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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 17, 1905)
lcerubT 17, lixV3.
TITE OMAILA ILLUSTRATED BEE.
Christmas in Bethlehem
The First Christmas Tree
pHE httl city nf RethUhem Is se t
I I upon a hill whl h Is crowprl by
wm .J the Church of the Nntlvlty. wrhes
XUr,on Harland In tho Dcmhir
,.. . . , jiiil(t which
all sects of believers have agreed upon nt
the birthplace of our Ixinl. Is directly under
tho church and entirely dependent for light
upon artificial means. A silver star la Jet
Into the pavement of a a mlclre ular nidi. ,
above which la an nllar adorm-d with the
uu;.l chur.h symbol. jfy the llKt,t of
fift.e-n colored lamps suspe-ndeil under the
altar we rrad he Inset ipt ion In Latin:
"litre Jesus Christ was Horn of the Vir
The long linn of pilgrims prostrated them
selves, one by one, and kissed the star,
ome with dropping tears all. silently-solemnized
beyond the ranee of speech. It
did not add to our solemnity to lie shown
the manger, (WotM. d with lace and nn
embroidered altar cloth and defended from
sacrilegious fingers by a glided railing. Tho
really Impressive things were occaslona.1
glimpses of the rough stone walls and roof
of the ancient stable, visible here and
there between the gaudy decorations.
The nervine of Christmas eve began nt.
half past 10 at night and concluded nt half
past 2 In the morning. At midnight a lull
aby from the organ preluded the supreme
moment of the occasion the sudden folding
back of a curtain above tho altar, revealing
ft manger-cradle and a big wax doll. The
exultant outburst of organ and choir in a
magnificent Gloria in F.xcelsls accompanied
the stately processional of the entire staff
of priests and acolytes, chanting and swing
ing censers while they bore up one aisle
and down another, back to the high altar,
the same doll, dressed In cambric and lace,
and nestling in the rmbraeo of the richly
Every Incident of our last night In Ja
mal's camp In Tlethlehem recurs to me
with peculiar distinctness. How, as the
darkness deepened the red, blinking eyes
of the charcoal craters of the wonderful
portable stove presided over by our ac
complished chef In the door of the kitchen
tent the night being breezch-ss shone
upon the under side of the olive boughs
over our heads, while our quiet talk went
on of what had happened in the old town
We spoko longest of David's Greatest
Son, and of the birth that was to draw the
eyes and thoughts of all nations to the
little city on the hilltop In tho land of Juda. 1
At midnight, ket wakeful by the rush
and burden of thought, I arose to look
from the tent door upon the watchful stars
that here have a conscious majesty I had
never recognized elsewhere, and wondered
anew where, amidst the glittering hosts
"marshalled on the nightly plain" had
flashed the Star of Hethlehem. For the last
time In our eventful series of Joumeyings
we saw the dawn redden the Mountains
of Moafe, the thin crescent of the waning
moon dying, while we gazed, before the
brightness of the coining sun.
I shall always be grateful that that night
of ineffable calm and the beauty of the
new day are prominent among the pictures
conjured before my mental vision, as ut
the wave of an enchanter's wand, by the
name of "Eph rath which Is Bethlehem."
Through the kindly offices of our Incom
parable dragoman, David .unal who, Mrs.
at. O. W. Ollphant writes, was "tho provi
dence of her family party," as he after
ward proved himself to be of ours we were
admitted to tho homes of several Bethle
hemlles and enjoyed glimpses of a life un
changed in general aspect from that of 2,m0
Our longest call, and the most Interesting,
was upon a family of tome note in the town
and so well-to-do that they occupied tho
whole of a three-storied house. Christmas
being a holiday, men as well a women
were at home, and all the members of tho
Discovery of a Valuable Strip of Wheat Land in Canadian Forests
(Copyright, liHG. by Frank G. Carpenter.)
tl'DBlitY, New Ontario, Dec. H.
I (Special Correspondence of The
I ltfe 1 I havr. It...u t ru -..ll ,,. ei.
!vtM the fast week through the new
Ontario. This is tho wild north
west of the Ontario we know on tho oppo
site sides of Lukes Ontario, Erie and Huron.
