Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, December 06, 1905, Page 6, Image 6

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THJ2J people of th country eontlnu to
enjoy great prosperity. Undoubtedly
ther will be ebb and flow of uch
pmpscrhy, ' and ' thin ebh and flow
will bo felt morn or less by all
members of the community, both
by the deserving and the undeserving.
A1M0M th wrath of the Lord the wlidom
of uan cannot avail; tit times of flood or
drouth human ingenuity can but partially
repair the disaster. A general failure of
crop would hurt all of u. Again. If tho
folly of man mam the general well-being,
then those who are Innocent of the folly
will have to pay Part of the penalty In
curred br tuoae who are guilty of the folly.
A panlo browsjht on by the speculative folly
of a part of tho business community would
hurt the whole business community. , But
such stoppage, of welfare, though It might
be aevere, would not be lasting: In the
Ion run tho one vital factor iu tne perma
nent prosperity of the country Is the high
Individual character of the average Amcrt
, can worker, the average American citizen,
no matter whether his work be mental or
manual, whether he be farmer ,or wage
worker, business man or professional man.
' - "In our Industrial and social system the
Interest of all men are eo closely Inter
twined that In the Immense majority of
cases- a straight dealing man who by his
efficiency, by Ills Ingenuity and Industry,
benefits nlmself ho must also benellt oth
ers. Normally tne man of great produc
tive capacity who become rich by guiding
the labor of many other men doe so By
enabling them to produc raor than they
could produc wltnout his guidance; and
Doth he and they share In the benellt,
which come auto t th publlo tlarge.
' 1 h superficial fact that the sharing may
o unequal must never blind u to the
underlying fact that there 1 thl haring,
and too th benefit come In som degree
to each man concerned. Normally the
wage-worker, th man of small mean, and
th average consumer, a well a th aver
age producer, ara all alike helped by mak
ing condition such that the man of excep
tional business ability receive an excep
tional reward for hi ability. Something
can be done by legislation to help the gen
eral prosperity; but no surh help of a per
manently beueflclal character can be given
' to the lea able end less fortunate, aave
a .the results of a policy which shall In
ure to th advantage of all Industrious and
efficient people who act decently; and thl
is only another way of saying' that any
benefit which comes ' to the lea able and
ies foitunate must of necessity com even
more to th more able and more fortunate,
if, therefore, the less fortunate man 'la
moved by envy of hi more' fortunate
irotlier to alrlk at th condition under
which they have both, though unequally,
(prospered, th result will assuredly be that
while damage may come to the one struck
at. It will visit with an even heavier load
the on, who strike the blow. . Taken a' a
whole, i w must all go up or go down
r ' Corpora tloas. '
"ret, while not , merely, admitting, but
Insisting upon this. It Is also true that
where there la no governmental restraint
or supervision some of the exceptional men
use their energies not In ways- that are
for the common , good, but In way which
tell against this common good. Th for
tunes amassed through oorporat organisa
tion are now so large, and vest such power
in those that wield them, a to -make it a
mutter of necessity to give to the sovereign
that Is, to the government, which repre
sents the people as a whole some effective
lower of supervision over their corporate
'use. In order to insure a healthy, social
and industrial life, every big corporation
should be held responsible by, and be ac
countable to, some sovereign strong enough
to control it conduct.? I am In no sense
hostile to corporation.. This is an age
of combination, and any effort to prevent
nil combination will be not only useless,
hut In th end viciou, because of the con
tempt for law which th failure to enforce
law Inevitably produces. We should, more
over, recognize in cordial and ample fash
ion the immense good effected by corporate
.fancies In a country such as ours, and
(he wealth of intellect, energy and fidelity
devoted to their service.' and therefore
formally to the service of the public, by
their office and. director." The corpora
tion , ha. com to stay. Just as the trad
union; ha come to stay. aoh can do and
has don great good.' Each should he fa
vored, so long a it doe good. But each
should be sharply checked where It act
' against law and Justice.,
"Bo long as the finances of the nation
are kept upon an honest . basis no other
question of internal economy with which
the con cress has the power to 'deal begins
10 approach- In importance the matter of
endeavoring to secure proper Industrial
conditions under which the individuals and
t specially the great corporations doing an
Interstate business are -to act. The makers
. of our national constitution provided espe
cially that the regulation of interstate
commerce should come within the sphere
of the general government. The argu
ments In favor of tholr taking thl stand
. were even then overwhelming. But they
are far- stronger today, in view of the enor-
mous development of great business agen
cies, 1 usually corporate in form. Experi
ence ha shown conclusively that it ia use
less to try to get any adequate regulation
'und supervision, these greet corporations
by state action. Buch regulation and super
vision can only be effectively, exercised by
a sovereign whose Jurisdiction is coexten
sive with the field of. work of the corporations-thai,
Is. by the national government.
I believe that thla regulation and super
vision can be obtained by the enactment
of law by the congress. If this prove im
possible. It will certainly be necessary ultl
matoly to confer In fullest form such power
upon the national government by a proper
amendment. of the constitution. It would
obviously be unwise to endeavor to secure
such an amendment until it la certain that
the result cannot be obtained under the
constitution a it now la. The laws of the
congress and of th several states hitherto
as- paaxed upon by the courts, - have re
sulted more often In showing 'that the
stales have no power In the matter than
that tho national government has power
to that there at present exists a very un
fortunate condition of thing, under which
these great corporations doing an inter
net business occupy the position of sub
ject without a sovereign, neither any state
government nor the national government
having effective control over them. Our
Meady aim should be by legislation, cau
tiously and carefully undertaken, but reso
lutely persevered in. to assert th sov
ereignty of the national government by
affirmative action. i.
