Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, December 11, 1902, Page 9, Image 9

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Thiir Side of the Graiing Land and Feutirg
QuMticn let Forth.
Denial that Fearing Operate to Ad
vantage of the Dl Lire mock
Owner and Against the Inter,
at of the Small One.
ALLIANCE. Neb.. Dec. 10. To the Editor
ef The Bee: At a meeting of the Business
Men"" club of this city was requested
to forward to you tbfl enclosed article for
publication, the subject being of national
interest at this lime.
By P. W. BROOME, Secretary.
The reported encroachments of the "cattle
barons.' a they have been styled, on the
fovernment land of western Nebraska
ave ao varied from the truth that It Is
deemed necessary by the parties Interested
to aet before the public the real facta and
the condition of the country to which al
lualon haa been made. At the outset we
would eay that the articles written upon
the aubject have all been founded upon an
assumed atate of affairs which the real
conditions do not support. These articles
have been based upon the assumption that
the landa of the west ara agricultural In
character. It haa also been assumed that
there, has been a great demand for these
landa In recent years on the part of eastern
farmers, who wlah to locate upon them for
farming- purposes. The articles have also
been baaed upon the aaxumntlon that the
cattlemen have Intimidated aettlera to keen
tnem out or thla territory. To prove that
these statements above referred to are
erroneous la the purpose of thla article.
There haa alao been severe criticism on
the part of the eastern press In reference
to bills that have been Introduced by west
ern men for the purpose of affording a
practical disposition of the aratlna lands
of the weat. and these proposed meaxures
have been termed "Innocent schemes of the
cattlemen." The object of these bllla was
not to retard or check In any manner the
workings of the new Irrigation law, or to
withdraw any portion of the public domain
irom settlement tiy actual Dona rifle set
tiers or actual bona tide homesteaders
nor to promote any land schemes, but was
Intended to further the nuroosea for whlrh
these lands arc adapted, and thus assist
me natural development or the west.
. Only Fit ' for Erasing.
That the lands of western Nebraska that
are not already Irrigated are only lit for
grazing purposes Ms well known to the
people who reside here or who know the
character of these lands and their history
alnca the time that there haa been any
attempt made to settle them and bring
them under cultivation. The history of
og Butte county, wnicn is located in the
central part of western Nebraska, fairly
Illustrates how these landa have been set
tled and time has demonstrated that they
ara not adapted to agriculture. We refer
to this county aa a fair Illustration, as Its
soil ' la better adapted for farming, as a
rule, than the majority of landa In tho
counties In the western part of the state.
In im, 1886 and 18K the farmers from
eastern Nebraska and Iowa, and aa far east
aa Michigan and Ohio, flocked to th
county, and at the outset were entranced
with the appearance of the soil, which they
believed only needed cultivation to Induce
rainfall, which would eventually make it
aa productive as eastern Nebranka. These
lands were pre-empted, homesteaded and
taken by timber culture entries to that
extent In those years that tully 80 per cent
of the lands In the county were occupied
by actual bona fide settlers, who took the
land with the Intention of making It their
homea and to engage In general farming.
Later, when these people became disap
pointed with their crop failures they negoti
ated loana of from (200 to $400, fully be
lieving that nature would subsequently
smile upon them with a bountiful harvest
and release their mortgages. The railroad
companies, by their literature, and the
government, by representing these lands
to be agricultural, were the Inducing causes
which started these people In this direction.
They believed they were going to farming
landa, but as the yeara rolled by disappoint
ment followed disappointment and the set
tlers began to leave the country, until
Anally, In lS9a.sJt la safe to aay that -of
the M per cent of the lands that were
originally taken. In the county during the
yeara referred to, not more than 20 per cent
were occupied, and the people were moving
Net Ratal Enough for Cropa.
