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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 4, 1906)
The Omaha Illustrated Bee
FEItKUAKV 4, 11KH5.
. m, yymaua i uuubuu t tftrKijr uy me 13 ee rumisnmg uo. $u bscnpt ion, $2.50 Per Year.
AROUND THE WORLD
WITH WILLIAM JENNINGS RRYAN
Society in Japan in Its Feudal Organization and Its Modern Aspect, Showing How Western Thought and Example Have Influenced the People of the Island Kingdom in Their Social and Business Intercourse
( Pnnvrl trht 1 O A C t.--,u n n i i - . , .
v--irf..BMvt wv( ijr wunryu X3. DUWltfU upyngni. in Ureal ismaill, m r w-m m w
rounn oi mis Notable Series of Letters Fifth
All Rights Reserved.)
IOTO, Japan, Oct. 29. As for the Islands themselves, they
are largely of volcanic origin and a number of smoking
peaks still give evidence of the mighty convulsions which
piled up these masses of masonry. AsoBan mountain, on;
the Island of Kyushu, has the largest crater inthe world.
Japan Is the home of the earthquake. The Japanese Year '
Cook of 1905 is authority for the statement that Japan was. visited
by 17,730 earthquakes during the thirteen years ending ' 1897 aa
average of more than 1,300 a year, or three and one-half each day,
It Is needless to say that a large majority of, these were' so 'trivial
as to be unnoticed, except by those in charge of the delicate lnstru-.
ment which registered them.
If the average is as great at this time, there have been more
than Beventy-five since we landed, but we have not been aware ot
them. The severe shocks have come at periods averaging two and
one-half years, and really disastrous ones have been something like '
ffty years apart. The country about Tokio Is most subject, to"
earthquakes, the number recorded there averaging ninety-six a year;
during the last twenty-six years. The last severe one was in 1894.'
According to an ancient legend, Japan rests upon the back of a large
fish, and the earthquakes are caused by the moving of the Abu.
There is a selsmological society in Japan which has published a
slxteen-volume work giving all that is scientifically known of these
Origin of the Japanese as a Race
Of the origin of the Japanese themselves nothing certain Is
known. The best authorities say they came from the continent la
an early Mongol invasion, while others believe that they came from
the islands which stretch to the south. One writer announces the
theory that they are the lost Israelites. It is quite certain that
when the first Japanese landed on the islands they found an earlier
race in possession. Some 17,000 of these, called AIno3, now occupy
the northern extremity of the empire an indication that migration,
was from the southwest. The Ainos have remained distinct; where
they have intermarried with the Japanese the half-breeds have died
out in the second or third generation. They are a hairy race, and
In physical characteristics quite different from the Japanese. Their
religion is a sort of nature worship, and It Is their custom to say
n simple 'grace before eating.
The remoteness of the settlement of Japan is shown by the fact
;hat the reigning family, which claims descent from the gods, has
held undisputed tway for 2,500 years, although the record of the
first 1,000 years is so dependent upon verbal tradition that the
official history cannot be verified. As concubinage has been prac
tlced from time Immemorial, the heir, the oldest son, has not al
ways been born of the empress.
Soon after the- beginning of the Christian era the Influence ot
China and Korea began to be felt in Japan, the written characters
cf the language being quite like the Chinese. Koreans and Japanese
do not agree as to the influence which the former have had upon the
latter. A very intelligent Korean informs me that his is the mother
country, and that Japan was settled from Korea, but the Japanese t
do not take kindly to this theory, , -
Social Divisions and "the Happy Despatch"
The feudal system, of which I ehall speak more fully in another
article, was early established in Japan, aod- seclsiyj r divided
Letter Will Appear in The Bee Next Sunday
" t . 1 ' " 1 " 1 i nit 1i . it in lit t ' i .,1 t f 1 a h a ... ..,., , .. ......... .. ........
' ' ' : . - . . . . . ...
A JAPANESE TEMPLE.
EXAMPLE OF JAPANESE FEMALE DRESS.
which deals with commercial, financial and economic questions.