The country near those lakes is about as
linci.ly bottled as Ohio. It lias a popula
tion of about i'.ucii.eW). It has some of the
best farms of North Atn.rica. and enough
of them to be worth iiO,utO,Oea and to pro
duce grain, vegetable. s and fruits to the
iimount of I'.iAi.CKie.MK'O a year. Old Ontario
has good cities every lew miles, with street
cars, electric light, und ull the surroundings
of our best settled districts. It Is cut up by
railways and the country roads are -such
that one can gu in nn automobile through
any part of it. Great factories are spring
ing up in senile of the towns, and the whole
legion Is one of industry and thrift.
The new Ontario is the vast frontier
which belongs to Ontario province. It lies
above unci beyond the latter. It is the
great northland betHeen the Georgian bay
and Hudson's bay and between I-akc Su
perior and the Albany liver extending on
into the Italuy river country further west
clear to Manitoba.
The vast region is more than twice the
sixe of the state of New York and it con
tains luu.OOi'.wX) acies The Thunder bay and
ltainy river districts in the west, which are
now being opened to settlement, arc alouo
rV'- I!' - i if I
VAX: ....ffc . '; '7--1 A. ;, V
family were invited in to see us in the pa
ternal abode. The host was formerly the
sheik of th'i town, ar.1 in n.oro troublous
times than ours n mighty man of valor in
the r gtoti. He sat upon a cushion near the
door, a fine looking patriarch in white tur
ban, white t'lnli and full, white trousers.
His beard looked the whiter for the black
eyebrows drawn strongly above a pair of
piercing dark eyes. He was In holiday
mood and dress, full of pleasant courtesy
to us and good humored banter to the other
pp'Sctit. We were hardly seated upon ?h
divan running around three sides of ?':
room when lie ordered his wife to brtr-1
him a bottle of native wine and a glass. In
which he drank to my son's health. Syrian
etiquette forbade him to drink to the health
of a woman or to name her over a draught
of wine, but he hedged cleverly by tossing
off a second bumper, and. holding tho
emptied glass in his hand, expressing the
hope-still addressing my traveling rom
PanMu that "Madame. your honorable
mother, will have a safe and prosperous
journey to her distant hotTke." For the next
five minutes he kept his gentle wife, h't
laughter, who had the face of a Mudnnnn.
and his beautiful daughtn -In-law bUB.v in
making ready for the inevitable coffee
A brazier of charcoal stood beside him.
hut his wife blew up the coals and added
fuel: tho daughter brought the raw cofce
berries In a round, shallow vessel with a
long handle, like a straight-sided frying
pan, in which the former sheik himself
roasted the grains as a t-peulal compliment
to us. To a brother-in-law who had
dropped In was assigned the task of pound
ing the i office to powder In a mortar of olive
wood "an holt loom," as the host told us
pridi fully, "and over luO years old." The
pestle was, likewise, of olive wood; both
were ns hard as llgnum-vltae and black a
ebony with age and use. In poinding the
coffee a tune Is rung by beats of the pestlo
against the sides of the mortar. When this
Is done skillfully every part of the rim Is
touched in tern by the pestle in rhythmic?
resonance. The hostess put the coffee pow
der Into a copper pot, added water, sugar
and a pinch of allspice, and set it to bolt,
her lord directing the process and watching
the pot until the contents foamed up to the
top, when he lifted It off, waited until the
bubbling ceased and put It back over the
coals. After three boilings-tip the beverage
was. ready for use. The daughter brought a
tray on which were tiny handleless cups.
Her father filled thorn and she passed them
to the guests.
Christmas Down South
Christmas times, believers Christmas times
All de richest Juices mi-Kin in vo' mouth!
All de year's sweet honey gethcred in a
Dnncln' In de cabins till de chillun des
can't sleep: .
Christinas times, believers
Hear de house doors slain!
En. best of all. do darkles
Dcy drinks de white folks' dram!
Christmas times, believers fling do white
Here come all de tiddlers dat gwlne ter
wake do town!
All de ole-time dancers from fur befo' de
Wen dey hear a fiddle, know what dey
Christmas times, believers
Dat's do word I say!
Even de grayhead' deacons
Will dance tho woiT uwuyl
Lissen at Join fiddles!
Ain't dcy slngln'
En d.-ir's de table, loaded wld fines' 'possum
Balance to yo' partners when do fiddle
Glory hallelujah! Swing de gals aroun'!
Christmas times, believers
Dat's de times fer me!
