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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 8, 1905)
October 8, 1905.
THE OMAHA ILLUSTRATED BEE.
The Annual Horse
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t m m JORSE showa are good for any
I fl I community.
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healthy entertainment that all,
sorts and conditions of peoDle can
enjoy. The show Is an education to thou
sands who have never seen a horse show.
It Is a good thing for a town to have four,
five or six thousand people dressea In their
best get together and see each other. It
gives everybody a better opinion of his
neighbors and of himself. This is a pros
perous community ond the people can well
afford to don their best bibs and tuckers
for a week and enjoy themselves. Soma
complain that It Is expensive and there
Is always talk about money that 1b spent
for entertainments. of this sort, but It Is
not an expensive affair. Qootl seats can
be had as cheaply as at a circus, and few
think of objecting to the price of a circus
The horse show presents an Interesting;
commercial aspect. In its essence a thing
of pleasure, the horse show will yet have
a direct bearing upon the business of
Omaha, and like any, other large gathering
of people it will, stimulate business not
only in this city, but in a large radius sur
rounding It. Large wholesalers have pro
nounced the horse show as one of the
Jr-m$ methods of centralizing old trade and creat-
J J Ing new. No other class of entertainment
(f ft seems to have the same effect on business.
By Its very nature It appeals to a differ
ent class of people than does most any
other form of entertainment. Direct bene
fits of the horse show go to many classes
of people. The hotels are crowded during
the week of the show and the visitors
spend considerable , money with the mer
chants. The city receives direct benefit
from the advertising given It all over the
country when a successful horse show is
held and the whole oommunity has a better
opinion of Itself If a suooeesful show la
The greatest benefit to a dty from the
horse show Is the raising of the standard
of the rigs which the well-to-do drive
every day on the streets and In the parks.
All classes of people get a better Idea of
what Is the right and proper thing In the
way of horse flesh and rigs. In' no city
was the change ever as noticeable as In
Omaha. The number of high-class rigs
to be seen on the streets has been doubled
since the last show and this fact Is notice
able to all.
What he Horse Has 0tHvd.
Since the day when steam power
first utilized for locomotion the doom of
the horse has been predicted. With each
subsequent Invention of appliances for the
h.in i ir,,n tM .m talk has been
heard. When the first passenger train ran pens to be a little rough. He simply re
on rails stage drivers and teamsters shook mains with you. faithful, silent, uncom
Insight Into Industrial Conditions that
(Copyright, 1906, by Frank O. Carpenter.)
AVANA, Oct. 6.-8peclal Corre-1-j
I spondence of The Bee.) Cuba is
Wages were never higher In the
tobacco districts, and some
sugar crop of the last season was not har
vested for lack of hands. Thousands of
Americans who have purchased lands here
are doing more, or less to develop their
holdings and the good times have created
an increased demand for workmen in
every part of the Island. . There have been
a number of projects before congress to en
courage immigration, and some of these
will probably be adopted. The Immigrants
most wanted are those from the Canary
Islands and northern Spain, and they
already constitute a large part of the white
labor. They are thrifty. Industrious and
easily controlled. They are In many re
spects better than the native Cubans and
are considered the best unskilled laborers
Attempts are also being made to bring In
Italians. The climate here is about the
same as that of Italy, and the Italians have
proved a success In Argentina, Brazil and
other South American countries. At pres
ent there is a floating Immigration to Cuba
from Spain which cornea and goes every
year. The men are brought In for the
harvest season, working chiefly in the to
bacco districts. It costs them HO each for
the round trip, and the wages are such
that each can save Mini single harvest.
A similar Immigration Is carried on be
tween the coffee plantations of Brazil and
the wheat fields of Argentina, the men go
ing regularly back and forth.
)'im Ha la Cab.
