and east, shut out the cold winds and, by turning
back the warmer winds from the south, give to Hungary a more
temperate climate than other European countries In the same lati
tude, and in few countries has agriculture been more fostered by
the state. ,
The present minister of agriculture. Dr. Ignatius Daramyl, has
been at the head of this department for ten years, and being an en
thusiast on the subject, he has Introduced many new features and
brought his department Into close contact with the people. During
his' administration the annual apprporlatlons for agriculture have In
creased from about 18,000,000 to about $13,000,000, and the Income
from his department has risen from 16,000,000 to f 9.000,000, leav
ing the net cost to the state at present some $4,000,000 per year.
Hungary believes In furnishing technical schools to those who
Intend to farm; she has twenty-two Industrial schools with about
600 pupils, and these schools are so distributed as to make them
convenient for the small farmers. She has four secondary schools
of agriculture with a total attendance of over 600, and to complete
her system she has an agricultural academy with a student body of
150. In order to accommodate adults who have not had the ad
vantage of these schools, she has short winter terms and traveling
Instructors. By systematic effort the agricultural department Is not
only increasing the efficiency ot the Hungarian as a tiller of the soil,
but It Is Increasing his general Intelligence and raising the standard
of citizenship.
Experiment Station Work
The experiment station is also a prominent feature ot the work
of the department of agriculture. All the new agricultural imple
ments are tested and reports are furnished upon their merlts there
are several seed-testing stations, where farmers can secure, at cost
price, not only selected seeds but seed shown by experiment to be
suited to the climate and soil of their locality. Then there are a
number of model farms located at convenient points which are in
tended to be object lessons to the neighborhoods In which they are
cltuated. At these model farms and at other centers breeding estab
lishments are conducted where horses, cattle, hogs and sheep ot
. the best breeds are kept end loaned to the farmers about These
breeding farms have resulted In a marked Improvement In the quality
and value of the stock. v '
Nor does the agricultural department confine Its attention to
stock raising and ordinary farming; It Is equally Interested In horti
culture, vine dressing, forestry and even bee culture. Government
nurseries furnish the hardiest varieties ot young trees and vines and
train those who desire to give special attention to these branches of
industry. Instruction in the pruning of trees and the training ot
vines has an artistic as well as utilitarian side, and taste is de
veloped in the ornamentation of the arbors and gardens. Here, as
elsewhere In Europe, much attention is given to forestry, and under
the direction ot the department of agriculture the work of preserving
the old forests and ot planting new groves is being Intelligently and
Systematically done.
la addition to the work above outlined, the agricultural deparV
cities In Europe. In 1890 I received a cablegram of congratulation
and encouragement from a farmers' congress which was at that time
In session In that city. I remembered this because It was the only
cablegram received from any body of Europeans during the campaign.
Originally there were two cities Buda on the south bank and
Pesth on the north bank, but they were united under one municipal
government some years ago, the names of the old towns being pre
served In the new. The foothills of the Alps extend to the very
bank of the Danube and furnish magnificent sites for villas, forts,
public buildings and the royal palace, while on the opposite bank
there is a broad plain .which affords ample room for the rapidly
extending limits of the commercial and manufacturing sections of
the city. Several bridges connect Buda and Pesth so that the river,
jwhile a great thoroughfare, no longer divides the business and the
official sections. The streets of Budapest are wide, well paved,
clean and lined with buildings quite uniform in height, one of the
. avenues rivaling the Champs-Elysee in Paris and Unter den Linden
to the Hungarian and the German following, although less than ten
per cent are printed in the latter language. To strengthen the ties
between employers and employee, harvest feasts have been, inaugu
rated, and the attendance at these feasts is yearly Increasing. -
I have gone Into detail somewhat In describing the scope ot the
proportion, not only to the amount of taxes paid by the farmers, but '
to the appropriations made foe other departments. .
Budapest, the capital of Hungary, is one of the most attractive' in Berlin; the parks are large and near the city; the business blocks
Edward Rosewater's Las! Speech
DDRESS delivered by, Edward Rosewatef at 2 - o'clock
Thursday, August SO, 1906, at Waterloo, Neb., to. the
veterans of the Grand Army, at their camping ground:
MK Chairman, Ladles and Gentlemen: 1 The past rises
before me like a dream. . I am again a boy in the land
of cotton. In the era of ? African slavery. I hear the groans of the
tion, two or three years ago, declared, in a speech, in Memphis,
Tenn., that nobody would ever know who was in the right until we
crossed to the other shore.