"It has been a mlafnrtuna th-t '
tlunal laws on this subject have hitherto
been of a negative, or prohibitive rather
T? .V mrm4tl ". "nd still more
that they have in part sought to prohibit
V V . enecuvely prohibited,
and have In part in their prohibitions con
founded what should be allow. .a
should not be allowed, n . generallr use
less to try to prohibit all restraint en
competition, whether this restraint : be
i-asonable or unreasonable; and where it la
rot uselesa it 1 generally hurtful
l.ave. shown that it 1. not possible ado-
mm...,., - ur wie eniorceinent of any
Mw of thla kind by Incessant
courts. The Department of Justice has for
the laetfour years devoted more attention
to thw enforcement of the anti-trust legists
..m ...... .v. i)ii,uiB rise. Much has been
nccompllehed; particularly marked has been
me moral enect or the prosecutions- but it
la increasingly evident that there will be
m very Insufficient beneficial result In the
ay of economic change. The successful
j rosecutlon of one' device to eva'do the law
Immediately develops another device to
accomplish the same purpose. What la
needed la not sweeping prohibition of every
rrwt food as. bad. which mav i..h
to restrict competition, but such adequate
jHiperxiJion and regulation as wlU prevent
any restriction, of competition from being
tft,the detriment of the public as meil "
such supervision end regulation as will
preveBt other abuses in no way connected
with restriction of competition. Of these
abuses, perhaps tha chief, although by no
tuans th only one. is overcapitalization
generally itself the result 0f dUhonest
promotion because of the myriad evils it
.txlngs in it tratas for such overoapiiailxa-
Me often means' an inflation- that Invites
l.uslneaa panic.' it, always couceaja the true
relation of the rront earned to the capital
.' aVlually invested and it creates a burden
4f interest 'payment which is a fertile
auee of improper" reduction in or limitation
f -wage: -It domain the' small investor.
MUKtMi thrst t,' and cocouraxv gambling
and speculation: while perhaps worst of
all Is the trlrklness and dishonesty which
It Implies for harm to morals Is worse
than, any possible harm to material In
terests, and the debauchery of politics nd
business by great dishonest corporations
la far worse than any actual material evil
they do the public Until the national gov
ernment obtain, in some manner which the
wisdom of the .: congress may suggest,
roper control over the big corporations
engaged ln Interstate enmtnerrewthat Is.
over the great majority of the big corpora
tions it will be Impossible to deal ade
quately with thpse evils. ,
ftallroad Rate Rralaloa.
"t am well aware of the difficulties of the
legislation that I am suggesting, snd of
the need of temperate and cautious action
In securing It.. I should emphatically pro
test against Improperly radical or hasty
action. The first thing to do la to deal
with the great corporations engaged In
the business of Interstate transportation.
As I said In my message of December
last, the Immediate and most pressing need,
o far as legislation 1 concerned. Is th
enactment Into law of some scheme to
ecure to the agent of the government
such supervision and regulation of the rates
- i bT tne "roads of the country
ngred In Interstate traffic a shall sum-
mXly ,'nd ,"Nh Prevent the Impo
se t on of unjust or unreasonable rite. It
To .f!nr. U" PUU,n'r complete stop to
rower" "T" "h,,p ! form. This
noZ-.r. I rru!'' rates, like All a'mllar
K . ? h lness world, should
self r:,C'T'WLth m"tlon. caution, nnd
I " ran 11 'i bUt " houM "' "
eedan.rU.,effer,,VeI,r ""c1 ."
mlMta "thVt J""8"10" to b. . kept In!
tratlA ho!t, to som. admln-
7, cr"l by the -congress. If
comwl JTent Interet Commerce
CmmT to -onranlied Interstate
S2I commission, such commission
tlve r- 1 unequivocally admlnlstra-Iwerferln-ui
beltov ,n th government
. lH Wlt5 nrlv' business more then
trfZZ "J. 1 do 1101 the gov
wh rnr.d:rUnff anv wort which can
But 'J b,e wwt ,n Private han(ls
But neither do I believe In the govern
when Hnhicn8r ,rom .nrworrk
Jur. to ormr; v,dent that
' uPerviion. It Is not my prov-
law ihinhd,.'?Ut1 MRCt term" of the
thl .ThJn?, hOU.ld enllcted; but I call
Stotta. .f con to certain
ITJi-". C?A tlon w,th whlch tt Is de ie,Ll-. .In mr iudfment the most
hTiportant provision which such law should
petent, administrative body the power to
ft! wh',Uron the case beln t-ougVt before
raiW.!i i 'a' Klven rat P-ecribel by a
rVn,V '"""name ana ;ust, and If it
th.l r .b,! unrea'nable and unjust,
then, after full Investigation of the com
plaint, to prescribe th limit of rate be
yond : which it shall not be. lawful to go
tne maximum reasonable rate, as it is
commonly called-thls decision to go into
wlth,n reasonable time and to
obtain from thence onward, subject to re
view by the courts. It sometimes happens
at present, not that a rate la too high.
uuiMnai a ravored shipper is given too
low a rate. In such case the commission
would have the right to fix this already
established minimum rate as the maxi
mum; and it would need only one or two
such decisions by the commlasloa to cure
railroad companies of the practice of giv
ing Improper minimum rates. I call yous
attention to the fact that
not to give the commission power to Initiate
ur unginaie rates generally, but to regu
late a rate already fixed or originated by
the roads, . upon complaint and after In
vestigation. A heavy penalty should H
exacted from any-corporation which falls
w respect -an order of the commission. I
regard thl power to establish a maximum
rate as being essential to any scheme of
real reform In the matter of railway regu
lation. - The first necessity Is to secure It;
and unless It , Is granted to the commis
sion there Is , little use. in touching the
subject at all. .
"Illegal transaction often oonur unH.r
th forms of law.' It Has often occurred
mat a shipper has-been" told by a trafflo
officer- to buy a Iarg'quantlty of some
commodity and then after it- ha been
bought an open reduction Is made In the
rate to take -effect immediately, the 'ar
rangement resulting to the nroflt of 'the
one snipper and the. one railroad and to
the damage of all their competitor; .for
it must not be forgotten that the pig: ship
per are at least as much to blame as any
railroad In the matter of rebates. The
law should make it clear so that nobody
cau fall to understand - that any kind, of
commission paid on freight shipments,
whether in thl fornf or lrt the form of
fictitious damages, or of a concession,
a free pass, reduced . passenger rate, or
payment of brokerage, is illegal. It Is
worth while considering- whether It would
not be wise to confer on the government
the right of civil action against the bene
ficiary of a rebate for at least twlc the
value of the rebate; this would help stop
what Is really blackmail, KLevator allow
ancea should be stopped, for they have
now grown to such an extent that they
are demoralising and are used as rebates.
"The best -possible - regulation of rates
would, of course, be that regulation . se
cured by an honest agreement among th
railroads themselves to carry out th law.