The greatest demand for labor Is on the
farms and plantations. Cuba Is an. agri
cultural country and one-fifth of the whole
population works on the farms. The island
has about 1,500.000 Inhabitants, and of these
Cv,uuo are workers of one kind or another
Three hundred thousand do farming and
only a little over 90,000 are engaged in
manufacturing. There are less than 10,000
at work in the mines and 4.000 or 6.000 em
ployed on the railroads. I have these fig
ures from our Pepartmwit of Labor, which
Is my authority for other statements made
further on In this article.
Farm hands get all the way from 110 to
t a month and found. In some places
ney are paid $1 a day, and at harvest
time the wages rise to those of the I'nlted
States. A great deal of work is done by
contract A man will take care of a cer
tain piece of land on the shares, or keep
It clean at so much per acre per month.
I know of men who make 30 and M0 a
month In this way. They have their chil
dren Iwlp them In the fields and do the
work by the piece or by the day In addi
tion to their contract.
Werk mm tke Share a. '
Many of the farms ere rented out. Near
Havana a tenant gets the use of five acres
and a ynk. - OKen for naif the crop. Two
thlids vi the Uibacco of P-uar del Rio Is
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X. P. PECKS
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F. A. NASH AND HIS SADDLE HORSE.
their heads and sighed for the fate which
seemed In store for the horse. The opposite
proved true and the demand for the serv
ices of the horse is increased Instead of
diminished. The bicycle was going to do
away with the horse, and now comes the
automobile, and again Is his fate sealed.
The motor comes in closer competition
with the horse than did the locomotive,
but still will he stay. . It Is. not unlikely
that naphtha, gasoline or electricity will
relieve the horse of some of his heavier
burdens, but the horse reared-for man's
pleasure will remain. Centuries of faithful
service on the one hand and of comrade
ship In tight places on the other have endeared-
the horse to man with a bond of
sympathy too strong for any whls wagon
to sever. As long as there Is pleasure In
the exercise of one Intelligence over an
other, so long as' beauty, strength and
animation challenge' admiration, so long
will the horse remain In the place which
he Is destined to fill, and will remain as
the companion of man.
There la something Irresistible about the
companionship of a horse. He never gives
, advice unasked, nor does he "bellow forth
his soft complainings" when the road hap-
raised by tenants, and a great deal of veg
etable gardening Is carried on on the shaioJ.
The land Is so fertile that a small tract will
produce three or four crops a year. There
are te'nants raising corn near Havana who
cut Ave crops of fodder a year. They can
raise about ten tons to the acre, and a man
can, I, am told, realize $300 a year from a
Much of the sugar raising Is done on the
shares, a tenant taking care of so much
cane for a part of the crop, which is dis
posed of at a sugar mill nearby. Such
farming, however. Is more profitable In the
tobacco regions. The labor Is lighter there
and It Is such that almost all the members
of the families can work In the field.
There Is quite a movement now In coffee
planting. There is a high -tariff on home
grown coffee and this will probably be con
tinued for many years to come. It takes
three years to get the first crop, and during
this time the tenants are paid about 60
per annum for attending to a tract of
thirty-three acres, with the understanding
that after that time the owner of the land
and the tenant shall divide the crop
equally. The tenant takes care of the
plants; he picks the coffee and delivers It
at the drying place.
Wages la Cabsu
Wages are high here considering that
Cuba is a part of the West Indies, where
the common laborer often gets but 15 cents
a day. In Havana such workmen get from
tl a day upward. Outside they receive fl
silver, and at flush times tl In gold and
more. Board Is often Included In such con
tracts, but the board consists of rice.
Jerked beef, beans and little else. The
wages are highest In the tobacco regions.
These men are paid from tl to 12 a day,
'and sometimes even tl a day. There Is
a great deal of work In raising tobacco and
it requires skilled labor to a large ex
tent. The seeds have to be sowed In beds
and the plants transplanted. .The plants
have to be weeded, wormed and budded,
and when the leaves are gathered they
must be cured, bunched and baled. Much
of this Is done by the piece. Five dollars
is puld for setting out a thousand plants,
and the packers gtt from t to (9 a bale.
