Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, June 11, 1904, PART 1, Page 6, Image 6

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On of tha Ureal Ino denti la th Hiitory
of the World.
riod'a Mrslerloos War wm by
the DeTelopmeat mt Uses that
Have lalmlaatea ia Free
oat' Trlamph.
At tha Auditorium yesterday Henry
IXj&f Estabroolc ot New York, formerly
of Omaha, addressed the multliude that as
sembled to take part In the celebration of
the fiftieth anniversary of the approval of
the Nebraska-Ksnsaa bill. The full text ot
bl aUdresa follows:
"The ftrat four words of the first of all
books are the moat Important words erer
uttered by one lntellttace to another:
'In the begMoryng-God.
"Please to observe that theae words form
ulate the statement of a faot and not
simply a working hypothesis. This fact,
I say, I Important, because It redeems the
unlveise from the oliarae of Idiocy and
alone Juatlflea the tremendous ergo of Des
cartes. Bald be: 'I think, therefore, I
am.' And the converse of this postulate,
while not so apparent, may be no less true,
namely, that there la no real existence out
side of thought.
"It Is all very well for the scientist, so
called, to draw partial oonciusions from
tentative premises, but to draw an ulti
mate oonoluslon from an unknown premise
is nothing short of arroganc. Time was
when an assumed primordial atom, calleJ
matter, and an assumed primordial force,
called motion, were made to aocount fur
everything that Is or seems to be, and the
peculations built upon this dual absurdity
were, with great solemnity, called science.
"This science reduced life to a ferment,
and thought itself to a by-product of
chemical combustldn. Like the flame of a
candle we gleamed for a moment In a
naughty world and then went out In dark
ness. I,ov tfc All Pewerral. .
"But recently there has been found a
something called rkdltim'. - Up to date there
is only a little of It in the world, and It
Is very) precious. - But radium exists and
behold I the hitherto indivisible atorrt of
chemistry has been shattered Into a mil
lion Ions, and tha Ion Itself comminuted
until matter, as such, disappears and there
Is left, as the final scientific theory of
causation, 'a swirl of force.' Can you con
ceive of force in the abstract save in the
terms of thought? ' "
"But there is another something more
wonderful than radium, another force more
puissant than chemical affinities. It was
discovered long ago, but up to date there
Is not so very much Of It In the world, and
It Is very precious: This Is the force called
love. Thought and love. Are not these the
sum and substance, the very definition ot
Almtght OodT
"Fellow citlsens. for a layman In an oc
casional address to start out by dlsousslng
things spiritual, rather than things tem
poral. Is to bring upon him the crltloism
of sermonising. But my sermonising by
way of prelude has this only for Its ob
Jeot: If the unl verso be Godless, If things
happen because- thy happen, without
rhyme or reason, object or design, then
history becomes a mere chronology of
events of little more Interest than a last
year's almanac. Hope cannot breathe In
a moral vacuum, and wo stand brooding
over her pathetic corpse. . The sun him
self, seen through a glass darkly, seems
veiled In orepe, whilst the chrysography
of the stars spells only on wordpur
poseless. ' ,'"
"But If God be All In All. all life, all
love, all truth, omniscient, omnipotent and
omnipresent, why, obviously, there Is room
in the universe for naught but Ood, and we
know, therefore, that In Him we live and
move and have our being. In this spiritual
Ised pantheism and I make bold to affirm
that such Is the Christian religion stripped
ot Its theology all partial truths are recon
ciled. The theory of evolution Is based
upon a law of eternal progress, but It
leaves unanswered the yearning question,
whence oometh this great law? And yet,
! spite of Its hiatus, evolution Is a con
soling theory, for It Implies that regardless
of the mistakes and blunders and wicked
ness of man he must, through the very
law of -ills being,, grow Into a better and
higher manhood. It teaches that every sin
has In It the seeds of Its own destruc
tion, thereby confirming the Bible state
ment that all that Ood mads or mani
fested Is, In Its essence, good.
Seems Like fin I'gly Dream.
"Take, for Instance, the sin of slavery.
By cudgelling our memory or delving Into
history we can realise, no doubt, that
slavery once existed In the United States
even on Nebraska soli. We can realise
that 'ministers of the gospel attempted to
vindicate It on mora) grounds; that men
fought and Intrigued to perpetuate and ex
tend It i and that thousands upon thou
sands died In Its defence. Today all this
terns 11 kt an ugly dream. Via very does
not exist and eannot exist, because the
very thought of It has passed out ot
consciousness. Bo that ' In studying the
vents of even half a century wo may look
from the pages of our history Into the
deep blue of the Infinite and cry out with
the psalmist: "Surely the wrath of man
hall praise Thee: the remainder of wrath
shalt Thou restrain."