Cabin floor a-creakin'
En music flow-in' free!
FRANK U. STANTON.
iuite as long as from Philadelphia to Bos
ton, and as wido as from .Washington to
New York. The Algoma district farther
eastward is almost as wide, and It extends
from Iake Superior to the Albany river
and Hudson's bay, whllo the Nlp'isslng dis
trict, where I am now writing, runs from
Lake Nlplssing, not far from the Georgian
bay north to James bay. It borders the
province of Quebec on the eust. Just as the
Rainy river district at tho other end of
New Ontario borders Manitoba.
(.real C'lay Rett.
I'nttl within a few years this vast terri
tory was looked upon as valuable only for
its timber. It was thought to bo all rock
and swamp covered with ice the greater
part of the year. Its only inhabitants were
the Indian hunters. Hudson's bay fur trad
ers and lumbermen, who have been cutting
down tho trees along the streams and float
ing them down to the great lakes. Then
the Canadian Pacific railroad was put
through, the great nickel mines about here
were discovered, other mineral regions were
opened up and the Canadian und provincial
governments began to look upon the coun
try as an available asset.
Within the last few years towns have
sprung up ull along the lines of the rail
ways, settlements have been started here
and there upon the Ottawa river, which
goes up into Niplssing, and there are mining
towns and lumber mills with farms about
them on the stieojus ubovu the Georgian
CAMP ON ONTAHIO GOVERNMENT
m;: N-.,!??ri ViM ' 1
fgEgf DECEMBER jff
Cffristmas comes But
0C Tfiomas TUsser. fAvi
bay and ulonrr the shop's of Lake Superior.
About five years ago exploiatiou parties
were sent out! by the Ontario government
to Investigate the country from Quebec to
Manitoba. They have reported that there is
a wide strip of fertile soil running from one
end of this wilderness to the other, about
100 miles north of the Canadian Pacific rail
road. This region Is of a different forma
tion than that farther south. Tho land is a
clay loam which will raise wheat, and It is
now known as the great clay belt. The belt
is several hundred miles wide and alto
gether is estimated to contain in the neigh
borhood of 16,0u0.000 acres or about as much
as our state of West Virginia. It Is cov
ered with timber, which will have to be
cut off; but this may be done by the lum
bermen when the country is opened. Other
wise the settlers will have to undergo the
same hardships and difficulties which were
common to the clearing of our eastern
8 la tea.
Railroad Throutih w Ontario.
Both the Ontario and the Dominion gov
ernments are anxious to make this country
accessible. The government of Canada has
undertaken to build Its transcontinental
railroad through it, and by this time next
year an army of track builders will be
grading the route and laying the rails. T''.e
eastern end of the Grand Trunk Pacific,
which is to he built entirely by the govern
ment, will begin at Wlnnieg and traverse
the ciay belt, pausing through Nlpissing ut
about the latitude of Lake Abitibi, and
going thence on to the Atlantic, giving :i
short haul for the wheat to thn seaboard
and Great Britain.
The Ontario provincial government !s
building a railroad northward from Lake
Niplssing, a few miles east of Sudbury,
which will cross the Grand Trunk Pacific
In the neighborhood of Lake Abitibi. It
has already laid Its traoks for about 120
miles, and it Is now within a few miles of
the clay belt. Its surveyors aro working
farther northward, and they will continue
their survey of the line to James bay.
Another project Is the James Bay rail
road, to run from here, at Sudbury, to
about the same point, and a third is the
Algoma Central railway, from the Canadian
Soo to Hudson's bay. The Algoma Cen
tral was begun by F. II. Clergue, and is
now the property of the Lake Superior
corioratlon, an American company which
owns vart properties about Sault Sainte
Marie, Canada. The road liaa already been
built seventy-five miles from the Soo, and
It has been KTaded for about ninety miles.
It will eventually cross the clay belt, and,
liko the other roads to the northward! will
give that region an outlet to the Great
Lakes und to Hudson's bay.
If the clay belt turn." out to be as rich a
wheat country as Is predicted, It may be
that the wheat will go to Europe via Hud
son's bay. The distance Is much shorter
than by the lakes or farther south along
the Atlantic, the chief ditliculty being that
the strails which lead Into Hudson's bay
are open for vessels only al out four months
in the year. This might peiiiups be reme
died by larger steamers or ice Lleukirs
which cotdel jk netrale the Ice Hoes.