It is estimated than one can raise and tend
about 10.0U0 seed plants. It requires thst
many to tit out an acre and to tend five
such acres It will keep one family busy.
Much of the best tobacco Is now raised
under shade at a cost of several hundred
dollars per acre.
BIsT fay tlorm.krrt.
The workers in the cigar factories get
big pay. There ere thousands of such men
In Havana who receive from tl to tS
a day. They have men to ivad the
newspapers to them while they work vtiox
wages are 119 a day. Indeed, the cigar
makers might be called the aristocrats of
Some of these men work by the piece and
some by the day. The wages vary ac
cording to the work and also according to
the totality. They are higber la Havana
plaining, ready to ride at your bidding
even to death if need be.
Stimulates Breeders' Rivalry.
One distinctive feature which belongs to
the horse show stamps It as a class of
entertainment of a very high grade and
that Is that its promoters are not actuated
by any financial gain to themselves, but
do the work and spend their money en
tirely for the love of the horse. This is
fortunate for the horse as well as for the
patron. Directors of the horse show are
gentlemen engaged In other line of work
who take up the horse show for love of the
horse alone, and that they may interest
others and bring them to a full apprecia
tion of the high standard to which show
horses must belong. It stimulates a
friendly rivalry among breeders which will
eventually tend to raise the standard of
the horse. Already this spirit has become
manifest throughout the country, and mtre
attention, has been paid to the Individual
horse, with the result that breeding has
been reduced to a soience. With these
results to be attatned the promoters of
the Omaha Horse Show are working with
a vim which is rarely displayed in the
Horse shows In all sections of the coup
try have come to be regarded as society
than In the suburbs and other cities scat
tered over the island.
In these factories the men make consid
erable more than the women. I visited one
In Havana where 400 girls were employed
In stripping the leaves from the stems
and spreading them out for the cigar
rollers. These girls make on the average
t3 a day, the pay roll for female labor In
that factory alone being about J800 per day.
The most of these girls are young. Fully
200 of them were under 18, a few were
middle aged and one or two were gray
There are about 1,600 women employed
In the tobacco trade In this Island. Some
of them work by the piece, some by the
day. The cigars are packed by women and
the same is true of cigarettes. In some
factories the women earn V2 a week, while
In others they make something like '
t3 a month. In most factories the women
and men have separate rooms, and In some
no women are employed.
Caba'a New Saw MUla.
New saw mills are being started through
out eastern Cuba. The country Is Just
opening up, and a large number of men
are employed In getting out timber. There
are hundreds hewing mahogany logs which
are carried to the porta on the railroads
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TOBACOO rTRTPPtCRS WHO SARIf n
a Stimulant to Business and Society
JUASXER WSX11ULLER AND UIS POXX.
VT. H. M'CORD'S GIO IIORSH
events, and the women vie with each other
In presenting th4 most stunning appear
ance and In wearing the latest Paris crea
tion, but these shows serve other purposes
than mere entertainment. They tend to
stimulate Interest In the horse which In
Itself Is a most worthy object and they
also advertise the cities In which they are
held. The east sends its best horses to
the west to compete in these western
horse shows and the news of the show
Is eagerly watched by the people of the
east who are Interested In the horses of
the society leaders of the east. This all
tends to advertise a city most thoroughly,
especially when a successful show like the
Omaha show of last year, Is held. It. was
a great advertisement for Omaha to put
on a successful first show, and all of the
papers of the east commented on the fact
most favorably. The city is thus given
considerable free advertising and many
visitors are attracted from our own state
as well as from the neighboring states.