"Now, from time to time there comes a
crisis In the affairs of men so big with
portent that the world, stands tip-toe
waiting the. event.. When thought has ap
pealed to thought, when reason has corn
batted reanon, when at last men threaten
to coeres where they failed jto convince,
the issue ma be an American revolution,
where reason battle! with folly; or a
French revolution, where passion warrsd
with anmganco or a civil war, like our
late rebellion, whtr for the first time In
human experience men. took up arms In
the name of the golden rule. Such a crisis
waa the Both nf May, and Its ocranlnn
was the organisation of Nebraska, Terri
tory. '
Horn at a VII Compact.
"The nation had travailed snd begat
twins. Kansas snd Nebraska were the
offspring of as vile a compact as was ever
legalised by act of legislature. Their
birthright under . the constitution was a
free and happy soil, but It was sought to
rob them of It r-vin In their cradle. To
!lncate yet once again the aggressive
selfishness ot slavocrary, Stephen A. Doug.
Ins, a senatov from Illinois, had succeedud
In grafting Into the organic acta of Kansas
and Nebraska his doctilne of squatter
sovereignty, though the phrase Itself. I be
lieve, originated with General Cass. And
what was this squatter sovereignty? film
ply that certain portions of the public do
main had been marked oft by metes and
bounrla, labeled respectively Kansas and
Nebraska, and the Slav owner and the
abolitionist were told ta scramble for their
"With our knowledge of the sequel It Is
easy to discern tha fatuity of such a
program. What was Intended as a pallia
tive was certain to prove an Irritant; fur
the north wns not afraid of the south, nor
had It ever been. It had been willing to
ronoede that slavery was an existing evil
for which no one then living waa wholly
responsible, an evil, therefore to be treated
gingerly. Put, being an evil. It was not to
be cxldled. On the contrary, the gan
grene must be localised, and by all means
kept from spreading. Hence the north had
acquluscsd in the admission of Missouri as
a slave state In 130. gnimblngly, to be
sure, and only In consideration of the
eighth section of the act of admission,
which provided: That In all that terri
tory ceded by Franca to the United 8tates
under the name of Louisiana, which lies
north of in degrees, 30 minutes north, not
Included within' the limits of the state con
templated by this act, slaver and In
voluntary servitude otherwise then In the
punishment of crimes whereof the parties
shall have been duly convicted, shall be
and hereby Is forever prohibited.'
Abxoerated tha Compromise.
"Henry Clay, 'The Qreat Pacificator,' who
had favored the Missouri compromise, was
careful not to champion slavery as an In
stitution. He deplored snd reprobated It,
as did also rinckney, and nearly every
other southerner of national consequence.
The Missouri compromise, I say,, was ac
quiesced In by the north because It pur
ported to set bounds to southern aggran
disement. Judge, then, of the feeling of
outrage that tingled through the north
like unseen lightning when the acts creat
ing Kansas and Nebraska Insolently
declared that the compromise of 1S20 was
unconstitutional and void, and that the
south, notwithstanding Its solemn avowals,
refused to be' bound by It. Northern men
looked at each other with questioning eyes.
They acknowledged themselves duped,
tricked, hoodwinked. The south had pal
tered with Its sacred word, presuming upon
northern cowardice and using the consti
tution as a mask to Its hypocrisy. The
people of the south Seemed to court and
welcome a conflict on tho virgin plains
of Kansas and Nebraska. Very well!
Since tha challenge had been given In the
name of slavery. It should bo accepted In
the name of liberty! And thus the 'Irre
pressible conflict' was actually begun.
"Among the numerous old societies In
stantly formed to promote northern Immi
gration Into these new territories, probably
tho earliest was the Boston society, of
which Edward Everett Hale was the young
and vigorous secretary. This noble gen
tleman, who still lives to receive the
blessings to which his heroic work en
titles him, wrote a history of Nebraska
that Issued from the press during the
month ot August, 1S54. On the map that
accompanied his book there Is Indicated
not a single town or settlement, except
Kearney and Bellcvue. Omaha. Is an
aching void a cipher with the rim oft
opposite Council Bluffs; and yet the author
found a great deal to talk aboutl
Edward Everett Hale's Ussnsie.
"There was no attempt to disguise the
purpose of the book. It was written
frankly end avowedly In the cause of free
dom, and the words of Eward Everett
Hale rang out for Ood and the right as
clear and sonorous then as they do today
lt the senate of tho United States. In
closing his history Mr. Hale, after urging
upon northerners the neoesslty ot effort
to settle the new territories, says:
" 'It Is an effort which the whole provi
dence of God demands, and which is made
easy by the wonderful arrangement ot ilia
wisdom. Two free states planted west of
the Missouri are two new securities for
American freedom. By so much the more
is the perpetuity ot the American union
possible, liy so much the more Is the prin
ciple of republican government redeemed
and made consistent. They are two tree
states which command the gates to the
Pacific, and to tha colonies on the way
there. In the center of the United State,
In what .may yet be the heart of Its em
pire, they will maintain In Its purity the
principle on which the empire is founded.