The Canaelians claim that they have us
good a climate as the I'nlled States. They
say their w ii.u t s are not as Lad a. one a an I
that the ions, steady old makes better
wheat and better nie-n. I am teed tl.at lie
country trows warmer a hundreel miles or
so north of the g, nt lakea. The cold in
creases until you le-aoti the height of land
which divides th waters whl h f!"W into
the gr-at lake-s from these which flow into
Hudson's liny. When you ge t o , r ihut
ridge tile weather mode-late s al! the. way
down to Hudson's bay.
The) i lay le-lt is Jum i ,"n l the li.-mht of
laud. Al tiii.lM.iinioe-i it is hot tln-ie as
In lowe r Canada e,r in the 1'niteel States.
Everything greewsi taster man in the at..,
for th. days are tit'e-tu e.- sixt'-e u hours
long, owing to the big i ialltinle. i lie am
rising a 111 lie alte r S a-'J tu-uiug letv.eeii
S and !t Wheat ha. be et, grown. 1 am told,
by the Had.-iin ll.iy company age tua about
.lames ba, and the M-4i le hero predict
that thle clay belt will Ins one of (he wheal
regions of the future.
In talking the other night with a man
who l.ael l,,en through ine country, he
poke? of the ienmense In-reis of caribou
which roam there, saying tin' the existence
of tl.e.n animals is an cvler1 ncc of good
land, us they need rich vegetation to tup
port them. The caribou are seen in droves
ef hundreds and cemetiroea thousands.
They have, be says, cut trails across the
eountry tad tie drovta are miuitlati m
Courtesy of the Metropolitan Magazine.
largo that you can hear their rush as they
go by your camp at night. Moose am found
In great numbers In the forests farther
south. They are browsers rather than
grass eaters, their necks being eo short
that they have to get down on the ir knees
when they eat grass.
The Ontario government is now planning
to open up the clay belt to settlement. It
will give 1(50 acres free to settlers on cer
tain conditions und they can buy 1iV acres
more at CO cents an acre. I am told that
some tracts have already been taken, but
these are along the streams which give an
outlet to the south. No real colonizing or
settling can be done until the railroads
have opened up the country.
It is different in the Ralney river region
and in the Thunder bay districts. They lie
across the way from Minnesota und are al
ready ucceaslble by the Canadian Pacific
and the Canadian Northern railroads.
As to the colonization of the clay belt It
self, one should take all the statements
concerning it with a grain of salt. Much
of the land Is probably good, but the cut
ting off of 100 acres of trees to make a farm
is an enormous undertaking, and without It
can be done for the timber upon it the pio
neers expected will not speedily appear.
mt Arras of viiiiiie H it el lloeka.
Much of the country betwten here and
iK . ;w-vr:i',t:v; i
! .ra i
J ii i i if in
T IS difficult to tni.-e the origin of
the Cl.tistnias tvee and el:ii' -t
every mv thoi. it t has a little dit
feient manner of explaining w ic
the evergreen was chosen for tl i
great festival day.
A Scandinavi.ct legend t 1 1 r of the "fe,v
Ico tree." which sprung from tho blood
soaked earth where two lovers were klllfd
by violenc e, and that mvstetioiis llgl.is.
which the wind could not extinguish. were
s.n at t hiistinas in the tops of the I'e r
est tre os.
In old F.gvp' tlv re was a common i listen
of decorating the houses at the time of
the winter solstice with branches of tho
dato palm. The date palm was the emblem
of immortality and also of the star-lit
firmament. Tills tree puts forth a shoot
eveiy month and a branch of it eovtuo
iug twelve shoois was a symbol of the year
tt has aiso liern suggested that this may
ho the revival of the pine trees of the
Roman Saturnalia, a Deieinbor fisl. dur
ing which pines were decorate d with images
The most plausible explanation, however.
Is that Its earlier significance arose from
the pagan worship of trees, and that later.