Buch a general agreement would, for In
stance,, at once put a stop to the efforts
of sny one blavehlpper or big railroad to
discriminate against or secure advantages
over some rival;- and such agreement
would make the railroads themselves agents
for enforcing the law. .The power vested
in the government to put a stop to agree
ments to the detriment , of the publlo
should, la my 'Judgment, be accompanied
by power to permit, under specific con
ditions and careful supervision, agreements
clearly in the interest of the publlo. But,
in my Judgment, the necessity for giving
this' further power Is by no means a
great as th necessity for giving the torn
mlsMlon or administrative body the other
power I have, enumerated above; and it
mav well' be Inadvisable . to .attempt to
Lvest thl particular power In -. the . cont-
mission or omer Miiuiiiiiaun-ouuj ...
it already possesses and is exercising what
I regard as ,by far. the most Important of
all the powers I recommend as Indeed' the
vitally important power that, to fix a given
maximum rate, which rate, after the lapse
of a reasonable time, goes Into full effect,
tubject to review by the court.
'. ''All privet -oar line. Industrial roads,
refrigerator -charge .and the Uk should
be expressly put under hw supervision
of the Interstate Commerce commission or
some ' similar body so ar a rate and
agreement practically affecting rate are
concerned, t The, private car owner and
the owner 'of Industrial railroads are en
titled to a fair . and reasonable compenea
tlon for their Investment, but neither pri
vate cars nor Industrial railroads nor spur
tracks should be utilised, as devices for
securing preferential rates. A rebate In
Icing charges Is Just as pernicious as a re
bate. In any other way. No lower rate
should apply on goods Imported than
actually obtains on domestic goods from
the American seaboard to destination ex
cept in eaaea where water competition is
the controlling influence. There should be
publicity of 'the accounta of common'rar
riers; no common carrier engaged in Inter
state business should keep any books or
memoranda ether than those reported pur
suant to law or regulation, and these books
or memoranda should ba open to the in
spection of the government. - Only In' this
way can violations or -evasions of the law
be surely detected. ' A system of examina
tion of. railroad accounts, should be pro
vided similar to that now conducted Into
the national banks by the back examiners;
a tew nrst-claaa railroad accountants. If
they had proper direction and proper au
thority to inspect books and papers, could
accomplish much in preventing willful vio
lations of the law. It would not be neces
sary for them to examine into the ac
counts of any railroad unless for good rea
"sons they, were directed to do so by the
Interstate Commerce commission. It Is
greatly to be deaired that some way. might
be found by which an agreement as to
transportation wltbtn a elate Intended to
operate as a fraud upon the federal Inter
state commerce laws could be brought
under the Jurisdiction of the federal au
thorities. At present It occur that large
shipments of Interstate traffic are con
trolled by concessions on purely state
business, which of course amounts to an
evasion of the , law. The , commission
should, have foaei to euforo fair trat-
Annual Message of President Roosevelt
Important Points
ment by th great trunk lines of lateral
and branch lines.
"I urge upon the congress th need of
providing for expeditious action .by tr
Interstate Commerce commission In all
these matters, whether in regulating rates
for transportation or for storing or for
handling property , or commodities In
transit. The history of the case liti
gated under th present commerce act
shows that Its' efficacy has been to a grent
degree destroyed by the weapons of delay,
almost the most formidable weapon In the
bands of those whose purpose It Is to
violate the law." -Safety
Appliances.' -
The" president again calls attention o
the necessity for laws requiring the use
of block signals upon railroads engaged
In interstate commerce and asks for an
Improvement Of the- government inspection
service to enforce the same..
' Labor Problems.
Legislation Is recommended limiting the
hours of continuous labor of rallron em
ployes engaged In the movement snd ope
ration of. trains to safeguard travel. A
former recommendation Is repeated for the
enactment of an employers' liability law
for the District of Columbia and in our
navy yards. He recommends that all the
formidable group of problem connected
more or less directly -with what I known
as the labor question, which for th most
part must be dealt with by the state and
municipal authority, be taken up for the
District of Columbia so as to make the
city of Washington a model city as re
gards parks, public playgrounds,- houses of
worklngmen, education, truanoy, charities
and factory laws. He opposes depriving
the courts of the power to Issue Injunc
tions In labor disputes as unwise, but looks
more favorably upon regulating Injunction
procedure by requiring the Judge to give
due notice to adverse parties before grant
ing the writ. He renews a former recom
mendation for an Investigation by the De
partment of Commerce and Labor of gen
eral labor conditions and also for an In
vestigation of the conditions of women In
Industry with particular reference to tho
disturbance woiked In domestic -and social
life of the nation. -
Capital and Labor.
"The question of securing a healthy, self
respecting and mutually sympathetic atti
tude as between employer and employe,
capitalist and wage worker, , is a difficult
one. All phases of the labor problem prove
difficult when approached. But the under
lying principles, the root principles, in ac
cordance ' with which the problem-must
be solved are entirely' simple. We tan
get Justice and right dealing only If we
put as of paramount Importance the prin
ciple of treating a man on his worth as
a man rather than with referencei to his
social position, his occupation, or tne class
to which he belongs. There are w selfish
and brutal men In all ranks of life. If
they are capitalists their selfishness and
brutality may take the form of hard In
difference to suffering, greedy disregard of
every moral restraint which Interfere with
the accumulation of - wealth and cold
blooded exploitation of the weak; or. If
they are laborer, the form of laziness, of
sullen envy of the' mors fortunate and of
willingness to perform deeds of murder
ous violence. Buch conduct 1 Just as repre
hensible In one case ss In the other, and
air honest and farseelng men should Join
in warring agalnat H wherever It becomes
manifest. Individual capitalist and indi
vidual wageworker, corporation and union
are alike entitled to the protection of the
law, and must alike obey the law.
"Th great Insurance companies afford
striking examples of corporations whose
business has extended so far beyond the
Jurisdiction of the states which created,
them as to preclude strict .enforcement of
supervision and regulation by the parent
states. In my last annual message I recom
mended that the congress carefully con
sider whether the power- of the Bureau of
Corporations cannot -constitutionally be ex
tended to cover Interstate transactions in
insurance.' Recent events have emphasised
the Importance of an early and exhaustive
consideration of ' this question, to see
whether It is not possible to furnish better
safeguards than the several .states have
been able to furnish against corruption of
the flagrant kind which has been exposed.
It has been 'only too clearly shown that
certain of the men at the head of these
large corporations take Hut small note of
th ethical distinction between honesty and
dishonesty, they draw the line -only thl
side of what may be called law honesty,
the kind of honesty necessary In order to
avoid falling into the clutches of the law.