Yokohama has papers published in both languages, and the same U
true of the other laie sra;ort tonus.
All of the cities are supplied with daily papers published In
Japanese. At Kagoshhna, a city of about 50,000, situated at the
southern extremity of Kyushu Island, 1 found a prosperous dally
paper called the Kagoshlma Shlmbun tShimbun meaus dally news
paper). It has a circulation of 9,000. (1,000 being in the city.
At Osaka I noticed a building elaborately decorated. In front
were large Hags on bamboo poles and similar flags strung on cords,
while Japanese lanterns were present In profusion. As none of
the buildings around It were decorated, I Inquired and found that
the decorated building was the office of the Osaka Ashahi News,
and that the paper was celebrating the withdrawal of the govern
mental order which for two, weeks had suspended publication. The
issue for that day contained a large size picture of the Goddess
of Liberty. When the rioting occurred at Toklo, just after the
treaty of peace with Russia, an order was Issued authorizing the
arbitrary suspension of any newspaper containing utterances deemed
Incendiary. Under this order the Ashahi News received notice to
suspend publication until permission was granted to resume. The
withdrawal of the notice was duly celebrated, and the paper an
nounced that its readers rather than the paper had reason to com
plain of the suspension. This paper has the largest circulation
of any in Japan, about 200,000, and the order suspending it has
been the subject of much editorial criticism.
Besides the newspapers which are conducted as business pro
positions, there are papers supported by associations formed for
the propagation of various reforms. For instance, a paper called
RomaJI is published monthly at Toklo Japanese words being
spelled with Roman letters In the place of the present Japanese
characters. A society was formed some twenty years ago for the
purpose of urging this reform, and the paper advocating it was pub
lished for three years, but finally suspended from lack of support.
This fall the Romajl was established and hopes for a better fate.
While the reform would be acceptable to foreigners who are trying
to learn the language, the movement does not seem. to have gathered
In one of the leading papers, the Hochi Shlmbun, Mr. Gensal
Mural, a novelist of distinction, published a continued story running
dally through six years. It ts not yet completed, having been sus
pended during the war. In this story the writer presents a large
amount of Information on national, political, economic and social
questions, at the same time putting In enough fiction to sustain tho
Basis of Japanese Progress
Progress along some other lines will be treated under special
heads. I find that there is some tendency here to resent the state
ment that Japan has borrowed largely from other nations. Some
native writers insist that new Japan Is but the natural development
of old Japan. There is a measure of truth in this because there is
no growth except from a living germ; and yet it cannot be denied
that Japan has appropriated to her own great advantage many for
eign ideas, and it is not to her discredit that she has done so.
Both individuals and nations borrow; imitation, not originality, is
the rule. It will humble the pride of anyone to attempt to separate
that which he has learned from others from that which' he can
claim as his own by right of discovery.