Tor myself, I am sure that we were In the right; that those
who stood, for the flag, for the union, for the abolition of human
slavery, were right, and the others were wrong, and I don't want
are Imposing and the public buildings models In designs and con
struction. The parliament building only recently completed, Is one
of the handsomest In the world.
The Hungarian people are distinct In language and history
from all their neighbors. In fact, the Hungarians differ In many re
spects from all other people ot Europe, the Inhabitants of Finland
being their nearest kins-people. Their early history Is unknown,
but they came from western Asia, where the Mongolians, the Turks
. and the Finn-Ugrlans struggled for mastery about the beginning of
1 the Christian era. They were first known as Huns and claim Attila
! as one of their race. They have more often, however, used the word
Magyars to describe their people, that name being a popular one at
i present. Their occupation of their present , territory dates from
about the ninth century, since which time they have figured promi
nently in the history of Europe. About the beginning ot the eleventh
century Hungary,' undef the leadership of King Stephen (later known
as St. Stephen), became a Christian nutlon. and since that time she
' has been conspicuous in all the religious wars of Europe. In the
fifteenth century she furnished the leader of the Christian army la
the person of John Hunyadl, one of the greatest military geniuses
of that period. His prominence In war brought his son Matthias to
the throne ot Hungary, a king who, when warned of a plot against
' his life, exclaimed, '.'Let no king, ruling Justly and lawfully, fear
' the poison and 'assassin's dagger of his subjects." .
Golden Bull of Hungary
. As early as the thirteenth century Hungary began to Inaugurate
political reforms, and In 1222 her nobility ' ended a struggle of a
hundred years by securing a concession which is regarded by her
people as equal in importance to England's Magna Cbarta of 1215.
It was in the form of a royal letter, Issued by Andrew II., and called
the Golden Bull '(owing to the fact that the seal attached to It by a
silk string rests In a gold box). This document contained certain
promises to the nobles and admitted the binding forces of certain
restrictions upon the king. The Golden Bull was the beginning ot
constitutional government in Hungary, and while It has not always
been" Btrictly observed by her rulers, it has served as a basis for
subsequent negotiations. For several centuries they elected their
During the nearly 700 years which have elapsed since 1223
Hungary has had a checkered career. Rival aspirants for the throne
have fought over the succession and been aided in their ambition by
neighboring nations; kings and nobles have fought over their respec
tive authority; the nobility and the peasants have fought over their
rights; different branches of the Christian church have been at war
with each other, for Hungary has been the eastern outpost of
Protestantism, as well as champion of Christianity; and more re
cently Hungary has been fighting for her political Independence.
Hers has been a long, drawn-out struggle in which her people, time
and again, have almost been exterminated, but she emerges from
It all a strong, vigorous and militant nation. She Is now a part of
the Austro-Hungarlan empire, and her people form the largest homo
genous group in the empire. When we consider the numerous ware
between Austria and Hungary, the difference in race, history and
language, and the dissimilarity In political training, it is not strange
that there should be a lack of harmony between the empire as a
whole and its largest single member.
When Hungary turned to, Austria for help against the Turks and)
came under the Hapsburg line, she insisted upon a recognition of her
national rights and secured a promise that her people shoufdava
control ot their own affairs. While this alliance did not save
from Mohammedans, it uniter her destiny to that of Austria,
he has never surrendered her independence. The crown of Hungary
has always been distinct from that of Austria, and the emperor of
Austrio-Hungary must visit Budapest and receive with the crown ot
St. Stephen the title of king of Hungary. Joseph II., son of the
beloved Maria Theresa, was the first king to refuse to receive the
crown and swear fidelity' to the Hungarian constitution, and the
Hungarians would never call him their "crowned king" until on hie
death bed he retraced his arbitrary measures and permitted the
restoration of the constitution.
, bufy
black man writhing under the lash of the brutal taskmaster from., anybody (Applause.) I don't want history perverted; I don't want
the cotton plantation. I see hundreds of men,-women and children,
ot all colors and ages, sold at auction like so many cattle. I. see
train loads ot blacks. and yellows transported over the Memphis &
Charleston railroad from their homes, to the New Orleans slave
market;" , Again I am in that southland during the cloud and storm
that preceded the election of Abraham Lincoln, and there yet when
John Brown makes his raid. The semi-centennial of John Brown's
first battle is being celebrated today at Osawatomle, and the vice
president of the United States is billed to deliver the oration of
this semi-centennial. John Brown was ' the - John the Baptist ot
the abolition of slavery, and the great revolution that followed
the war of I8CIH0 1865.