Of course the only complete remedy for
this condition must be found In an aroused
publlo conscience, a higher sense of ethical
conduct In the community at large, and
especially among business men and In th
great profession of the law, and In the
growth of a spirit which condemns all Uls
1 wKA.h m In .Ink . .
... ..Mi. v, m wur man,
whether It takes the shape of a bribery or
of blackmail. But much ' can be done by
legislation which is not only drastic, but
practical. There is need Of a far: stricter
and more' uniform regulation of "the vast
Insurance interests of this country. The
United States should In this respect follow
the policy of other nations by -providing
adequate national - supervision of commer
cial interests which are clearly national in
character.- My. predecessor have repeat
edly recognised that the foreign business
of these companies is an Important port of
our foreign commercial relations. During
th administration of President Cleve
land,' Harrison and McKiitley the rltate De
partment exercised its influence, through
diplomatic channels, to prevent unjust dis
crimination by foreign countries against
American Insurance companies. Those. ne
gotiation illustrated the propriety of the
congress recognizing the national charac
ter of insurance, for In the absense of fed
I eral legislation the State department could
j only give expression to the wishes of the
I authorities of the several states, - whose
' -tr.llov InvfTi-ctivc thrnnvh m-u
- "-. v uni
formity. "I repeat my previous recommendation
that the congress should also consider
whether the federal government has any
power or owes any duty with respect to
domestic transactions In Insurance of an
Interstate character. That state supervision
hss proved Inadequate Is generally con
ceded, The burden upon insurance com
panies, and therefore the policy holders, of
conflicting .regulations of many states, la
unquestioned, whil but llttla effective
check is Imposed upon any able and un
scrupulous man who desires to exploit the
company In his own Interest at the expense
of the policy holders and of tne public
Th inability of a stats to regulate . ef
fectively insurance corporation created un
der the law of other states snd transacting
the larger part of their business elsewhere
is also clear. . As a remedy for this evil
of conflicting. Ineffective and yet 'burden
soma regulations there has been for many
years a widespread demand for federal su
pervision. The congreas has already recog
iiliiul that Inters lute Imuran,- mv t .
! proper subject for federal legislation, for
In creating tne Bureau of Corporations It
authorized It to publish and supply useful
information concerning Interstate corpora
tions, 'Including corporations engaged In
lnsurancs.' It la obvious that If the com
pilation of statistics be the limit of the
federal power it 1 wholly ineffective to
regulate this form of commercial Inter
course between the states, and as the In
surance business has outgrows in magni
tude th possibility of adequate state su
pervision, the congress should carefully
consider whether further, legislation can be
bad. What Is said above applies with equal
force to fraternal and benevolent organ
isations which contract for life Insurance.
Tbe Reveaaas.
'There is more need of stability than of
th attempt to attain an Meal perfection
in the methods of raising revenue; and
the shock and strain to th business world
certain to attend any serious change la
these methods render such chsnge Inad
visable unleaa for grave reason. It is not
poaalble to lay down any general rule by
which to determine th moment when the
reason for will outweigh th reasons
against auch a change. Much must de
pend, not merely on tha needs, but oa the
desire, of 1 U . popl as a wbvl lit
Covered In th Stat Iorumont Just Presented to Congress
needs and desires are not necessarily Iden
tical. Of course, no change can be made
on lines beneficial to. or -desired by. one
section or one state only.' Tlyre must be
something llko a general agreement among
the citizens of the several atatoa, as repre
sented In the congress, that the change
In needed and desired la .the Interest of
th people as a whole; snd there should
then be a sincere. Intelligent and disin
terested effort to make It In such shape
as will combine, so far as possible, ( the
maximum of good ti the people at large
with the minimum of necessary disregard
for the special Interests of localities or
classes. But In time of peace the revenue
must on the average, taking a scries of
years together, equal the expenditures or
else the revenues must be Increased. Last
yesr there was a doflclt. T'nless our ex
penditure can b kept within the revenue
then our revenue laws must be readjusted.'
economy la . Expeadttares
The president goes on to ask rigid
scrutiny of appropriations, endorses the
recommendation ot the land commissioner
for the abolishment of the office of re
ceiver of public moneys In land offices,
promising a saving of $l.ono,onO a year, and
declares . 1 hat . a large saving can also be
made In the publlo printing, yet objects to
false economy, citing s an exsmple any
act to cut down the nsy.
' Carreaer.
In a brief paragraph a plea Is made for
greater elasticity in our monetsry system.
"At present," he says, "the Treasury de
partment Is at Irregular recurrent Inter
vals obliged In the Interest world to
try to avert financial crises by providing
a remedy which should be provided fey con
gressional action."
Baalnesa Method ta IVepartmeats.
The Investigations Instituted In tha eon
duct of affairs ot the executive depart
ments are cited and the difficulties met
with adverted to. The president contin
ues: . "I recommend that congress con
sider this subject with a view to provide
by legislation for the transfer, distribu
tion, consolidation and assignment of du
ties and executive organisations, or part
of organization,' and for the changes In
business methods . within or between the
several departments that .. will best pro
mote the economy,' efficiency and high
character of the government work."'
Federal Eleotlons.
The president 'renews the recommenda
tion for the enactment of a law directed
against bribery "and corruption in federal
election. His reference to recent dis
closures of questionable campaign contribu
tions reads: .' .'. : ,
"In political campaigns In a country as
large and populous as ours It Is Inevitable
that there should be much expense of an
entirely legitimate kind. This, of course,
means that many .contributlonr, and some
of them of large size, must be made, and,
as a matter, of. fact. In any big political
contest such contributions are always made
to both sides. It is entirely proper both to
give and receive them, unless there Is an
Improper motive connected with either gift
or reception. If they are extorted by any
kind of pressure .or- promise, express or
Implied, direct or Indirect, In the way of
favor or immunity, then the giving or re
ceiving becomes not- only Improper but
criminal.. It will undoubtedly be difficult
as a matter of practical detail to shape an
act which shall guard with reasonable cer
tainty against such misconduct; but if It
is possible to aecare by law the full and
verified publication in detail of all sums
contributed to and expended by the candi
dates or committees of any political parties
the result eanno but be wholesome. All
contributions by corporations to any. politi
cal commute oo tor anv nolltlcal nurnnu
should be forbidden by law; directors
biiuuiu noi oe permitted to use stockholders'
money for guch; purposes, and, moreover,
a prohibition of, i this kind would be, as
far as It want, i an effectlv method of
topping the ftcvlla- aimed at In corrupt
practice actsi vt onljr should both the
national and htdeVeral State legislature
forbid any -offlcrr of a corporation from
using the inoney of th corporation In or
about any, eleotibn, but They should also
forbid such use- of money In connection
with any legislation save by the employ
Timent of counsel In public manner for dis
tinctly legal services.