" 'The destiny of America Is to call all
races of men Into a freer life within her
borders than they have ever enjoyed at
home. In her government is the secret
which 'gives to each religion its exercise,
to each oppressed nation its refuge, to each
race of man Its development. It will only
be by a miracle of Indolence, by blindness
utterly Insurable, that the men of the frr
states can forfeit such a prise. Unless free
dom refuses the strength she always has
flven to free men, that victory Is gained,
t Is gained unless the church of Christ,
which has thrown over the world a net
work, along the cords of which run the
electrical words of good tidings. 1s false at
home to a golden opportunity of advancing
His kingdom. Unless, In one word, the
firovldence of Ood be wholly neglected ami
he Immense power for freedom flung away,
which God gives when He sends an army
of his children westward over sea and land,
the freedom of Kansas and Nebraska Is
secured and the firmest step for the future
prosperity of America made sum.
"'The victory Will be won! Ood gives It
to the energy and wisdom of thore who go.
and to the sympathy and praye.-s of those
who stay.'
"Fellow citizens, a good man Is ' some
times gifted with a clairvoyance vouch
safed only to the pure In heart, for such
only cari see God. . The beautiful and cour
ageous words I have read come down to
us through half a century with the majesty
and almost the sanction of an Isalahan
prophecy. We know that Dr. .Hale'i pre
dictions were fulfilled and wa know how
they were fulfilled.
Nebraska's Karly IHatorv.
' "Happily for Nebraska In those early days
the actual collisions between the contend
Ing forces were confined to Kansas. To bs
sure tha gaunt figure of John Brown was
occasionally seen In Falls City, which was
a station on one of his undergrounl rail
roads, but for the most part Nebraska was
exempt from the turmoils of Kansas, and
endured no greater strain upon her auton
omy than the" fight between Bellevue and
Omaha (and. afterward between Omaha and
Florence) for the territorial capltol and the
somewhat tumultuous meetings of her leg
islature. "Tha domcstlo history of Nebraska has
been gathered Into the archives of your
State Historical society, whloh has pub
lished neorly a dozen volumes of Nebraskan
biography and memoranda. And I have
read these books all of them, I think to
what purpose I scarcely know, for the
names of those who figure In the narrations
were already as familiar to me as house'
hold words, while the facts set forth I
could almost vouch for as an, eye witness
to their truth. I read these books I guess
because they recalled names and faces and
happenings of by-gone years, when the
earth was young and I was young, and
when the wild freedom caught from my
Indian playmates had not been turned by
the secular routine ot a work-a-day Ufa.
And as I read there would sometimes come
a mist before my eyes that was not alto
gether the mist of revery. For there is a
melancholy In retrospection, unreasonable,
perhaps, and unaccountable, unless It be a
part of the lnchrymae rerum the tearful
ness of things In general.
Well Sprlaars of Reminiscent.
"Was It expected of me, when I was hon
ored by your Invitation to speak on this
occasion, that I should tell of the lives and
works of these pioneers of Nebraska? That
I should trace step by step the growth of
Nebraska from municipal protoplasm to the
atrong, vital, glorious organism that she is
"Hut how could I speak of the dead with
out speaking of their contemporaries, many
Of whom are living men who have attained
a time of Ufa when memory la longer than
hope, to be sure, but whose mimes and
f.imes are Inseparably linked with the his
tory of Nebraska. Could I speak of Thomas
Cuming, that brilliant boy, who received
his education In a telegraph ofRce and who
as Its secretary twice became acting gov
ernor of the territory, without speaking
also of his successors In oltlce Thayer,
Boyd, Furnas, Crounse and others? Could
I utsntlon J uds-e Ferguson or Hall or Dundy
and leavs unmentloned Judges Lake and
Doane and Wakeley? Could I apeak of
Savage and Ignore MamleraonT Or of Eld
ward Crelghton and not of John Orelghton?
Could I recall, the great lawyer and elo
quent advocate Poppleton without at the
same tnatant recalling another great law.
yer. Woolwortt whu nauia waa always
associated with thai ot Fcppleton? Could I
refer to J. Sterling Morton without refer
ring to his life-long friend, George I Mil
ler? Could I allude to Qeorg Fraools
V -
the center of the stag., so far
as The Illustrated Bee Is con
cerned, the next number, like the
last, being almost exclusively de
voted to the state and Its people.
Another double page Is given up to
the portraits of eminent attorney!
of the state; the delegation that
will represent the state In the na
tional republican convention at Chi
cago, occupies another page, an
other page Is given up to the Bo
hemian turners of the state, who
recently beld their annual compe
tition In Omaha, and another page
tells of tbj? dedication of the monu
ment to the late James Laird at
Hastings on Memorial day. All
these Illustrations are of Nebraska
people. A fine portrait of George
B. Cortel.vou, the new chairman of
the national republican committee.