Christian ideals gave a loftier meaning to
Its use. When the apostles preached the
gospel In pagan lands. Instead of inter
dicting the idolatrous feasts they permit
ted such festivities as were not intrinsic
ally sinful, but sought to change their
idolatrous nature by giving a Christian
Interpretation to the various rites and cere
monies. Thus, when Tope Gregory I sent St. Au
gustine to convert Saxon England in r.'.ni.
he directed him to make the change of
religion, so far u. ceremonials were con
cerned, as gradual as possible that the peo
ple might not be startled. The Saxons
called the feast of the midwinter solstk'o
Yule, and on that occasion the Druids went
In solemn procession to cut the mlstleto.i
from the sacred oak tree. This ceremony,
an old chronicle tells us. look place "on
the sixth day of the moon nearest the tic-A-year."
The evergreen, which they call
all-heal, was afterward sold nt a high price
to their credulous followers. Tho people
signified their joy at the cutting of tho
magic mistletoe by feasting on roasted
oxen and by dancing. In the Decomlwr fol
lowing St. Augustine's nrrlvnl he permitted
his converts to Join in the feasting, but
forbade them mingling with pagans in
tho dance, and Judging from his success in
planting the faith. If was probably but a
short time ere he had weaned them from
their barbaric orgies to u saner celebra
tion of the great Chi -is thin festival oecur
Ing in the same month.
An old German legend makes St. Wini
fred the Inventor of the Idea. In the midst
of a crowd of converts he Is said to have
been hewing down a great oak which had
formerly been the object of Druldlc venera
tion. As he chopped a whirlwind passed
over the forest and tore the tree from Its
foundation. Behind it stood a young fir,
unharmed, pointing Its spire toward tho
stars. The priest, dropping his axe, turned
to the people u:id Baid:
"This little tree, a young child of the
forest, shall be your holy tree tonight.
It is the wood of peace, for your houses
are built of fir. It is the sign of an end
less life, for Its leaves are ever green.
See how it points upward to heaven.
I jet this be called the tree of the Christ
Child; gather about it, not In the wood,
but in your own homes; " there It will
shelter no deeds of blood, but loving gifts
and rites of kindness."
Some writers on undent customs tell us
that among the early pagan superstitions
of the Germans was the belief that the
world was a great tree whose lop flour
ished in Paradise and furnished food to a
goat upon whose milk fallen heroes re
stored themselves. This tale was well
he iglit of lard is. bailing the tiliibi-r.
worth 10 cents in acre. I rode all
through the woods goirtg north liom
tho Canadian Pacific line M Cobalt, on mo
Ontario government railway, which has re
cently been put through. The road winds
its way in and out among lakes, sloughs
and swamps. Tho country Is covered with
pine and hardwood, and Is so cut up by
water that you can go almost nil over it
lu a canoe. Even along the railroad it is
so swunipy and boggy that the telegraph
poles have to be propped up. and outside
the swamps it 1s so rocky that deep holes
cannot be made. In such places great piles
of rock are built up about the poles to
Some of the country Is mude up of bogs
known as muskeg. This is a bottomless
swamp covered with a thin coating of vege tation,
through which one sinks down as
though In a quicksand, and if not speedily
rescued is liable to drown. Hunters In
traveling over It have to Jump from root
to root, making their way by means of the
trees that grow here and there. There is
said to be much muskeg in the region of
Hudson's bay. und almost everywhere
throughout this north land. I am told it
can be drained, and (hat. in this eae. a
country somewhat like that of northwestern
Ohio, which was once known as the Black
Swamp, may bo produced. Tills might b
a possibility In the clay belt, but It cer
tainly would nut bu so lu tho legion I
.J4ij. f?f iiia-a'-is-'M';.'' 1
eil""-"! - rS i
I A " ' J -' V Y 1" - '-.i'-V -'-.iArtaJU- I --f
4rr' :-"(-v, C y&Z&W-
BETTLERS' UOMES ONTAJUO CIAT
known In Gmnunv loni. of in- the intt'iM
cliictnn of !.i ilia,it . ami mu.ii of it
symbolic character wa ; i .nif ic n cd to the
celebr.i.tMt, of the- titi ih of fbri-t "the
tvsui reel ion and the Inc." The ovor
gtee a is a lltllng emblem of eternal
soring; the burning lights suggest Hint
V ho Is the liclit of the world; and the
gifts remind us of the priceless gift of
God to humanity- the Saviour.
The chiistmas tree, in Its present stjle
of usage, can be traced link only as faf
as tin sixteenth nfity. Dining the
middle ages it appeared at Sirust burg.