. The Hague Conference.'
. "The first conference of nations held at
The Hague in ltS9, being unable to dispose
of all the business Wore It. recommended
the consideration and settlement of a num
ber of Important question by another
oonferenc to be called ubequontly and
?w narly date. These questions were
the following: j. The rights and duties of
. ..cuira.B. ...ine limitation, of the armed
; force on land and sea and of military
j budgets. 3. The use of new type and cali-
bres of military 'and naval gun. 4. The
inviolability of private property at sea In
time of war. 5. The bombardment of port
vuutm Dy navai rorces. .
"In October. 1904. at the instance of th
Interparliamentary union, which, at a con
ference held in .the United States and at-
. By mo lawmaker of fifteen dlf-
ferent nations, had reiterated the demand
i "con(1 conference of nation. I Issued
) invitation, to all the power .Ignatory to
I Th Hague convention to send delegate
to such a conference, and suggested that
' b,,nJ"',d V The Haue- " I" not
of December Id.' I9W, the United States
, government communicated to the repre
j sentatlves of foreign governments It belief
. that the conference could be best arranged
j ""r the provisions of th present Hague
' "From, alt the ' power acceptance
rec',.v!d' pled In some cases with the'
, condition that we should wait until the
. end of the war then waging between Rus
sia and Japan. -The emperor of Kuesla.
Immed ately after'the treaty of peace which
so happily terminated this w.rVln a note
rr?hroJ04tht PrM,de"t o September
13, through Ambassador Rosen, took the
Initiative in recommending that the confer
ence be now called. .
"This - renders It proper at this time to
say something .. to the general attitude
of . this government toward peace. More
.m.?r. Wa', '" comln to be looked upon
as in itself a lamentable and evil hi a
, wanton or usele.s war. or war of mere
aggresslon-ln short,, any war begun or
carried on In a oonscleneelese spirit Is to be
. dnm"-i dh" lu"Wy atrocious crime
I " humanity. We can. however, do
, nothing of permanent value for peace un
.w V ,keeD vei- clearly in mind the
ethical element which lies at thet root of
ithe problem. Our aim Is righteousness.
Peace is normally the hsndmalden of
j rla-hteouanesa: but when peace and right-
eouaneaa conflict, then a great and upright
' neonla Mn , - . . .
r, .i ' mvmeni nesitate
to follow th path which leads toward
righteousness, even though that path also
leads to war. Ther are person who sdvo
cate twice at any price; there are others
who, following a false analoav. think
I because it is no longer necessarv in civil.
! laed countries for individuals te protect
I their .right with a strong hand. It la there
fore unnecessary for nations to be resdy
iu .wiena meir ngnts. These persons
would .do Irreparable harm to any nation
that adopted their principles, and even as
It Is they seriously hamper the cause which
thty sdvocate by tending to render it ab
surd In the eyes of sensible and patriotic
men. There' osn be no worse foe of man
kind In general, and of his own country
In particular, than the demagogue of war,
the man who in mere folly or to serve
his own selfish ends continually rails st snd
abuses o trier nations, who seeks to excite
bis countrymen sgalnst foreigners on In
sufficient pretexts, who excites and Inflames
a perverse and aggressive nstlonal vanity
and who may oa occasions wsstonly bring
on conflict between his nation and some
other nation. But there are demagogue
of peace Just a ther are demagogues of
war, and In any such movement as thla for
The Hague conference It ia esaentlal not
to be misled by one set of extremists sny
more than, by the other. Whenever It Is
possible for a nation or an Individual to
work for real peace, .assuredly It Is failure
of duty not so to strive; but If war Is neces
sary and righteous then either the man pr
the nation shrinking from It forfeits all
title to slf -respect."
Mara DaMrts.
Th president deelar thV Monro doc
trine on of the most effectlv Instruments
for peace. It Is esaentlal to Its maintenance
that we make It evident, that "we Co not
Intend to treat It In any shape as an excuse
for aggrandisement on our part at the ex
pense of the republics to the south." We
must also make It evident that "we do not
Intend to permit the Monroe doctrine to be
used by any nation on this continent as a
shield to protect It from the consequences
?i .. own misdeeds against foreign na
tions; and also, we must ourselves "In
KOO(' '"1th try to help upward towards
peace and order those of our sister repub
lics which need uch help."
Santo TWralaao.
Referrlna tn t v. . .
mingo for our help, he declares: "It Is
not of the slightest consequence whether
wesrant the aid needed by Ranto Domingo
fh. ,nc,dent o the wise development of
ine wonroe ductrlne or because we regard
V .M "'nJln' wholly by Itsolf. -The
imr.nt.po)nt Blv the needed aid."
Me cites the negotiation of the treaty with
. ,mlnlon 4-overnmcnt to help straighten
u. Jr. fln"-nces pending ratification
of which by the senate a temporary ar
rangement has been made by which the
uomlnlcan government has appointed
Americans to all the important positions In
th customs service to see to the honest
" of the revenues, turning over 4
to the government and, putting the
eauiLS-P!.r. ST1 lnto ' B8fe depository for
equitable division among the creditor.
Arsay ail Ky.
eJT" cnnot consider the question cf our
foreign policy without at the same time
treating of the army and navy. We now
"f Tf 1a.v"r'' "mall army indeed, one well
mgn Infinitesimal when compared with th
army of any other large nation. Of course
tne army we do have ehould be ss nearly
perfect of Its klryi and for Its also as Is
possible. I do not believe that any army
in the world has a better average of en
listed man or a better type bf Junior of
ficer; but the army should be trained to
act effectively in a mass. Provision should
be made by - sufficient appropriations for
maneuvers of a practical kind so that the
troops may learn how to take care of
themselves under, actual servlc condi
tion; every march, for Instance, being
made with the soldier loaded exactly as he
would be in an active campaign. The gen
erals and colonels would thereby have op
portunity of handling regiments, brigades
and divisions, and the commissary and
medical department would be tested In
the field. Provision should be made for
the exercise at least of a brigade and by
preference of a division In marching and
embarking at some point on our coast and
disembarking at some other point and con
tinuing Its march. The number of posts
In which the army Is kept in time of peace
should be materially diminished and the
POStS that are left maH s,r-edr.rmrilnirlir
Jarger. No local Interests should be al
lowed to stand In the way of assembling
the greater part of the troops which would
at need form our field armies in station
of such site as will permit the best training
to be given to the personnel of all grade.