The horse show has demonstrated that it
Is a good thing for a city and should be
encouraged by a large list of local en
tries and by a liberal patronage. The
city takes pride In its success and would
be equally chagrined at Its failure. But
the horse show Idea is sq framed as to
almost preclude the possibility of a fall-
or down the rivers at the time of the
goods. Others are making railroad ties
and others sawing lumber and preparing
it for shipment. At such work unskilled
men are getting tl a day. The price for
cutting down and barking a tree which
will make a log thirty feet long and four
feet in diameter is 60 cents, and SO
cents is paid for trees above that
size. The sawyers in the Havana
lumber mills receive from t50 to 1100
a month, and the mahogany hewers
are paid from t6 to 17 per thousand feet.
Engineers are paid a hundred dollars a
month, while the head sawyers get three cr
four dollars a day. Wood choppers receive
S12 a month and board and charcoal burn
ers about the same.
There Is an enormous business In char
coal here. This furnishes the fuel for do
mestic uses. All cooking is done over bra
ziers or in little holes in ledges built up
against the wall of the kitchen, making a
sort of brick stove as it were. The houses
seldom have chimneys and only the fewest
have cook stoves of the American or Eu
ropean pattern. The charcoal peddler is to
be seen everywhere. He carries his fuel in
a cart drawn by a mule or horse and goes
from door to door like a huckster.
Mechanics of all kinds are paid less here
than In the United States. The native Cu
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A, Z. BRANDEI3' NEW
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ure. Horses and women go well together,
and It Is also given In the western cities
as an opportunity for the ordinary citizen
to see the leaders of society in all of their
finery. Every one reads the society col
umns of a newspaper to see what the
society leaders are doing, and the horse
show gives an opportunity to see these
leaders of which so much is read.
When the People Mtna-le.
One of the delightful features of the
horse show Is the promenade. This is
a wide runway which completely surrounds
the arena and In which holders of special
tickets of box scats are permitted to walk
at all times. Usually women prefer the
box seats, but the laws of the horse
show, as Immutable as the sun, decree
that it Is the proper thing to use the
promenade and so It must be. Last year
the directors had a little difficulty in In
ducing people to start to use the space
set apart for the promenaders, but after
several announcements through the mega
phone Inviting all to participate this
was the most popular spot of all. The
promenade was a delightful innovation and
gave the affair quite a European atmos
phere. This' gives all a chance to visit
with those occupying neighboring boxes
and to converse In horsey talk. The prom
bans are naturally skillful. Many of the
workmen are Jacks of all trades, and our
mechanics would probably say masters of
none. Still they do excellent work and
some of the buildings made by them are
magnificent. There are about fourteen
thousand carpenters In Cuba. They work
almost altogether by the rule of thumb.
In building they cut the pieces too large
and then saw or shave tfie'm down to fit.
When they make a roof they will construct
the framework on the ground until they
get It of the right dimensions and shape.
They will then take it to pieces and re
erect it in Its proper position. Such meth
ods are time consumers, and the Cuban
carpenter at half price Is dear in compari
son to ours. Good carpenters are paid
from 11. B0 to $2 a day In the cities; in the
smaller places they work for much less.
Cabas Masons Versus American.
The wages of masons are equally low,
but still their work Is quite as costly as
ours. The ordinary native bricklayer does
well if he can put up 600 bricks per day.
The American, on rough work, can lay
1,800. The superiority of our masons was
shown in the building of a brewery which
was erected In Havana not long ago. A
gang of bricklayers was imported from th
United Slates and waa worked side by
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I CtTBArf RATLWAT CO!fIUCTOR 0TATIOK AOEST
AMD RURAL fOX-lCMAX.
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E. P. PECK'S NEW HORSE.
enade Is closer to the arena and patrons
can command a much nearer view "-of the
prancing steeds than from their boxes.
For the week of the horse show the
town puts on a gala dress and one of the
most attractive features of horse show
week Is the window displays that are
made by the merchants of the city. Prizes
usually offered by the horse show directors
for the best decorated window put the
merchants into a friendly contest, and all
enter into the spirit of the occasion and
spare neither expense nor effort, with the
result that the whole town Is one blaze
of red and white, with some of the most
artistic window displays of the season for
the colors, red and white, easily lend them
selves to the occasion and make a beauti
Some Show RlasT Tips.