Is on the front page, with some
comment on the man and the po
sition to which he has been called.
Mr. Frank O. Carpenter's letter
gives an account of his recent In
terview with Dr. Alexander Orn
nnm Bell, the Inventor of the tel
ephone, who Is now Investigating
the question of aerial navigation.
It Is illustrated from photographs of
Dr. Bell and the kites with which
he has been so successful. In ad
dition, will be found another In
stallment Of the Interesting serin)
that la now rapidly approaching Its
climax; the Illustrated Women's
Department, selected miscellany,
short stories, chatty comment, and
gossipy anecdotes, making the num
ber complete In every particular.
If you arc now not already a sub
scriber you should leave your order
with your newsdealer today.
. the
Train that man of noble aberrations, with
out some mention of the faithful Beinls?
Could I speak the names of our late sen
ators. Hitchcock and Saunders, and leave
unspoken the names of their moet worthy
eons? And were I to discuss the life and
work of John H. Kellom I fear It would be
with loving prolixity, Involving a whole
brood hatched from yonder high sci.ool.
"But why should I presume to Instruct
you in such history as this, when there
are men among you who are Nebraska s
history personified? Take Dr. Miller, for
Instance, take him into a corner and ask
him about that Omaha papoose to whom.
In his lethal days, he administered calomel
and Jalap touch but the historic button
and tha doctor will do the rest.
Incidents, Accidents and Effects.
"I choose rather, in the time remaining
to me, to point out to you certain, histor
ical coincidences, which, as they . vitally
afleoted our country as a whole, must
have afleoted Nebraska Incidentally.
"When Columbus discovered America he
was enroute to China. That fact, in view
Of recent history, compels reflection. But
why was not America discovered and popu
lated long before the era of Columbus?
Why was the better halt ot the world per
mitted to lie fallow and perdu through
untold millenniums when, all that while.
It was so easily accessible? The matter of
fact person would probably answer: 'For
the earns. reason that the steamboat was
not Invented till the eighteenth century,
nor tha telegraph and railroad tilt the nine
teenth century.' Precisely. Yet this
answer, so far . from answering, only
changes the form of the Interrogatory.
Why Is It that the steamboat, the tele
graph and railroad were not invented till
centuries after America wa-' discovered?
There waa never a time when they would
not have been a convenience even though
they may not have been a necessity. Ah!
In that Word 'necessity' we have tha an
swer to our question. Necessity, they say,
is tha mother of invention. Bo these In
ventions grew out of a necessity. - A neces
sity for what? Mere existence? Creature
comfort?. Not at all, for mankind had ex
isted without them and had always striven
for Ha comfort. But theee Inventions were
necessary to preserve the union of the
United States. To this end the creation
and maintenance of a tree government
the sequence of evolution, whloh Is Hhe
unfolding of the purposes of the Universal
Mind, had been directed slnoe the anarchy
at Babel.
steward Conies with Tim.
"Tha Phoenicians and Norsemen were the
boldest navigators who ever lived, and It
Is said, that they even found their way to
this western hemisphere. If so, thslr dis
covery was abortive, being out of time.
The Egyptians were profoundly versed in
the laws of mathematics, mechanics and
chemistry, and tfie secret of some of their
Inventions is beyond our abilities even to
gueas, filling us with admiring wonder.
And yet It Is not recorded that they nor
the Romans, who stood so muoh In need
of it, ever contrived anything to shorten
distance by annihilating time. Nor did
we hit upon these Inventions until the ex
istence of Our government depended on
them. We did hot know this at the time,
perhaps, but Ood did.
"The Americans conqusred their freedom
In the name and on behalf of the peop'e
Of the earth. For this they fought. All
else has come to them voluntarily and al
most as a gift, save what was acquired In
our war with Mexico, a wicked, unholy
war, begotten by slavery, for both which
may tha Lord forgive us. Ours was the
first government ever deliberately contrived
by the people themselves and ratified by a
social contract. Theretofore every govern
ment had either been Imposed by conquest
or usurped by fraud. It needed a new
world for the growth and development of
this new idea. In the old world the people
were so Ignorant that all they asked .was
to be permitted to live. Tyrany was en
trenched In time Itself. Custom had be
come Inveterate. Freedom, with the lever
Of Archimedes, could not have moved the
Inertia of such a, past. To make possible a
government suoh as ours It required a new
wurld, a new Idea, a new man, yes, and a
hew woman.
DIversLeatlon autd tnlty.