Including th high officers and staff offi
cers. To accomplish this end we must have
not company or regimental garrisons, but
brigade and division garrisons. Promotion
by mere seniority can never result In a
thoroughly efficient corps of officers in the
higher ranks unless there accompanies It
a vigorous weedlng-out process.
"Our navy must, relatively to the navies
of other nations, always be . of greater
size than our army. We have most wisely
continued for a number of years to build
Up our navy, and It has now reached a
fairly high standard of efficiency. This
standard of -efficiency must not only ba
maintained, but increased. It does not
seem to me necessary, however, that the
navy should at least In the Immediate
future be Increased beyond the present
number of units. What is now clearly nec
essary Is to substitute efficient for ineffi
cient units as. the latter become wornout
or as It becomes apparent they are, uselas.
Xaturallaatloa I .a its. "-
"During the past year evidence has ac
cumulated to confirm the expressions con
tained In my last two annual messages
as to the Importance of revising by appro
priate legislation our system of naturalis
ing aliens. I appointed last March a com
mission to make a careful examination of
our naturalization laws,' and to suggest ap
propriate measures to avoid the notorious
abuses resulting from the Improvident or
unlawful granting of citizenship. Thl
commission has submitted a report for
which I hope tor' favorable action.
"The distinguishing recommendation of
the commission are: I
"Firt-A federal bureau of naturalization!
'' - iu me Department of
Commerce and Iabor to supervise the ad
ministration of the naturalization laws and
to receive returns of naturalisations pend
ing and accomDltehed.
gecond-l niformlty of naturalization cer
tificates, fees to be charged, and Dro
cedure. cltlIenhTpMOre exact,n" lual'IcaUon for
Fourth-Tho preliminary declaration of
Intention to be abolished and no alien to
be naturalised until at least ninety dav
af.r-the .""" ot h's petition. X y
rlfth Jurisdiction to naturalize aliens to
be confined to Lnited States district courts
and to such state courts as have lurladln
tlon In civil actions In which the amount In
frL,U Un'.,m,,,; ,n f-"Ie ""over
100.000 inhabitants the United States district
courts to have exclusive Jurisdiction n the
??tl' " " f the a""n "-"'dents of such
Criminal Laws.
Attention of congress Is asked to the
urgent need of action to make our crim
inal law force effective. "Centuries ago "
he declares, "it was especially needful to
throw every safeguard around the ac
cused. The danger then was lest
he should be wronged by the state. The
danger -now is exactly the reverse. The
criminal practices of any court of the
United States should run throughout the
entire territorial extent of our country
The delays of the criminal law, no l-as
than of the civil, now amount to a very
great evil."
Breaches of Traat In Pablle Service.
Adverting to. recent examples of be
trayed trust by government officials and
employes the president says:
"There seems to be no statute of the
United States which provides for tha
punishment of a United States attorney or
other officer of the government who cor
ruptly agrees to wrongfully do or wrong
fully refrain from doing any act when
the consideration for such corrupt agree
ment la other than one possessing money
value. This ought to be remedied by ap
propriate - legislation. Legislation should
also be enacted to cover, explicitly
unequivocally and beyond question!
breach of trust In the shape of pre
maturely divulging official secrets by an
officer or employe of the United States,
and to provide a suitable penalty therefor.
Such officer or emploje owes the duty to.
the United States to guard -carefully and
not to divulge or In any manner use, pre
maturely, Information which la accessible
to the officer or employe by reason of hi
official position. Most breaches of public
trust are already covered by the" law, and
this one -should be. It Is Impossible, no
matter hew much care is used, to prevent
the occasional appointment to the public
service of a man who when tempted proves
Unfaithful; but .every means should be pro
vided to detect and every effort made to
punish the wrongdoer. So far a In my
power lie each and every uch wrongdoer
hall b relentlessly hunted down; In no in
stance In the past has ha been spared, in
no instance of , th future shall he be
pared. HI crim la a crime against
every honest man in th nation, for It is
a crime against the whole body politic.
Tet in dwelling on such mideeds, It is un
just, not to add that they ar altogether
exceptional, and that on the whole the
employes of the government render upright
and faithful service to the people. There
are exceptions, notably In one or two
branches of the service; but at no time
In the nation's history hss the publlo ser
vice of the nation, taken as a whole, stood
on a higher plan titan now, alike as re
gards honesty and as regards efficiency.
Pablle La a Laws.
.-, - V Mil wa.. - .-n.lM . k
condition of th publl viand law a Recant
the need for such changes as will fit
laws to actual present 'TO'vl'tiona. The
honest disposal and rtght u of tha re
maining public landa I of fundamental
Importance. The Iniquitous methods by
which tha monopolizing of the public lands
Is being brought about under the present
laws are becoming mora generaly known
but the existing laws do not furnish ef
fectlv remedies. The recommendations of
the rubllo Lands commission are wise and
should be given effect.
"The creation of small Irrigated farms
under the reclamation act Is nowerfnl
offset to the tendency of certain other
laws to foster or permit monopoly of the
land. Under that act the construction of
great Irrigation worka ha been proceed
ing rapidly and successfully, the lands
relalmed are ?Hgerly taken tip. and the
prospect that the policy of national Ir
rigation will accomplish all that was ex
pected of It is bright. The act should
be extended to Include the state of Texas.
"The Reclamation Act derives much of
'.ts value from the fact that It tonds to
secure greatest possible number of home
on the lands, and to create communities
of freeholder. In part by settlement on
publlo lsnd. In part by forcing the sub
division of large private holdings before
they can get water from government Ir
rigation, works. T!ie law requires that no
right to the use of water for land In
private ownernhlp shall be sold for a
tract exceedingly ISO ceres to any one
land owner. This provision has excited
active and powerful hostility, but the sue
cess of the law Itself depends on the wise
and firm enforcement of It. We can not
afford to substitute tenants for, freeholders
on the public domain.