oieam is me same toaay as It was ages ago, and yet millions
" "" mw' awuMj" mmw aiviuea - . . . vs,- - -. ;. -Ti, oicum me same ioaay as it was ages ago, and yet millions
Into well defined classes. First came the members of the royal tne DulI("ng or any but small sailing vessels. It Is almost incredible still thousands of Japanese girls whose virtue is made a matter of upon millions watch it escaping from the kettle with no thoneht of
M I , - a iii.ai.i. . . - that fin loTUQ gx rvflim' rf T.nn.il.. nA.JJ V 1 .1 ... . 1 I . ...... , . . .. 1 VJ U fc I
mujuy sua moBe aanmiea to me circle ot ravor; next, the Shogun " " - .i- v iu.mu uo aW5u m civ.uiauua ouercuanaise in -ccoraance wun mis ancient custom, 'mere is re- us latent power. ' One man showed mankind the use to which It
(of whom, more will be beard-under the subject of government), wh)ch xlsted-here, nd-still oacealed themselves so-eomplitde4tinpng the decisions of Ooka. sometimes called the Japanese could be put, and all the rest profited by the idea Shall we refuse
and his relatives. .,- ; ; ,' ., ' from tM u,tsW -world .hd-Remained,-' ao ignorant of the mighty': Salomon,' who lived three centuries ago, a case in which the re- to ride upon the railroad or cross the waters In an ocean greyhound
Next in rank were the daimlos, or lords, of varying degrees of m0vement in Europe and America.'. In" 1853 Commodore Perry lease of a youns woman from a house of ill-fame was the central for fear of employing the conception of another? Electricity is not
Importance. Each dalmlo had a large number of retainers, who Hrr,ved with. an American fleet and a treaty was finally entered Into feature. The report of the Judge's decree shows a discriminating a new agency. The lightnings have illumined the sky from the
were called the samurai, and below these were a still larger number h,cn opened the country to. foreign intercourse. Japan was ripe . mind as well as devotion to Justice. Incldeutly, the record reveals dawn of creation, and the people saw in them only cause for fear
of peasants who tilled the soil and did the usual manual labor. the cfran.Ed-' While there was at first i un , anti-foreign 1 senti- ' the fact that there were Shylocks in those days who loaned on A few decades ago one man thought out a method by which It
Some of the early pictures show the gorgeous dress of the dalmios men W;hJch alrec.ted domestic politics, and at one-time, resulted in short time at high rates, and exacted the pound of flesh. In this could be imprisoned in a wire, and now widely separated lands are
and portray the elaborate ceremony emnloved on state occasion an ttacH ui'n a foreisn vessel, the assimilation of western clvlllza- case the usurer compelled the sale of the daughter In extinguishment united bv teletrranh lino.. whn .u , .
- . . . m h . - - - j-.-j- ....x.,. oa-niv, (.u uiva Liaici at- i h iii'HMn nan
hou was rapid, ana .constant. Young men began too abroad, for- o a debt of fifteen yen, which by rapidly accumulating Interest had Shall we refuse to read the news that the current carries or reiect
eign teachers were sent for. and the .Japanese people began to reached the, to them, enormous sum of thirty-five yen (or $17.50). a message from home because we must employ an Idea which snramr
manifest a wonderful aptitude for the adaption of foreign ideas to The righteous Judge confiscated the house of the extortioner and from another's brain? .He Is stupid who rejects truth no matter
local conditions. The army and navy were ' reconstructed upon with the proceeds redeemed the woman. By the aid of missionaries, from what source it comes- that nation is blind which does not
European models, and a public school system largely like our own tinder the leadership of Rev. Murphy of Nagoya, legislation has welcome light from anywhere and everywhere It is to the glory
was established. been secured making it unlawful for a girl to be retained in one of not to the shame, of the Land of the Rising Sun that her people
Where Yamaffata Got His Start these houses against her will, and many have already been rescued, have been quick to obey the Injunction: "Prove 'all things; hold
13 As the taking of a concubine Is a matter of record, it is possible fast that which is good." ' -v J BRYAN
In most' countries reforms have come up from the masses for the newspapers to acquaint themselves with domestic relations '
through more or less prolonged seasons of agitation, but in Japan of prominent men, and some of the papers have assisted in creat-
lue uiKuer ciabses nave neen tne leaders. ad have extended in- lng a public opinion against concublne3. The custom is certain to
give way before the advance of western ideas.
The samurai were the warriors, and had no other occupation
than to defend their lords in the struggles between clans. They
correspond to the knights in Europe during the days of chivalry,
except that there were no romantic adventures over women woman
holding until recently a very subordinate place as compared with
"her lord and master."
The samurai were given an annual allowance for their sub
sistence, and felt that toll was far beneath their dignity. They
wore lacquered armor and costly helmets and carried two swords
a long one for the enemy and a short one for themselves.
Work of a Great Native Journalist
One of the foremost leaders In the elevation of woman was
Yuklchi Fukuzawa, one of the greatest, as well as one of the most
Nebraskan Who Preceded Bryan
As a reader of The Bee I am greatly interested in the letters of
W. J. Bryan on Japan and cannot but see the similarity between them
and my diary kept by me In the year lHtW and 1807, while there myself
as a member of the crew of the United States steamship Hartford, but
the improvement is so marked that I thought I would speak of It in a
short letter to you.