And why was It? The principal cause
was that there was not sufficient rainfall
to raise crops, and the people saw that
there waa no hope of ever having these
landa brought under Irrigation. Those who
have remained have found a living could
be had in the raising of live stock, thus
utilising the grasses which nature has by
time adapted to this country. It was found
that cultivation by the early settlers ruined
the lands for graxlng by destroying the
grasses, leaving a few weeds, and on re
count of the loose nature of the soil It was
blown about by the wlnda, leaving It In
auch condition that no benefit could be
derived for several years thereafter. As
the mortgages matured they were fore
closed and the landa were bid 'n by the
loan companies or the mortgagees, and In
many Instances these lands when aold only
brought the amount of taxes that had
accumulated against them during the time
since mortgaged. Ninety per cent ot these
lands In this county changed owners for a
few hundred dollars and passed to the
hands cf others who attempted to farm
them, and who later by force of circum
stances became stock growers. These peo-
le are now thriving to a certain extent
ecause they have found the purposes for
which these lands sre adapted and are
using them for that purpose and have
wholly abandoned the farming Idea. It Is
safe to say that thla experiment has cost
the people of Hox Hutte county ll.CT.OOO,
which haa been thrown away because of a
misconception of the adaptability of these
The people wbo came Into western Ne-
Little Liver Pills.
Uuit lur Signature f
fee fee Bills Wrapper Bate.
rci eizzims.
rot ccnstipatioi.
res t allow n.
rct m com rituai
aft slaav. ma . i I . mt
Flaxr roughened by needlework
catch every stain and look hopclm
dirty. Haod&spoUo removes not only
the dirt, but also, th loosened, injured
eoticle, and mtortt th tiogtrt to
tbl msturtl bsmty
IYsHy assail nam aa
to tea M
t'taska during the great rush of 1S4. 1$
end 1W loated upon and homesteaded
those lands which Irom tnlr outwsrd ap
rearanre were lielleved to be the best earl
cultural, and the lands whlrh are now left
"in to settlement are those which thev did
not think were farming lands, but which
'he eastern people now have bwn led to re
lieve are adapted to farming.
These lands of western Nebraska that
are still open to settlement are not farm
ing lands, and we rhallenge the denial of
this statement on the part of any one who
may wish to know the truth, and we In
vite and urge that congress send a commit
tee to investigate three conditions and de
termine the character of these lands and
the truthfulnets of these statements.
Decrease In Population.
The vote In Vox Butte county In 1S8S was
1.32S, while the number of votes cast at the
iast election, on November 2, 1!2, outside of
Alliance, which has come Into existence
Ince li. Is now but . Even this latter
number Includes many people who are rail
road or other employes ami not engaged In
agricultural pursuits. At the time the vot
ing population was greatest there was not
an Incorporated village in the county, and
settlers were almost entirely engaged In
tilling the soil. If these people coula have
supported their famines and made a living
tiy farming they would have been there
today and irstead ot having a rural vote of
only 407 In a cnunty containing square
miles, which Box Butte county contains,
with natural growth the vote would have
oeen above i.fxo.
r'or the eastern press to now assume that
these lands are agricultural and fit tor
other purpose than grazing Is not borne
out by experience, and to a resident of this
section Is simply a ridiculous statement,
'i'lme haa shown that the homestead laws
passed In ItK'i, which were Intended to se
cure actual, bona tide settlers upon the gov
ernment lands for a period of five yeara
for the purpose of developing and Improv
ing them from an agricultural standpoint,
were very good for the middle west, but
are not applicable to a particle of the lands
remaining subject to entry at thla time, for
no man can go upon a single quarter sec
lion of government land In the west today
without irrigation and support himself, o
sav nothing about supporting a family. A
new set of conditions and circumstances
haa arisen, and the sooner the eastern peo
ple and the government recognizes this
tact and amends the laws to meet the
present requirements of the west that much
sooner will development and progress pro
ceed in accordance with the laws of na
ture and existing condltlona. Congress has
already, in a measure, recognized the fact
that some of the old land laws were not
practical, could not be enforced and were a
mere farce. 6uch was the final fate of the
timber culture law, which was repealed by
congrevs in 1M1. The law which was In
tended to encourage the growth of timber
on the western prulrles did not grow any
trees or Induce any rainfall, and as applied
to the western lands at that time was of no
force and effect. It la Just matter of
time that congress will see the homestead
law Is equally as Impracticable as a means
of settling the range lands of the west, ex
cept where there are small tracts that
might be brought under Irrigation.
In Favor of Irrigation.