"The greater part of th remaining
public lands can not be 'Irlgated. They
ar at preent and will probably alway
be of greater value for erasing than for
any other purpose. This fact ha led to
the grazing homestead of (40 acres In
Nebraska' and to the proposed extension
of It to other states. It Is argued that a
family can not be supported on 160 acre of
arid grazing land. This Is obviously true;
but neither cn a family be supported on 4l
acres of much of the land to which it I
proposed to apply the grazing homestead. To
establish universally any such arbitrary
limit would, be unwise at the present time.
It would probably result on the one hand
In enlarging the holding of om of the
great land owners, and on the other In
needless suffering and failure on the part
of a very considerable proportion of the
bona fide settlers wha give faith to th
Implied assurance of the government that
such an area is sufficient. The best use
of the publlo grazing lsnd require the
careful examination and classification of
these land In' order to give each settler
land enough to support his family and no
more. While this work is being done, and
until the lands are settled, the govern
ment should take control of the open range,
under reasonable regulations suited to
local needs, . following the general policy
already In successful operation on th
forest reserves. It is probable that tha
present grazing value of the open public
range Is scarcely more than half what
It once ' was or what it might easily be
agnln under careful regulation."
The message proceeds to urge continu
ance) of forest reserve work, further assist
ance from the national government toward
the construction and maintenance, 'of lower
Mississippi levees; ask earnest considera
tion of th report of the Merchant Marine
commission; commends the claims of the
tercentennial celebration of the settlement
of Jamestown to congressional considera
tion; calls attention to the excellent work
of the pension bureau; . recommends na
tional care for the -graves of the confeder
ate dead, beginning with the graves of
those who died In northern prisons.
The message goes at considerable detail
Into the statistics of Immigration, repeat
ing what was said in the last messag-e, that
"we cannot have too much Immigration of
the right sort and we should have none
whatever of the wrong sort." Continuing
to discuss the problem as follows: '
"In dealing with tills question It is unwise
to depart from the old American tradition
and to discriminate for or against any man
who desire to come her and become a
citizen, save on the ground of that man's
fitness for citizenship. It Is Our right and
duty to consider his moral and social qual
ity. His standard of living should be such
that he will not, by pressure of competition,
lower the standard of living of our own
wage-workers: for it must ever be a prime
object of our legislation to keep high their
standard of living. If the man' who seeks
to come here is from the moral nnd social
standpoint of , such, a character as to bid
fair to add value to the community he
should be heartily welcomed. We cannot
afford to pay heed to whether he la of one
creed or another, of one nation or another.
We cannot afford to consider whether he is
Catholic or Protestant, Jew or Qenttle;
whether he Is Englishman or Irishman,
Frenchman or German, Japanese. Itallun,
Scandinavian. Slav or Magyar. What we
should desire to find out Is the individual
quality of the Individual man. In my
Judgment, with this end In view, we shall
have to prepare through our own agents
a far more rigid Inspection In the countries
from which the Immigrants come. It will
be a great deal better to have" fewer im
migrants, but all of tha right kind, than a
great number of Immigrants, many of
whom are necessarily of the wrong kind."
The question of Chinese . Immigration,
we are told, stands by, itself. The presi
dent takes the position that we should
maintain our prohibition upon Immigration
of Chinese coolies, but liberalize our
treatment of Chinese students, business and
professional men of all kinds, encourag
ing them to come here on precisely the
same footing a similar people of other
nations. - "As a people we have talked
much of the open door In China and we
expect, and quite rightly intend to insist
upon, . justice being shown us by the
Chinese, but wa cannot expect equity un
less we do equity. We cannot ask the
Chinese to do to us what we are unwilling
to do to them.. Much trouble has com
during the past summer from the organized
boycott against American goods started
In China. The main factor In producing
this factor has been the resentment offered
by the student and business people of
China, by all the Chinese leaders against
the harshness of our law toward educated
The Civil service.
"The elvll service law has been on the
statute books for twenty-two years. Every
president and a vast majority of heads
of departments who have been In office
during that period have favored a arradual
extension of the merit system. The more
thoroughly It principle have been under
stood, the greater has been the favor with
which the law has been regarded by ad
ministrative officers. Any attempt to
carry on the great executive departments
of the government without this law would
Inevitably . result in ' chaos. Th Civil
Service commissioners are doing excellent
work; snd their compensation Is in
adequate considering the service."
Copyright liri.
Th president urges revision of our copy
right laws. He say they ar so defective
that to perfect them by further amend
ment seems Impracticable and that thor
ough and complete revision 1 essential
to meet modern conditions. A law has been
drafted by the copyright office for presen
tation to congreas for which prompt con
sideration is asked.
Asalteratlon of Faods.
A law is recommended to regulate Inter
state commerce in mlabranded and adul
terated food, drinks- and. drug. Action 1
also recommended to preasrv the public
building at Washington' from 'defacement
by th smok nuisance.
Hatlaaal Park.
Th state of California la commended for
offering to th United State government
th Yoaemtt valley and th Mariposa big
trea grove, and acceptance of the gift is
asked. Th wish 1 alao expressed tbat the
United States may in some way secure prs
aeaslon in conjunction with th Canadian
government ot Niagara Fall and it sur
roundings. In this connection a plea Is
made for the preservation of the remaining
herds of American buffalo. Congreas Is
also asked to provide pensions for mem
bers, of the life-saving servlcs on the same
plan ss prevails in fire snd police depart
ment in our larger cities.
"During th year Just past th phase of
tha Indian quM4aj k0v& feM been moat
sharrlyibrouht rc publle attention I th
larger legul algninrnce of the Indian" in
duction Info ritleenshlp. This has mad
Itself manifest not only In a great acres
of litigation In which the citizen ' Indian
figures as a pnrty defendant and In a more
widespread disposition to levy local taxa
tion upon his personality, but In a decision
of the United States supreme, court, which
"truck away the main prop on which has
hitherto rested the government's benevolent
(Tort to protect him ngalnat the evils of
Intemperance. The rniitt holds. In effect,
that when an Indian Iwomes. bv virtue of
an allotment of land to him. a citizen of
the state in which his land la situated, he
passes from under federal control In such,
matters as this, and the acts of the con
gress prohibiting the sale or gift to him ot
intoxicants become substantially Inopera-
. ii is gratifying to note that the state
an.! municipalities of the west which hav
most at stake In the welfare of the Indian
ar taking up this subject and are trying
to supply, a measure at least, tha abdl.
cation of Its trusteeship forced upon the
rederal government.. Nevertheless, I would
urgently press upon the sttentlon of th
congress the question whether some mend
ment of the Internal revenue laws might
aot be of aid In prosecuting those malefac
tors, known In the Indian country as boot
leggers, who ar engaged at once In de
frauding the United Hlates trnamirr of
faxe and. what la far more important. n
m. !.Urh.,n ,h" Tn,,h"" hy carrying liquor
Illicitly Into territory still completely under
federal Jurisdiction.
t "Amnn the crying present needs of th
Indian are more day schools situated In tho
midst of their settlements, more effective
Instruction in th Industrie pomued on their
own farms, and a more liberal extension
or the field matron service, which means
the education of the Indian women In tha
arts of homo making. Until th mother
are well started In th right direction wa
cn not reasonably expect much from th
children, who are soon to form an Integral
part of our American citizenship. Mora
over, the excuse continually advanced
by male adult Indians for refusing offer
of rcnumeratlv employment at a distance
from their homes Is that, they dar not
leave their families too long out of sight.