At that time Japan was In the hands of the Shoguns, only three
It was with this sword that the famous hara-kiri van com
mitted. This ancient form of suicide by disembowelment was con- creased social and governmental advantages Wthe whole people
sldered a highly honorable death, and has been practiced until lthout a struggle. In every department of thought there has been
within a generation. General Salgo, one of the great men of Japan PrBre88' and in every line of work there have been leaders whose
and one of its popular heroes, was the last man of prominence to ambllion9 and ldeaIs have been high and noble,
terminate his life in this way. He was one of th'ierfpr in th To illustrate the change that has taken place. Count Okuma
movement 10 restore to tne emperor, the authority which the sho- lttu,uu "'"ry genius, me present Marshal influential, of the men who have appeared in Japan He was a
guns had usurped, and was for awhile close to the throne, in 1R74 "magata. When a very young man Yamagata was a spearsman inrniifit n ert..tr n nrl,tnr u
- 1 V 1 i a. x. - . . . - "I . t wu w.u a yuuwowiiUCI . 11C IC1UDCU imrla t a l . -
nowever. ne organized an army for the invasion of Korea, and , , me aaimios or unosnu to attack the to accept any titles or decorations, and was called "The Great Com- V . b iruue. ana we n.nue tne first pannage through the
coming in conflict with the forces of the empire, which were called Sn Bhlp.a at the sh,monoseki straits. He was so Ignorant of moner." He founded a college, the Kelo-Gljuku to which many of 8a' awon,IM,nU,1 by the Wacuusette and Wyoming, under the
out to prevent the invasion, he was defeated. In his humiliation he modern warfare that he was confident of the ability of the Japanese the pubUc men trace their ideals and their interest in national nSeS JalM,,lese artillery on both sides stretched along in regular
committed hara-kiri. A few years ago the title of marquis was to de'eat the foreigners with spears. He thought that the Europeans questions and social problems. He delivered the first public sneech """ frm NaBaMkl t0 Oaolki- with men a-hold of tho
conferred upon him by a posthumous decree, and is now enjoyed "nd Am;rlcans would be at the mercy of the natives as soon as made m Japan, for. strange as it may seem, the habit of public hamwor strlu8 reudy for attack any moment We also bad our
by his eldest son. One of his sons Is the present mayor of Kyoto, tney 'an,ded- "ls Bu,i"-,se imagined when leaden missiles speaking does not reach further back than twenty-three years Until KU"8 ln 8anie P08'"011 minted at them for the whole passage. How
tnd another a colonel in the imperial guard. A bronze monument .Wei dWnn omrades ln before the spears could be brought constitutional government was formed there was no place for the WeU 1 m,R',nber those daJ-
of heroic size, the gift of admiring friends, has recently been placed ""e' . ' f ut yoUfng, maf attempted in 1864 to measure forum. shortly before his death Mr. Fukuzawa reduced his phil- Then' aKn,n' wh we we,lt UP to lue Ptal city to negotiate -the
ln the principal park in Tokio. LPf" "n De,ook mmee,r t0 the 8tudy of nillitary 030phy to the form of a code of morals which has mH nmf..- nUi of ,ht" P,,rt8 of '. lw we were met after anchoring in tho
Only a few years ago a young Japanese committed suicide :1 T., .tT'T. - In the recent war with Russia he has impression upon the thought of his country. He presented "inde- harbor or ,arge bn-v- nnd ,:,uded n shore, "by a regiment of Japanese
in equipment in n pndence and 8elf resPect'" a he defined lhera- the "cardinal 80,dler9' foruu'd a hM 8'lua. took us in the center and we
a. we 1 s l li Texo ? .TJ ' f I)er8nal mra,a and HvlnB-" He lnsl8ted the care "P Hy l the PU,UC Under uard eve moment
wor7d Sunt Okuma 1 that tSe nroJl iZ &T f th6 bdy the traln,DS f the mInd aud the cultlTatlon of the Admlral " Bell was in command and chief among u A. foreign.
uiiu. ioubi uKuma said mat the progress made in the armv u ..... era wpr unt ,iiio. i. n .. . . "
and navy was paralleled hv th nrn. i a ' 7 . WBO UUB ot lue "rBl lo ralse n,s volce against "".r "ul n "anger outside of the
horo.lrtrt ' a n A In V ( n m A 1 . tMam . . ...