I am still in the south, when side by side the advocates and
champions ot union and secession are discussing the momentous
issues, each man armed with a revolver, ready to shoot at the drop
of the hat. I am there still when the southern militia are armed
and marching toward Charleston to take Fort Sumter. I can re
member still the tigers ot New Orleans and Louisiana, and the
Arkansas toothpick men armed with bowle knives; I can remember
the Alabamans all marching toward the great field of battle, be
fore the first gun had been fired on Sumter. I was in Nashville
when Donelson fell, and saw the retreat of Sidney Johnston's be
draggled and demoralized battalions coming through the city. I
saw the bridge erected by Zollikoffer burned by Floyd, while the
army was on the run out ot Nashville. I, was there during those
terrible riots, when the Texas cavalry charged the mob with sabers
and hundreds, of men were wounded and killed In the streets. I
was there when the flag of the union was hauled down and the flag
of secession hauled up on .the pole above the capltol.I was there
again when the boys in blue came after the battle of Donelson and
the stars and stripes, for the first time In six months, were seen by
me, and within one hour after I saw those Stars and Stripes, I saw
Old Glory mounting up above the capltol ot Tennessee, to remain
there forever. - (Applause.)
During those preceding months I saw Jeff Davis and heard him
deliver his oration on his way to be Inaugurated president of the
southern confederacy, in which he predicted that the south would
carry the sword and torch, through the .northern states and the
grass would grow in the streets of the city of New Tork.
Within thirty dajs after the taking of Fort Donelson I was en
listed In the union army, and began the campaign with General
John C. Fremont, -the first standard bearer of the republican party,
fifty years ago. I followed his leadership through the campaign In
West Virginia; and afterwards accompanied General John Pope on
his great march through the Rapldan toward Richmond and back
again. I slept on the battlefield of the second battle of Bull Run.
I saw a great deal of this war and knew intimately many of the
great leaders engaged In it. I was for ten months stationed at the
office of Abraham Lincoln, In the city of Washington, and saw the
martyred .president, with his sad. furrowed face, gradually being
bent down by the pressure and weight of the terrible ordeal through
which he was passing.
We are here today looking backward through the vista of years
toward that glganUc struggle in which the old veterans before me
today took their part, and for which they risked their health, their
limbs and their lives, that this nation. might remain one; that all
men should be free and equal in accordance with the declaration
ot Independence.
I have always favored the most generous treatment of the
southern people, and particularly the rank and file of the confed
erates. I would be willing to strew flowers upon the graves of the
gray as well as upon those ot the blue, but there is where I drew
the line.
General Gordon, the head of the southern confederate organize.'
the children of the south to be taught falsehoods concerning the
true state of affairs. .
The conspiracy was concocted by their leaders; ambitious men
who wanted to rule this government or to ruin it. I do not want
to see monuments erected to the Jefferson Davis' or to the General the rlghU of their nation, but the majority of the members of Parll
Lees. ( A, voice: "Nor Wertz.") Nor much less Wertz. it is a ment ,ns,Bt upoQ tne recognition of the constitution of 1848, while
travesty upon Justice; it is a reflection upon every man who wore the the mtnority are content to adhere to the constitution of 1867, whicn
Some Hungarian Patriots
In her struggle for liberty Hungary has developed many patriots,
among whom Lewis Kossuth is the best known. He and Francis
Deak were the leaders ot the revolution in 1848 which resulted In
the constitution of that year. The constitution of 1867 was not
quite so liberal, and these two constitutions form the basis ot the
present political division in Hungary; all Hungarians are Jealons of
blue during that great struggle. And I was Badly, lamentably ais
appolnted some years ago, when our late president went upon his
tour In the southern states, through Georgia, and allowed a con
federate to pin a confederate badge upon his chest. I have always
thought that such a thing should not have been done in the sight of
the American people. - The badge of treason can never be put upon
gives the emperor a larger control over the army.