One effectual remedy , for this state of
things Is to employ th minds nd
trengthen the moral fiber of the Indian
women the end. to which the work of the
field matron Is especially directed. 1 trust
that the congress will make Its appropria
tions for Indian day schools and , field
matrons as generous as may consist with
pressing demands upon Its providence.
Tha Philippines.
Conditions In th Philippine are reviewed
at some length with reference to the mis
fortune plied upon th Philippines by th
succession of war, the rlnder pest, the
locusts, the drouth and the cholera, calling
for generous treatment at the hands of our
government ' In order to restore complete
prosperity. "The most encouraging feature
of th whole situation." declares the pres
Indent, "has been the very great Interest
taken by the common people in education
and the great increase In the number of en
rolled student In the publlo. schools. This
Increase was from 300,000 to 600,000 pupils."
He says further, that, "the agricultural
conditions of the Islands enforce, more
trongly than ever the argument In favor
of reducing the tariff on the products of
the Philippine Islands entering the United
States. I earnestly recommend that the
tariff now Imposed by the Dlngley bill upon
Philippine products be entirely removed
except on sugar and tobacco, and that the
tariff be reduced to 26 per cent of the
present rates. That after July 1, 1909, the
tariff on tobacco , and sugar 'be entirely
removed and free trade between the islands
and the United States In the products of
our country then be provided for-by law."
Hawaii aad Porto Rleo..
The president expresses the opinion thst
Immediate steps should be taken to fortify
Hawaii. He also declares that Hawaii Is
too heavily taxed, and while there are
great obstacle in the way of 'building up
a representative community In Hawaii,
many an American- commonwealth ha
been built up against odds equal to those.
He advocates American citizenship for the
people of Porto Rico and -eHriou Improve
ments In Porto Kico to. b undertaken at
the expense of our government. .'
' This ts-followed' WltB a peolni plea, for
for more liberal treatment of tha question
of franchise In our island twaeaslons.
"In th proper desire to prevent the islands
being; exploited by speculators, an error
has been made in refusing to grant suffi
ciently liberal terms to indue th Invest
ment of American capital in th Philip
pine and in Porto Rico.
For Alaska the request Is made that it
be' given an elective delegate and govern
ment assistance. In tho construction of a
railroad to the Yukon river. - -
, Admission to Statehood.
"I recommend that Indian Territory and
Oklahoma be admitted as one state and
that New Mexico and Arizona be admitted
as one state. There is no obligation upon
us to treat territorial subdivisions, which
are matter of convenience only, as bind
ing us on the question of admission to
statehood. Nothing has taken UP more
time In the congress during th last few
years that the question as to th statahood
to be granted to the four territories above
mention, and after caroful consideration of
all that has been developed in the discus
slons of tho question I recommend that f
they be Immediately admitted as two states. '
There Is no Justification for further, delay;
and the advisability of making th four
territories Into two states has been clearly
estabUshed. ' .
"In some of the terrttorle th legislative
assemblies Issue licenses for gambling. The
congress should by law forbid thl prac
tice, the harmful result of which ar ob
vious at a glance." .
Tha Panama Canal.
The president reoites th recent history
of the Panama canal project and declares
that two points about the canal ' have i
ceased to be open to debate.' "First, the
question of route the canal will be built
on the Isthmus of Panama; second, ' the
question ef feasibility ther are no phys
ical obstaolea on thla route that American .
engineering skill will not be able to over
come." He. continues: "The point-which
remain unsettled la the question of type
whether the canal shall be one ot several
locks above sea level or at sea level with a
Ingle tide lock. On this point I hop to
lay before congress at an early day the
findings of the advisory board cf engineers
and such comments- thereon or recom
mendations in reference thereto as may
aeem necesry." He refer, to the work
of sanitating . the Uthmus and concludes
en thl subject: "What Is needed now, and
without delay, i an appropriation by con
areas to meet the current and accruing ex
penses of the commission. The first appro- ,
priatlon ot 110.000,000, made three years ago,
is nearly exhausted. Unless congress appro
priates before the end of the year all work
must cease. To arrwet progress for any
length of time now,- when matters are ad
vsnclng so satisfactorily, . would b de
plorable. s , ..;
The Department at State.
"I recommend niore adequate provision
than ha been mad heretofore for the
work of the Department of State. Within
a few Jrear there ,has been a very great
increase in the amount and Importunes of
the work to b done by that department,
both In Washington and abroad. Th! .ha
been caused by the great increase of our
foreign trade, the increase of wealth among
our people, which enables thWm to travel
more generally than heretofore; the In
crease of American capital which Is seek
ing investment In foreign countries, and th
growth of our power and weight In tha
council of the civilized world. There ha
been no corresponding Increase of facilities
for doing the.wolk afforded to' the depart
ment having charge of ouf foreign rela
tions. "Suitable provision should be - made for
the expense of keeping our diplomatic offi
cers more fully Informed of what la being
done from day to day In tha progress ot
our diplomatic affair with other countries.
The lack of surh Information, caused by
Insufficient : appropriations available for
cable tolls and for clerical and messenger
service, frequently puis , our officers at a
great disadvantage and detracts from their
usefulntas. The salary list should be re
adjusted. It does not now correnor.d cither
to the importance or the aervlce to he ren
dered and the degrees of ability and ex
perience required in the different position,
or to th differences In the coat of living,
la many eaaes-the salarte are qulta IqI
adequate. - THfcODORM ROOBEVk.T1'
J Th Wait llOU, Pauses I, -