. While there r hero hnn , "" tuua ul ulora'8 ue Ba8: complete mis
revalent destr fnr kZI.,; " '8 UatUral 8pan of Ufe ,8 to darge a duty Incumbent on man.
to the action of our president in bringing about the recent tr
rentv n -. , . . . , - .
. . . . " - r. mo 6erumeni i0Ve each other
u UIVi vu invaae ivorea. uenerai Salgo raised his army for his or her own
the purpose of conquering Korea, but the government met the in- When this
.uMiiuuuu mm an army laree enoueh to rnmn atoiv ..... .
" ucwu letters irom
mo lauious general.
in this way to emphasize bis protest against tjie encroachments of
the Russians, but a strong sentiment is developing against hara
kiri, and it will soon take its place among other obsolete customs.
Samurai, Merchant and Peasant
, The samurai represented the Intelligent as well as the military
strength of the nation. The daimlos have furnished few of the
men of prominence to modern Japan, nearly all of the leaders in
government, education, literature and the professions having come
from the samurai class. Now, however, that all social distinctions
have been removed, and the schools opened to the children of all,
the old lines between the classes cannot much longer be traced.
The merchant class has always been looked down upon ln
Japan. In the social scale they were not only lower than the
ramural. but lower than the tillers of the soil. It was probably
because of the contempt in which they were held that so low a
standard of Integrity existed among them at least this is the ex
planation usually given. Even now Japanese as well as foreigners the forces of
complain that the merchants impose upon their customers, but ho
also, a change is taking place, and a new order of things is being
inaugurated. There are in every city merchants of honor and re
sponsibility, who are redeeming trade from the stigma which it so
long bore. Still, unless the stranger knows with whom he ls deal
ing, it is well to have a Japanese adviser, for we found by experi
ence that the price named to foreigners was sometimes considerably
above the regular price.
Development During Long Isolation
For centuries Japan lived an Isolated life, and developed herself
according to her own ideas. Of her native religion, Shintoism, of
- . "u iue nrsi unnstian missionaries nnrtnr iho i .i.., . ... ...
I shall speak in a later article. She repelled an attack of Mongols h.- T1"1 01 ln8 nusDand and father. Mar-
which might have been disastrous to i Tut tor tLt tZ l I , ""T1 P PareDU" the yUD8 peop,e wer
timely storm destroyed the invading Belt much 1. the Spanish rltZn 7 !? &fter the matCD W" areed uPon- Theo-
armada was destroy. She h'a. from fine To'lLVZT. ?1 LV " " P-ically
1 1 ? ,?:..K!rea 'f81 attempt beiDK made bout 300 years The wife was not onlv the Jrt , h...K .... . ' ' . development has kept pace with the development
10 'r.ine aogun' lemU8u' alaruled t the spread of also be the servant of the mn,hi nS.JU:: C 1 "l "'f" ,a otber nectlons. Toklo. the capital, has sixteen daily papers
a prevalent desire for near Vntwith.tHin. . . 7 iu ulotuttrije a uuiy incumoeni on man. ....... um iuny years can accomp sh no one
JfflcW .my f8" IT Tberef. any person, who be the cause what it may. or the cir- As to customs, dress, muuners of work and living, ther so
!75i. , Lv r T mstances what they may. deprives himself by violence of his own ly aee that I feel as if I was away back forty years fgo buM
I,' ' t::,,S!L IT: !!! mU8t be 8a,d t0 be of " " inexcusable as cowardly, k for greater changes In Japan In time yet to come'
the presiding officer has referred In term, of generous appreciation "n"J' PrinC,Ple ' ,ndePend"
Henderson, York County, Nebraska.