For the benefit of those who have never
shown in a ring before it may be well to
give a few words of advice. The first and
most Important Is to do Just what the
Judges ask you to do, and If they tell you
to walk your horse do not canter him, and
If they ask you to trot your horse don't
set him to single footing or some other gait.
If they tell you to drive around the ring
don't try to cut a figure eight Just to show
your skill with the reins. Stay a reasonable
side with the Cuban bricklayers. The
Americans laid three times as many bricks
per day as the Cubans. It was a repetition
of the experiment made on the Westing
house building at Manchester, England.
The Contractor there was an American.
He became disgusted with the slow work
of the English bricklayers and Imported a
large number of American masons to work
side by side with them. Befofe the Ameri
cans came the English bricklayers laid 400
bricks per day. They opened their eyes
when the Americans laid from 1,800 to 2.000,
and they gradually put on a spurt, which
brought them close to the Americans.
- Skilled bricklayers In Cuba get 150 to
(2 a day, hodcarriers tl and whltewashers
and brushmen tl and upward. All build
ings here have thick walls. The brick is
laid up In the rough and the wall covered
with plaster or stucco where It faces the
street. It Is then painted In bright colors.
Among the Iron Workers.
Most of the publlo buildings have a great
deal of Iron about them. Their windows
are covered with a lacework of Iron and
Iron balconies extend out from the second
stories. The material used Is wrought
Iron, and Its making requires considerable
skill. The men employed on It get dally
wages of t3.50 In gold, while their helper
and apprentices receive tl and upward.
There are several machine shops In Cuba.
One here In Havana works about 300 men.
It pays Its best mechanics 14 a day, and
this wage is received by patternmakers,
molders, foundry men and others. Such
men are scarce her. Helpers get 1150 a
day and apprentices about the same. Fire
men are paid from tl to 12 and outside
laborers from tl to $150.
Enulneers and Railway Men.
There are many engineers employed on
the plantations. Every big sugar mill has
to have one or more, and there must be at
the same time mechanics to keep the ma
chinery In order. Many such mills cost
several hundred thousand dollars for their
machinery alone, and they require skilled
men. Blacksmiths ore employed on every
plantation. They get MO and upward a
There are about 5 MO men at work on the
railroads, and among them a large number
of engineers and firemen. The wages are
different on different roads, but everywhere
they are less than In the United States.
Few of the plantations pay more than $100
a month for their best engineers, and on
the roads the locomotive engineers get from
t00 to tl50, and firemen from t-15 to $50. On
the Cuba road a large number of Ameri
cans are employed. They are, I suppose,
paid better wages.
The most of the railroad conductors are
natives. They are polite and efficient. They
receive less than the engineers. Brskemen
get about CO a month and station agents
from 140 to t a month and quarters. The
average men employed In the traffic service
of the Cuba road do not earn more than
l'T) a year, and many of them much leas.
In railroad building the naUvea work un
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BRANDKIS' jtcw carriaob pair.
distance from the horse ahead, so that In
case of accident you may avoid a pile up.
Tou should make it a point to understand
the temperament of your horse and study
him Just as you would a person. Bo quiet '
yourself and do not get excited, as It Is
sure to be communicated to your horse.
Pon't be afraid to speak to your horse
In a low, encouraging voice, that he may
know that ho has a friend In the vast con
course of people which surrounds him In
the glare of the thousand lights.
Horsewomen In the ring should dress as
quietly as possible and always display ex
treme neatness In their wearing apparel.
The hair should be worn neatly on the
neck and never on the top of the head, and
curls and stray ends should be confined.