The. people of the west are not opposed,
but are very much In favor of the new Irri
gation law, but there are Immense tracts
of land that this law does not reach and
which cannot be Irrigated and which ia
only fit for stockralslng, and which must
be disposed of along some line suitable to
the adaptability of these lands. As to these
land laws, tho aame as any other law, you
can frame them which way you will, but
their enforcement and tenure depends upon
whether they meet the conditions, necessi
ties and requirements of the people, and
whether they are supported by the masses.
By this we do not mean to be understood
to advocate the repeal of the homestead
law, but we do asu tor tne pumnjo o
some equitable act providing a method
whereby the government may lease the
range lands at some price commensurate
with their worth and under such regula
tions as the department may deem practic
able and suitable to the country. 'Ihere are
millions of acres of the pjblic domain that
are worthless except for pasturage pur
posies and at present there la no law suit
able to carry out such objects. The leasing
of these tands would bring a large and ner
ptual revenue to the government and at
the same time does not In any manner con
flict with the existing homestead law.
What Fences Are For.
Much criticism has been made against
men who have fenced pastures from the
public domain, and to this we would aay
that the fences have grown out of the
necessities of the business and have been
constructed not for the purpose of keeping
out settlers, but for the purpose of each
man keeping his stock aeparate In such a
way that he may care for It, both winter
and summer, and by the use of the best
breeding animals In the past few yeara he
has made wonderful Improvement In the
nuaiitv f his rattle, which improvement
never would have taken place had his cattle
been allowed to run at large, inai inwt
fencea arc an absolute necessity to the
business Is welt known by all the people ot
the range country, and are Indlspenslble to
the Improvement of the herda and for the
further purpose of preventing the range
being overstocked and ruined. The govern
ment lands thus fenced are utterly useless
for any purpose other than graxlng.
It Is a well known fact that since the
lease law went Into effect In the state of
Tmm nH th leaseholders have a pro
prietary Interest In the land, that they have
guaraea against wie uwumiwii vi
Ratural grasses and the quality of forage
as Increased fully 100 per cent, and where
six years ago It took seventy acres to sup
port a steer It now requires but twenty
acres. The snme would be true of western
Nebraska If the parties who used the lands
had a future Interest In them. They would
not be permitted to be overstocked, auch
as Is the case where the range Is open to
Not for Big Cattlemen.
It has been stated that this agitation Is
that of the large cattle grower only, who
Is seeking to force out the small cattlemen,
but thla statement Is not true' and Is not
supported by the conditions and the true
facts. If the fences were removed the
large cattleman could afford his range
riders and pursue the old-time roundup,
with his mess wagon and branding outfit,
and would thus claim all the mavericks of
the little fellows or small cattlemen, who
could not afford so expensive a method of
looking after his stock, as the returns from
his small herd would not warrant the ex
pense. Besides, the small cattleman must
borrow the money for his business from
his home bank, which will not make the
loan with the fences down and the range
being gradually ruined. The statement that
this Is the move of the large cattlemen ia
not true, as It Is the small stock grower
who has his all at stake and who Is most
vitally Interested, lie knows that should
the fences be entirely removed It means
his retirement from the business.
It Is proposed by the new Irrigation law
to put farmers In the valleys thst are
susceptible of irrigation In the west, and
let ua ask at this time what will become
of the products of their farms and rough
feed if they cannot sell It to their near
neighbor, the cattleman? Increased farm
ing of the west should be supplemented by
the business of the stock grower, as the
distance of the farmer from the markets
of the east Is such that unless his products
can be conaumed at home the cost of
'transportation would be equal to their
value at tne mantel.
The eastern press Is also mistaken In Its
suggestions that the present unoccupied
government landa of the' west poimess great
value. Dr. Peters, state veterinarian of the
University of Nebraska, whose knowledge
on the subject has bten acquired by travel
and actual experience In the west, made
the statement at a recent cattle convention
that the natural grasses of the west must
be protected, and that the range lands
should not graze more than one cow to
twenty-five ' acres of land, which usage
would make the land worth not to exceed
50 centa per acre.
The facta are that the value of these
landa has been misjudged, and all that
the people of western Nebraska ask Is
that congress send a fair and unbiased
commission to tnve 'gate their valuta, de
termine . their adaptability and ascertain
that they are not agricultural lands and
the people here will be satisfied with their
solution of this question.
w gchednle for Iwltekmes, in
, M'hlch Pay Is to Be by
the Hoar.