"At first It waa contended that tfee con
stitution waa not adapted to the govern
ment ot a -large area, and that thirteen
states Joined In a confederacy were too
many to make possible a reconciliation of
their conflicting Interests. Orr the other
band, Alexander Hamilton bad argued that
.tie larger the territory and the more
diversified tha Interests, the more Infallibly
would tha constitution. It properly Inter
preted, adapt Itaelf to governmental re
quirements. Implying thai if the whole
world war Joined to the Amerloaa rs
publio the happier for the world and the
more peaosf uil governed. So ta sjperl-
ment began with thirteen states, contig
uous, compact and homogeneous, and the
experiment succeeded.
"Now, a government by the people re
quires that the people shall be educated
ahd Instantly Informed. H"nce came to
pass America's first characteristic Insti
tutions, the puMlo school and newspaper
and their adequate development.
"As pioneers pushed Into new and un
known territory they at first settled along
streams and rivers inaccessible to sailing
vessels. It would never do foe communities
of mert to become separate rind localized,
fostering local prejudices, opinions snd
Jealousies that should harden Into custom
with the force of law. This would endapger
the government. Hence carat to pass the
steamboat at the very moment 11 was
needed; and the ateambcat Invaded th?se
streams and rivers, the Mississippi, the
Missouri and even the Platte.
"Dr. Hale, whose words I have quoted,
declares that It Is the destiny of America
to call alt races of men Into a freer, life
within her borders. The negro came her
as a slave; was this a coincidence? Would
he have come otherwise? I ence heaid
Booker Washington say that the negro
was the only foreigner who was ever really
Invited to America, with an R. S. V. P. so
peremptory that he must needs respond In
Doom of Slavery.
"But slavery, the one sore spot In our
body politic, was becoming all this while
more troublesome and putrescent. In 1S20
the outbreak of rebellion was seriously
threatened and the marvel IS that It did
not But In the providence of Ood
the war waa postponed; and why? Be
cause In 1820 the south would have won,
and our union would have been destroyed.
All the world knows that the rebellion
was conquered by the West. Before that
awful warfare was permitted to come upon
us two things were necessary to the salva
tion of the nation. In the first place, the
south must be put wholly In the wrong, not
only as to tha cause she fought for, but
In the manner In which she should have
abused her opportunities for peace. It was
because the south was morally wrong that
Queen Victoria stood between us and her
ministers In the second place, the west
must bs populated.
"But how was this latter to b brought
about? What was there to be found In
the west of sufficient value to attract Im
migration? Alas, nothing better than the
pelts of wild animals, to obtain which the
wilder Indians must be encountered. In
1844 It had been proposed to build a na
tional highway to connect the Atlantic,
and Pacific, for no better reason apparently
than to enable those who cared to explore
the west to do so with less hardship and
adventure than Lewis and Clark had ex
perienced 'earlier In the century, and a. bill
providing for the building of such a road
had been Introduced In congress by Sena
tor Bonton, I think. The bill was violently
opposed, among others by Daniel Webster,
who Inveighed against It and. I could al
most say, brayed against It, Rising In his
place In the senate, Mr. Webster In his
most majestic and grandiose manner, said:
" Mr. President, what do we want with
this Vast worthless area, this region of
savages and wild beasts, of deserts, of
shifting sands and whirlwinds of dust, of
cactus and prairie dogs? To what use
could we ever hope to put these great
deserts, or thae endless mountain ranges.
Impenetrable, and covered to their bases
with eternal snow? What can we ever
hope to do wth the western coast, a coast
of 8,000 miles, rockbound, cheerless and un
inviting, with not a harbo.' on It? What
use have we for such a country? Mr.
President, I will never vote one cent from
the public treasury to place the Pacific
coast one Inch nearer Boston than It is
"No wonder Daniel never became presl.
dent of the United States!
Maglo of the Oold.
"Bui why should the people of New Eng
land venture Into the west, when Daniel
Webster, who knew everything, said there
was nothing there but cactus and wild
Indians? Why should emigrants from the
old world ever think of the west, when
Americans themselves did not think of It
and called It an uninhabitable desert? To
go out into the mountains or onto the plains
was to go out of the world, to oease from
all communication or association with one's
fellows. A numerous people, the Mormons,
had tracked the deserts for no other pur
pose than to get beyond the reach of gov
ernment. "And yet, all within good time, a word
was to be spoken at the sound of which all
men In all corners of the earth should
prick up their ears and bestir themselves;
a short word, of such compelling power
that it came like a command of deatlny. It
was the word 'Oold.'
"In 184 gold had been found In California
and Instantly a flood of Immigration poured
across the plains, across the Rockies, on
and on to the Golden Gate thousands, tens
Of thousands, hundreds of thousands of all
classes and conditions of men from all por
tions of the globe. When the flood would
slacken and turn back the word 'Gold'
was repeated, tor In lf59 gold had ,Hecn
found near Pike's peak, Nebraska now
Colorado. And the word 'Gold' In 1858 had
an added charm, for another coincidence
hard times on account of the panic of 1S57
were then universal. Gold or the hope of
it might not alone have allured so many
to cross the plains, but gold in the west
plus poverty In the east created, a flood
tide of Immigration, and lot as If by magic
the weat was populated,
Telegraph and IXallroad.