For ic"1 ycats the f.i.-hlon maintained ItselC
along the Ithlne. Suddenly, at the begin
nlng of this century, it spread all over
Germany, and fifty years later had con
nueivd Christendom. In is. the tiv wm
introduced Into Munich by Queen Caroline.
At the same time the custom was spread
through Bohemia and Hungary.
In lMe the D'.telicss Helena of Orlcuiia
brought it to the Tullerles. Twenty years)
later German residents of J'alis couht
only with great difficulty procure sj
Christmas tree. Today Paris use s almost
liAO"'. only about one-fourth being bought
by Swiss. Germans and Alsatians. The
French plant the tree with its roots in a
tub so that It can bo preserved until New
Year, when It Is shorn of Its decot utlona,
The marriage of Queen Victoria, to ft
German prince augmented tho Christmas
tre-e's popularity in England. German lin
migrants brought the tree to America unA
It was soon adopted by all classes. Jame
M. Voss In Men and Women.
The White Lie Season
The hard want merchant carefully "dn
up" a pair of old-fashioned skates wooden
body, solid steel blade, screw In heel, etra.p
In front, about three pounds to each
foot and de posited them among a number
of tagged paf""-''9 behind the counter. He
smiled broadly as tho regular caller fiv
"Some people call this the Chiistmas se:V
son of the year." he reinai ke.. "I have n
other name for it. I call it the whlto He
season. I was thinking of It Just now as t
was doing up a pah of skate s made way
back In the early history of the colonies. I
didn't suppose I had them In the shop until
a ehaiilabln customer Inquired for some
thing of the kind that wouldn't coat over 1
cents. I found theni under tho eaves up
stairs. They're for the minister's boy. Da
you know what that boy'll say when he
sees those skates?"
" 'Just what I wanted; Jiktt w hat I've bcrr
wanting for a long time." That's a white
He. They'ro nothing like what he wanted;
and Inside of him he's disappointed enougli
to cry- Ho hoped he'd get the nevr-fangleJ,
sort that clamp on with a twist of the
wrist; but his father doesn't draw a Mo
Call salary and he'll have to make those
clumsy things do, poor lad.
"A few days more and everybody'll be
telling white lies. They'll be etandin
around trees covered with cotton and tinsel
or tho baskets that hold tho presents and
they'll clap their hands and exclaim, "Tide
is Just whut I've been wanting!"
"Yes, It Is," snickered the hardware mer
chant. "It makes no difference what the
bundle contains. If you gave a blind grand,
mother a little red sled or a fewt ball she'd
show It proudly and say It's Just what she's
been wanting. I tell you, there are a good
many heartaches go with Christmas, espe
cially among the young folks In the house
of the ioor. They don't get what they want
by several dollars' worth; but they don't
let on; and probably It's good discipline for
"But," he concluded. "I'll ! doggoned It
I'll wild those saates to the minister's son.
I'll give him an up-to-date pair myrelf and
I'll make no noire over it. either. That'll be
one white He heade d off, any way." FrovU
passed through on account of tho rocks.
Top of Our (oullnrnl.
This grent day belt Is Just about on the
roif of tho North American continent. It
is near the dividing of the waters and a
the Hudson's bay slope. There are seven
good-sized livrrs flowing through it, which,
aro about 0 miles long, and it is well
watered throughout. The streams on thle
side of tho rldso flow down Into the great
lakes, and a little west of Lake Superior to
the Gulf of Mexico. On the other sldo they
flow Into Hudson's bay or by the Mackeu
tie and other rivers into the Arctic ocean.
The country here seems high. It looks ae
though It were the crown of mother earth's
head, attd here about Sudbury and nil the
way ulong Georgian bay and Iike Superior
the old lady's head is covered with giganlie
vve-ns In the shape of ree-ks. There ure some
farms, but they He between tho t tones. The
same character of country extends for
many miles northward, save Unit the locks
arc in the woods.
('round smooth as (,'lac-icrs.
The soil is so thin in most places that It
can be ripped off like a strip of cat pet und
almost everywhere tin) scarred rocks show
out above. It. Half (he rocks one tees are
lioulde-rs; some the size of an elephant and
others approaching that of a great opart
ment house. Even the flat rocks are ground
(Continued on Pave Seven.)
. - - ' . 1
.' . eeeiee-iT-l-. ilTr .
'.'lib 0 V.
i I i 1
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