Lv W. SMITH.
Drifting Across the Pole
on a basis of equality, so that each may develope , , 1 " k" wuu"u were 8et ,008e ,n Ber,nK at the
independence and self respect." instigation of I'resLleut Henry U. Bryuut of the Geographical Society
great man died in 1901 his widow was in receipt of ?' I'uilttdelPllltt ul)d ' Admiral George W. Melville some years ago
many women expressing their appreciation of his '"-"4l,la- or was found ou the coast of Iceland,
Woman's Place in Japanese Economy
The Anglo-Japanese alliance is everywhere defended as a
guarantee of peace. I met yesterday a Japanese of some local
prominence. He proposes the establishment of an international
peace society, ana In earnest language sets forth the horrors of
iBDors m Denair ot the women of Japan. . Some of these are re
produced in a life of Mr. Fukuzawa. recently issued, and show the
deep gratitude which the women feel toward him. It is also in
teresting to know that Mr. Fukuzawa believed In the dignity of
labor, and he taught that each person should be "an independent
worker besides being his own breadwinner." While he taueht
- .Uw.uu uni uouiiuu, we wue and daughter were
The Jiji Shimpo, the newspaper established by Mr. Fukuzawa,
U still conducted by one of his sons, with whom we had the pleasure
of dining. Another son is an instructor in the Kelo-Gijuku.
Journalism in the Mikado's Empire.
-lue mothpr-in-law inVaa .iti. .. i i . ,
.w juni. nilU UUltlCU L CI lC U 111 LIU II IO ITl B K 0 T n P m bnnwn aa .nA . rt
8P.I. . P.g.,. couolry p. M for ... ..a rt. ,ZMi",i: J"" M" " "' .4 P.V. WWUM
uauKUM;rs were onen sold Into nrostltuHnn n ..n w- . , . . . iuUClUUCUi. lD9
f .h. .v., .w.' . T . " . ; lu" iomo limes is an excellent
lo more aurely keep his people at home,' the shogun prohibited
neas of the father, and while this cu.tom u a Lit IZ "u cce"eni Paper puwisned In English. There is a
lamer, and while thia custom 1. on the decline there are weekly publicaUon called the Economist, with a circulation of 6,000.
..oW miles from the point where it was cast overboard on the Alaskan
coast. In its tortuous course it probably traveled 4,000 miles. Its
drift across the Arc-tic ocean proves ouce more the existence of an
Arctic current flowing from lieriug sea ucross the North Pole region.
Fifty spindle slnipe easUs were constructed from designs submitted
by Admiral Melville ami were sent north on United States revenue cut
ten and whaling ships to Bering strait uud there dropped overboard la
ISi'J, ly(M and l'.HJl.
Au examination of the iirst record shows that It was cast adrift
l-y Captain F. Tuttle of the United States revenue cutter Bear ou Au
gust 21, liul. about elshty tlve miles northwest of Wruuwl Island, and
recovered by Captain A. (5. t hrlMianson on August 17. lUKi, near the
mouth of Kolyucliin- My, on the Siberian .oust. It is evident that
this particular cr.sk did u..t get a good tart, and in the one year less
four days of Its drift the coun-e it followed of 3m miles t the south
east was probal ly inlluenced l.y local currents, which exist near Berlne
The other representative of this silent fleet which has been travers
lng the desolate wastes of the Arctic seas had a lotiger voyage and
doubtless a more eventful history, l'laced on the flow lee northwest
of I'oiut Barrow. Alaska. In latitude 71. degrees 53 minutes north and
longitude ItU degrees 5u minutes west by Captain B. T. Tilton of the
steam whaler Alexander on September 13. 18W. It was recovered one
mile east of Cape Rauda Nupr. on the northern coast ot Ictland, t,a
June 7, iy05 National Geographic Magazine.
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