"But let me ask you, feljow citlsens, was
It not a strange, a wonderful coincidence,
that contemporaneous with the announce
ment of gold In California should come the
announcement that the rallroid and the
telegraph were no longer playthings? Could
these Inventions have come more In the
nick of Urns if the Almighty had ordered
"And then, too, was It not a fortunate
coincidence that before this magnet, gold,
had attracted so many to aeek western
homes, the west all of It should have be
come ours to populate?
"The story of how th vast territory of
Louisiana cam Into our hands, a territory
more than twice large as the then
United gtates larger than Oreat Britain,
Germany, France. Spain, Portugal and
Italy combined Is one of the most dramatto
coincidences In the history of our country
"We have been taught In school to ap
plaud the wisdom and dexterity of Jeffer
onian diplomacy In negotiating the pur
chase of Louisiana. As a matter of fact,
Jefferson was the most surprised and em
barrassed gentleman in America when
Napoleon Bonaparte, first concut of France,
thrust the territory upon him. He had sent
Livingston to France to obtain. If he might,
the right of deposit on ths banks of tha
Mississippi or if not, to buy the village of
New Orleana He was bewildered and for
a time dumbfounded when he was told to
take all or nothing.
Ideas, of Great Men.
"Now, according to Jefferson, there was
no power given by the constitution to con
clude such a purchase. Was It not a lucky
coincidence nay, was It not a divine novi
tiate that at the very beginning of our
government this literal constructionist, of
such dominating personal Influence, was
thus constrained to look not to the letter
of the constitution but to the spirit of the
Instrument, and Imply the power he heeded
from the power to movie trestles? Thence
forth be sould not quarrel with the opin
ions of John Marshall, who breathed into
our constitution power by Implication to
do anything and everything that a govern
ment ought to do for the welfare of Its
people) and tte vli days were CI handj
when this mere difference In hermenutlca
meant tlfe or death to our nation; dsys
when the strict constructions. In behalf of
slavery, were Ilk (ss Jude says) Taring
waves of the sea, foaming out their own
"The' circumstances that Induced Na
poleon virtually to give Louisiana to the
United States Is a 'chapter by Itself. In
1656 La S.ille visited Quebec, founded by
Champlaln In ltra LaSaJle thought that
the shortest pathway to China was by way
of the St. Lawrence and the lakes. Cham
plaln had previously announced that In his
opinion an Isthmian canal between the At
lantic and Pacific was not at all unfeasible.
These early Frenchmen had big Ideas, snd
for some Inscrutable reason China seemed
to be mixed up with them. Later. In the
same year, standing at the mouth of the
Mississippi. La Snlle took possession of the
territory west of that river In the name of
his sovereign, Louis XIV, and called It
Nspolenn and Louisiana.
"In llh: France ceded tre territory to
Spain as a sort of honorarium to a power
it was then anxious to conciliate. But In
1800 tables wre turned and France was In
the ascendant. Napoleon had Just been
declared first consul and dreamed of world
wide empire. He insisted upon a retroceo
lon of Louisiana and sent his brother,
Luclen, to negotiate the treaty, which wa
drawn up in 1800, but was not signed by
Carlos IV. of Spain until 180?.
"At this time Napoleon expected to take
Immediate possession of Louisiana with an
armed force and establish a New France
on Jhe American continent. As a prelim
inary he thought It necessary to come to a
misunderstanding with the United States
government. Hence it was, I think, that
Morales, the Spanish Intendant at New Or
leans (probably by the command of Na
poleon, though I can find no record of the
fact) revoked the old license of 1795. Under
which the Americans had enjoyed the right
of 'deposit,' as It was called. Thte right of
deposit was merely the right of American
vessels on the Mississippi to land for the
purpose of transferring cargoes to and
from ocean going vessels. The revocation
of the license greatly Irritated the Ameri
can people, who were all for war. There
was Indeed a misunderstanding, snd Na
poleon had accomplished ao much of his
purpose. But Jefferson was a man of
peace; so he forthwith dispatohed Robert
Livingston as minister to France, handed
him a check for $2,000,000 with instructions
to purchase a perpetual right of deposit,
or the village of New Orleans outright.
When Livingston arrived In Paris he was
turned over to the wily Talleyrand, who
kept him dangling between hope and
despair or cooling his ministerial heels In
an outer chamber.
Genlai Learns from . ftenlna.