OAKLAND. Cal.. Dec. JO. The Southern
Tactile company has granted a new wage
schedule for switchmen, which establishes
a straight rate per hour Instead ot the
former wage rate of $75 per month for day
men and 18) and $00 per month tor night
The new rate Is as follows: Day help
ers. 21 cents an hour; day foremen. II centa
a hour; night foremen. 33 centa aa hour.
The schedule provides for "no Sunday
off," but( there Is a rumor at the West
Oakland yards that the switchmen wtll en
deavor to have the company allow two
Sundays a month, with full pay added.
The engineers and Bremen have presented
a demand for Increased pay and It la re
ported that an Increase ot I per cent will
he (rafted.
Newest, finest and most luxuriously equipped train in America.
Only 53 hours Kansas City to Los Angeles, 57 to San Diego; 59
to Santa Barbara.
Everything to make you comfortable electric lights, electric fans
bathroom, barber-shop, booklover's library, compartment and standard
sleepers, dining, library and observation cars.
Runs over the El Paso-Rock Island Route and Southern
Easiest grades, lowest altitudes and most . southerly course of any
line across the continent the map shows.
Leaves Kansas City at 10:40 a. m. daily, and makes as fast time as
any other train to Southern California.
(Continued from Eighth Page.
Ina- this Judging pavilion. Other Improve.
menu are needed on the state fair grounds.
The buildings are now nearly all about
sixteen years old and made of wood and
many repairs are needed and much re
building. To make the state fair still more
popular Secretary Simpson would nave tne
society publish a catalogue of the stock
exhibits so that visitors might know the
pedigree and other facts concerning every
animal on exhibition. Ha would also abol
ish the penalty of 10 per cent ot the pre
mium money exacted from every prlie win
ner. Iowa Is the only state which does this
now. With that removed the only ex
pense to exhibitors would be an exhibitor's
Preparing the Year Book.
The work ot preparing the year book for
this year, the third one ever Issued. Is
now under way. It is hoped to hare it
printed In three months or lets. Last year
although copy was furnished the state
printer by the first of the year, yet It was
not delivered until In May, owing to the
legislative work, crowded upon the printer.
The year book will be improved over Its
predecessors. It will be handsomely illus
trated. Several pages will be devoted to
farmers' Institutes, which under the new
law, must report to the secretary and
which may now send delegates to the state
meetings. The report of the weather and
fR1 ' MM
sf , SSSnSBBBjQsB'll II H 1
crop service will be Included. In rddltlon
there will be some special papers from J
farmers on the relative value ot wet and dry :
seasons as shown by the experience of 1
the past two years. B'ome papers on the
silo will be Included, also some informs- j
tlon in regard to alfalfa in Iowa, on both
ot which subjects there appears to be con
siderable fresh. Interest.- The work of the
school of live stock Judging and school of
corn Judging at the State college were
warmly commended by Secretary Simpson.
The attention of the department was called
to the exposition at St. Louis and member
urged to co-operate in securing a fine agrt-
pultural exhibit for the state.
The report ot President J. C. Frasler of
Bloomfleld was brief and to the point, com
plimenting the department on it work.
Mr. Frasler wa not present, but W. M.
Morrow ot Afton presided. Later la the
day Mr. Morrow waa elected president and
Mr. Simpson was re-elected secretary with
out opposition.
The Park and Forestry association re
elected the old officers. Prof. MacBride of
Iowa City, president, and Prof. U H.
Pammel ot Ames, secretary.
The state agricultural department elected
W. W. Morrow ot Atton president and J. C
Simpson ot Knoxvllle necretary and C. E.
Cameron of ' Alta vice president. This
election made It necessary for him to quit
the directory board, and H. A. pike of
Monona count" was elected to represent
the Eleventh district. All other director
were re-elected.
CroSord Case Appealed.