The elder Kossuth lived in exile after the revolution in 1867
and was during his exile enthusiastically received In the United
States by congress and by the people in general. Kossuth's son is
now a member of the coalition ministry, and at a banquet, to which
I had the good fortune to be Invited, spoke feelingly of the treatment
the body or upon the coat of the commander-in-chief of the army Which his father received in the United States and of the high re-
and navy of the United States. There has been too much of what gard feit by Hungarians for America and Americans. Count Apponyl,
might be termed namby-pambyism about the great valor and gen- the foremost orator of Hungary, also paid his respects to the United
erous chivalry of those southern leaders. I feel, In the first place, states and likened our country to the forwarding stations in wireless
that any man who Is educated at the expense of the American peo- telegraphy, saying that the political current was so strong in our
pie, at the expense of our government, either In West Point or An- country that its messages were carried to all the world,
napolls, who swore that he. would support the flag and defend it I happened to be in Budapest at the opening' of Parliament, and
against Its enemies, and then who raised his arm to destroy the heard the speech of the new premier, Dr. Wekerle. The Independent
government, should never have been again commissioned by any
president of the United States. (Voices: "That's right." "No.
No.") And I so stated to President Roosevelt, in the, presence of
General Wood, at a luncheon that I had been Invited to, and the
president Jokingly said, "Well, what would have become of our
commander, General Wheeler; he could not have commanded for
us In Cuba If your Idea had prevailed T" "Well," I sald,' "we did
not need him nor anybody like him." For General Wheeler had to
be put In irons, Just like Jeff Davis, after he was captured, after
peace had been made at Appomattox; after the surrender he still
resisted; he did not recognize this government and expatriated him-,
self, and went to another country first, and then came back because
he found that, after all, the United States of America was good
enough for every man born on Aberican soil. (Applause.)
Personally. I do not believe that either Lee or wneeier. or
party has a large majority in the Parliament, having shown Increas
ing strength, at each successive election. The emperor, Francis
Joseph, is resisting one of the demands made by the Hungarians,
viz., that the army shall use the Hungarian instead of the German
language. Some years ago the fight was made and won for the use
of the Hungarian language In schools, In the courts and In Parlia
ment, and the Hungarians feel that their nationality Is endangered
by the fact that their army is taught only the German words ot
Imperial Ideas on Language
The emperor takes the position that the use ot the Hungarian
language would destroy the unity of the Imperial army. To prevent
a rupture he proposed the formation ot a coalition cabinet to hold
any other commander of the southern forces, who had been reared until the suffrage could be eitended and the question again sub-
at the expense of our government, should ever have been commis
sioned again with any (A voice: "That's Is right.") command
from the smallest corporal's guard of union men. It was all wrong
and it teaches the next generation to have little regard for real
.patriotism; it is a false patriotism. The man who betrays his gov
ernment In time of war commits treason and should never be re
warded with any office of profit, honor or trust. (Applause.)
It Is all very well that we have been taught this new Idea in
these later days, and some very good soldiers and some great com
manders, during the war, have allowed themselves, perhaps, for
political reasons, to recede from the standard of morals
and the standard ot Integrity which West Point , teaches
to every man who is reafed within its walls. , For our
selves, we have only got a very few years of life; the final call
tnay come at any moment, but the coming generation will want to
know whether we really were no different, no more patriotic, no
more worthy of trust and honor than the men of the south who tried
to destroy this government for the reason that they wanted to keep
up and maintain the horrible Institution of human slavery; for that
was, after all, the main Intent and purport of their war. It was a
war to maintain that Institution, and to amass wealth by the labor
of others while they were Idly looking on.
We have fought out those battles In the past; we are now con
fronted with others In the future. Those of us who were in the
midst ot the fray; those who have seen the beginning and the down-
Continued ou Page Two.J
muted to the people. There Is no doubt that the people are prac
tically unanimous in favor of their own language and that an ex
tension of the suffrage will not change the complexion of Parliament.
The relations between the emperor and Hungary have become very
much strained, and the aversion to the German language is so
pronounced that Hungarians who can speak the German language
will often refuse to answer a question addressed to them in German.
For Francis Joseph himself the Hungarians have a strong af
fection, and they would be glad to contribute to the happiness ot his
closing days, but they feel that the interests ot their nation are
vitally concerned and they are anxious to have the point at issue
settled before a new sovereign ascends the throne. It the emperor
were left to himself he would probably conclude that a Hungarian
fighting force attached to the empire and grateful for consideration
shown their country would form a more Vsectlve part of the Joint
army, even though the Hungarians spoke their own language, than
troops compelled to learn a language hateful to them.. History fur
nishes many examples of successful armies made up of corps, divi
sions and regiments speaking different languages; but leas numerous
are the instances of nations successfully held together by force when
one part of the empire was made subservient to the Interest of an
other part.
Hungary Is being alienated by Insistence upon requirements
which do not, In reality, strengthen the empire, while she might be
drswn closer to the throne by a more liberal policy. The end la
not yet. W. J. BRYAN.
XCopy rUM l' ' ,