"Meanwhile, as an Incidental prelttnlnnry
to the coup do main, It was necessary for
Napoleon to put down a rising spirit of in
dependence among the negroes of San Do
mingo, for It was Intended to establish an
exclusive commerce between New Orleans
and the French West Indies. Accordingly
Napoleon Sent his brother-in-law. General
Le Clerc, to San Domingo at the head of a
great military expedition. Le Clerc had a
splendid fleet and a great army, and his
task seemed simple. But the free negroes
of San Domingo had themselves a Napole
onic genius In the person of Toussant
J'Ouverture. Every schoolboy knows the
outcome. The brilliant generalship of
Toussant, the herolo valor ot his troops and
the ravages of yellow fever decimated tha
French forces, and the expedition! collapsed
In utter failure.
'These things compelled reflection and
Napoleon arrived at some conclusions. He
concluded that he was never certain to win
In battlo unless he commanded In person.
He concluded that he himself was greater
on land than on the water; that England
was ths mistress of the seas, and would
continue to be tho greatest maritime power
in Europe. He concluded that It was his
destiny, and that of France, to war With
England. He concluded that In the event
of such a war a French colony In Louis
iana would prove a source of weakness and
would fall an easy prey to the ships of
"From these conclusions hs deducted a
corollary: If France- could not retain
Louisiana, England must not obtain it. It
should belong to a government over Whloh
England exercised no Influence and which
should be able to defend It from her ag
gressions then and forever. Such a gov
ernment he believed our republic to be, and
the battle of New Orleans a few years later
vindicated his estimate of our abilities.
Bonaparte Family Council.
"Napoleon confided his purpose concern
ing Louisiana to his brother, Luclen, and
Luclen revealed the secret to an elder
brother, Joseph. Joseph and Luclen de
termined to remonstrate with brother Na
poleon, and forthwith called at the Tulller
ies. At the moment of their call Napoleon
was In his bath, but aocoutred as he was
or rather as he wasn't he summoned his
visitors Into his dank but dangerous pres
ence. For a time the three brothers dis
coursed on Impersonal subjects art, music,
poetry Napoleon splashing in his tub and
Stirring up its perfumed waters with keen
est relish. Finally the conversation turned
on the subject nearest the heart of eaoh,
and the angry words that forthwith hurtled
In that bath room would be quite awesome
were It not for certain Incongruities.
"In his memoirs, or diary, Luclen Bona
parte has given a circumstantial account
of this quarrel between Napoleon and his
brothers over the proposed sale of Louisi
ana, and I venture to read you an excerpt
from his report of It:
Note, Luclen," said Napoleon, "I have
made up my mind to sell Louisiana to the
Americans.'' 1 thought it my cue to show
enly moderate surprise at this announce
ment, which I pretended was news, feeling
sure that 1 should have reason to show
more, as his determination appeared to sell
It of his own accord, without any consulta
FL: 4
tion of the Chambers. I slmoly exclaimed,
"Indeed:" In a lone of cUiioMty. indicating
a wish to know more, expressing n.ltte.
approval nor the romrsry. This apparent
Indifference ceased Napoleon to say: Wei;.
Joseph, you see Lurln des not utter lou.i
cries about this thing; vet he almost lis
a right to, seeing that Louisiana is, so to
speak, his own conquest.' "1 assure you.'
said Joxeph, "It Luclen says nothing he
thinks none the less." "Indeed, snd why
should he be diplomatic with me?" Hrough-.
forward thus unexpectedly, and, as It were,
thrust against the wall, I had to explain
myself, and really I waa not s irry. But, i.s
Napoleon did not ask my pinion about the
sale. 1 contented myself with decKirlig
that 1 really thought on this matter ni
Joseph did. "I undertake to B'y," fald l.
in a tone which I tried to make as lltti.
offensive as possible, "that ths Chsmbe s
will not assent." "You undertake to sav"
Napoleon said this with sn air and toi-e
of contemptuous surprl-e. "A pretty pe e
of buslnes!" "And I undertake to say,'
said Joseph, In a tone of ttl'imph, "that It
will be so. And that Is what I told th
first consul before." "And what Old I say r
said our brother, his wrath rising, looking
at us by turns as If not to i-se sny chnii'te
In our countenances. "You declared.' sal I
Joseph, "you would get along without tin
assent of the Chambers, did you not'
F.xactly. That Is what I took the liberty
to say to Monsieur Joseph, anil what 1 re
peat here to Cltlien Luclen, besgln? ht-ji
to give me his opinion about it, durh-e.l
from his prtteraal tenderness for
migbtv diplomatic conquest of his."