The hat should bo supplied with a rubber
so that there will be no chance of losing
it off In the canter. A sailor is all right for
a summer show, but a black derby is the
proper thing In the winter. Black Is prefer
able for the show ring for the habit, and
gloves to match, twn sizes larger than
would be worn with a street costume. A
tight glove cramps the band and a girl'
cannot maintain perfect control of the
reins If her hands become cramped. A
white stock looks neat and gaiters are the
proper footwear. Some riders prefer to
wear the high riding boots and these look:
Toggery for the Horse Show.
A galaxy of color will greet the eye of the
person entering the horse show and the
scene In the brilliantly lighted arena will
be one that is at once bewildering and cap
tivating. The colors of Arctlo white and
California red are already to be seen all
over the city, and these dominate In deco
rations as well as In dress. The flashing
jewels of the women and the beautiful
dresses will make a panorama that will
long live in the memory. Everything must
be done according; to fixed rules at tho
horse show If you wish to be au fait, Tho
correct attire for the men Is a full evening
eult. A white waistcoat Is preferable. A
white tie Is advised and It Is thoroughly
proper for each man to tie his own tie. His
valet must not touch it, bis sister and
mother are barred, and as for some one
else It will not do. There la a certain
omen connected with ties.
At the matinees the spectator may use
. his pleasure as to light suits and hats with
For the women on the opening night the
regulation dinner, reception or riding gown
of texture and material suitable for the
season is required. Horse shows are les
sons to the tailors for femininity. Milady
uses her own taste, combined with that of
her tailor, and marvelous creations are the
result. Many of them are ne,w, absolutely
so. Oftimes the horse show sets the fashion
for the entire winter season.
der foreign civil engineers. This was the
way the Cuba road was constructed. It
bad at times 10,000 men and It pushed them
as they had never been pushed before. The
officials once attempted to change the houra
of work. It Is customary here to start the
day at and work till 11, then lay off until
2, when the work goes on until .8 In the
evening. I understand that the Cuba Road,
company tried to extend the morning until
noon and stop off- an hour earlier In the
evening. This did not satisfy the natives
and it had to be abandoned. One reason
was that the men start the day on a light
meal and they become played out If they
work after 11 o'clock without further food.
They like the noon hours for rest; and
after their 11 o'clock breakfast of rice,
jerked beef and plantains with coffee take
a nap, lying flat on their backs. In the
evening they have a good dinner, and after
It coffee and a smoke. The first breakfast,
usually taken before going to work, con
sists of little more than a cup of black
coffee and some bread. It is Indeed a short
ration for four or five hour of hard work.
Cuban Against Americas Negroes.
A large part of the negro labor Is lazy
and unreliable. The men are not equal to
our negroes. This was found In tbe work
upon the street railroads of Havana, which
belong largely to Americans. In relaying
the tracks not long ago a gang of Cuban
negroes was employed, but the work went
so slowly that American negroes were
brought over and put on the work at about
twice the wages received by the Cubans.
Both sets of hands were boarded, but the
Americans did twice as much work as the
Cubans,' and they would have been cheap
at double the money. This Increase of pay,
however, caused a strike on the part of
the native negroes, and the result was
that they got a raise of wages, although
the Americans still did the most work.
In closing, I would say that I doubt
whether Cuba Is a good place Just now for
the American mechanic or common laborer
without money. While the wages are high
for Cuba, they are comparatively low as
regards 'the United States. Onr workmen
cannot live on the ordinary Cuban fare.
They will find tbe hours of work different,
and It will take them a long time to become
accustomed to Cuban social life. If they
have places beforehand, or can come here
assured to work In some of the American
colonies, they may' do well; but otherwise
tho venture s, to say the least, doubtful.
FRANK O. CARPENTER.
Indians Ride in Autos
"Reports made by assessors who listed the
property of Indians In the Rosebud and
Cheyenne reservations show that the Sioux
Indians are possessed of the following lux
Three hundred and twenty telephone!.
Nine hearse (uaed a carriages).
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