The paper in th appeal case ot Dr. J
W. Crottord of Decatur county were filed
with the supreme court today. The case
ha been before the public a great deal In
recent month. Dr. Crofford owned and
managed a sanitarium at Lamonl and Miss
Maud Stone went there for treatment. 8he
died sooi after leaving the place. Crofford
and one Hammond were Jointly Indicted tor
causing th death of the girt Crofford
en eoovlctloa was sentenced to thirteen
years in the penitentiary. When it was de
cided that he should PPl the case the
discovery was made' by hi attorney that
the law wa defective' In not allowing bond
in such cases. The law waa changed and
Crofford gave bond. Then he sought the
privilege of continuing th practice of
medicine pending appeal and second trial
and th Btat Board of Health was ap
i cv
Berths can be reserved at any ticket office in the United
States, or by communicating with
C. A. RUTHERFORD, Division Passenger Agent.
1323 Farnam Street, Omaha, Neb.
pealed to. The board decided that in view
of the fact that Crofford bad at one time
been convicted of connection with counter
feiting in Missouri the revocation ot hi
certificate should itand.
Crew4 mt golsUers Hons.
Th Iowa Soldier' bom I bow reported
to the atate board a overcrowded, - though
there will . be some slight relief when a
few of th new building ar occupied,
which wtl be soon. Thar ar at present
in th botp III persons, of whom' eighty.
fonr ar woman. At thla time at th year
th home Increase in population rapidly,
as many wbo hav spent th summer with
friend on furlough return there and the
hospital become crowded with the lck
one. At present there are nlnety-two la
th various wards of th hospital and mors
of them should be there and would b it
tbero wa room. Aa additional home for
th female help will give room for sixty
more In th hospital.
Coatl Operators Employ Reese.
Th coal operator of district No.' 13,
embracing Iowa and Missouri, turned th
table on th coal miner by th employ,
ment of John P. Reese to represent th
operator In their settlement ef dispute
with th miner over wage and other
thing. Reese wa until last tall th pre. !
ident of th mine worker' vnlon for the
district. H resigned when he wa nomi
nated for eongres la th Sixth district,
for h confidently expected to be elected.
But th miner did not stand by him at
th poll. This left him without any em
ployment and when the operator found he
could be had be wa employed by them
at a salary ef $2,000 a ysar as commis
si on sr for th dlitriot In settlement of
disputes. Th operator also named a scale
committee, which will meet with th
miner In March next to decide on a seal
ot wage for next year.
Weald Try Damage Case Aval a.
A motion tor a new trial In th damage
cas of Tat against Clarkson wa filed to
day. Th Jury decided la favor Of the de
fendant, refusing to give damage for th
alleged libel, as published. The Instruc
tlon were atrengly la th direction of
a verdict thst th dstense expected a Judg
ment against them. It Is alleged on be.
half of Couaty Clerk Tat thst th ver-
, diet wa so contrary to th evidence and
.JaL.nBnW- T. "L- A A T am.
th Instruction that a new trial should bo
bad. If a new trial is granted a change
win be taken to some other county.
Bnel Very Hear for Jad John W.
Henry. Prominent .lariat
of State.
KANSAS CITY, Dee. 10. Judge John W.
Henry Is dying at hi residence In this city
fter a long illness. At 1 o'clock this aft.
ernoon dissolution wss expected momen
tarily and the family bad gathered around
the jurist' bedside.
Judge Henry formerly waa chief Justice
of th state supreme court and for several
year ha been Judge of th circuit court
It outsells
I IV Trvr V
f i I
Jersey Butterine
More Jersey sold than any
other Butterine, because it ex-
at at at . m t
Ice is an otnero in quality and
Put up in z and 2-lb. prints
in printed paper wrappers like
cut. Ask your dealer.
I CuuiQtr OmaJu Stlaub Swift & Compmy.GllCigO St. Joseph St.fiol FLWorta
- -T-1
t Kansas City. ' He Is on of the most emi
nent member of the bar In the west.
Hetr to Fortnne.
hi?"0010- -D'5- 19 William Parr.
'J hare f timbering at dtratton-a
Independence mine hnB bten notified by
Thomaa P.tkln. in England. Parr is one of
i f, El,r,jt "mon whom the estate, valued
at $7,au0,00Q, wm be divided. ,
Mere Gold for Soots America.
NKW YORK, Dee, 10.-Th local agency
of the Tondon and River Plata bank. Urn-'
te1, will shin &o0.000 gold to Buenos Ayres
tomorrow. The transaction ! a special
one and makes a total of $2,000,000 shipped
by this bunk nines August last.
Last season's toys will be closed out
Saturday at half price. Orchard A Wll
helm. all others
0 P A 9
mr -k