" 'The matter seenv-d about to be
dropped and Joseph and I were turning
toward the door, while the valet was
spree.dlng upon lh sheet to wrsp up his
master, wIkmi the latter, returning to the
chsrge, suddenly ' cried out In a tone
that made us all start: "Well, sirs,
ihlnk what you please the sate of
Louisiana, but you may both of you put on
mourning over this thlnr you. Luclen. over
the sale of vour province- you. Joseph, be
cause I propose to dispense with the con
sent of all persons whatsoever. Do you
hear?" I confess that 1 fairly shivered at
such an outbreak, on a topic so delicate,
In the presence of a servant. Stung by
th scornful words and manner, especially
by the contemptuous "Do you hear?" whloh
liad been the outtlng snapper to ou:
brothers lashing wrath, Joneph tusheJ
buck, exclaiming: "You will do well, tn
dear brother, nut to lay your plan befo.r
the Chambers, for I swear to you 1 will;
myself, the firs t, put myself. If necessary,
at the head ot the oppusliion which will
certuinly be made." i
" 'At these words Napoleon, rising so ;
as to show half Ins body out of the water
opaque and frothy whb cologne, cried !
sternly: "You will not need to play tiie
orator, for I repeat to you that this de
bate will not take place, been us" the pin, J
so unlucky as to be disapproved by you, i
conceived by me, negotiated by me, will be
ratified and executed by me by me alone,
do you understand? by me, who scorn
your opposition." The speaker then Im
mersed himself once more to the neck. But
Joseph, whose self control was quite gone,
his face nil aflame, roared: "Well, General,
on my side I tell you that you, I and all
of the family, If "ou 1o what you sny you
will, may get rcuuy to Jain shortly those
poor. Innocent devils whom you so leanlly,
so humanely above all, with so much Jus
ticehave had transported to Onyenno,
" 'At this point the great Napoleon rose
as If he hnd received en electric shock and
shouted, "You insol nt fellow! I ought"
"But alas for greatness! His foot his
mighty foot that had trampled kings and
emperors chanced to encounter the fuga
cious soap and the great Napoleon fell
back Into hit tub kersplash, gurgling the
oaths he would fain have thundered,
sjapoleon's Reasoning-.
"In the History ot Louisiana, prepared by
Barbe-Marbois (who signed the treaty on
behalf of Napoleon), he says that Na
poleon had declared to his cabinet:
To free the world from the commer
cial tyranny of England it Is necessary to
oppoBi to her a maritime power which will
one day become her rival. It must be the
United States.
X know the worth of Louisiana and I
have wished to repair the error of the
French negotiator who abandoned it in
1763. I have recovered It on paper through
some lines In a treaty; but I have hardly
done so when I am about to lose It again.
But it it escapes me it shall one day be a
dearer cost to. those who force me to give
It up than the cost to those to whom I
will surrender It. The English have suc
cessively taken from France, Canada, the
Isle Royal. Newfoundland, Acadia and the
richest territories of Asia. ' They are in
triguing and disturbing In Ban Domingo.
They shall not have the Mississippi which
they covet. Louisiana Is nothing in com
parison with (heir aggrandisement in all
parts of the: globe; but the Jealousy they
feel because of its return under the do
minion of France warns me that they In
tend to seise It and It Is thus thev will
begin the war. They have already twenty
Vessels in the gulf of Mexico. They swag
ger over those seas as sovereigns; and In
San Domingo, since ths death of Le Clerc,
our affairs are going from bad to worse1.
I contemplate turning It over to the United
States. They are asking me for but a
single city of Louisiana. It is not only
New Orleans I will ceae; It is the whole
colony, without any reservation. I know
the value of what I abandon and I have
sufficiently proved the Importance I attach
to this province, since my first diplomatic
act with Spain had for its object the re
covery of It. I renounce It with the great
est regret. To ottempt obstinately to re
tain it would be folly. I direct you to ne
gotiate this affair with the envoys of the
United States. Dc not even await the ar
rival of Mr. Monroe; have en interview
this very doy with Mr. Llvngston; but I
require a great deal of money for tills war,
and I would not like to commence it with
new taxes.
" ' "Perhaps It may be objected," he con
tinued, "that the Americans will be found
too powerful for Europe in two or three
centuries. But my foresight tnkeB no count
of terrors at a distance. Moreover, you
can look to the future for dissenllons in
the bosom Of the union. The confedera
tions which ore called perpetual only en
dure until one of the parties to the con
tract finds reason to break It. It Is against
present dangers to which we nre exposed
by the colossal powers of Kngland that I
wish to provide a safeguard.
, Mr Monroe is on the point of arriv
ing. Neither this minister nor his col
league Is prepared for a decision which
goes Infinitely bevond any thing that they
are about to ask us. Begin by making
them the overture without any subterfuge.
You will acquaint me day bv day, hour by
hour, of your progress. The cabinet of
London Is Informed of the measure adopted
at Washington but It can have no sus
picion of those which I am nov taking.
Observe the greatest secrecy and recom
mend It to the American ministers: they
nave not less interest tnan ourselves In
Conforming to this counsel." '
"Napo!eon signed the ratification of the
treaty May 22, 1803, end on that day began
his great new war.
Other Frnlts of the Purchase,
"I have quoted to you ' thus copiously
from the French version of the Louisiana
Purchase because I thought the facts
brought to light might possibly be new to
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