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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (June 8, 1902)
Enormous Stores of Coal in the Arctic Regions
1 1 'onx right , l' J, 1 iy Willi lirnp Packard.)
T xxas i wild and fur-clad Kskim i
lliat. ran w ti m i n l; up the Arctic
sonncnni (ii nortticrn .MasKa.
Above him frow in tl bare, Mack
dill's of shale a Mil samlst one, tut -
ting oil" 1 1n low, in 'ili lay sun. Thi Antic
Hi 's blinked the .sky to n rl hward atnl on
ilic slopes ami ledges lay ice masses of
icmpai l i'il snow. Tlio eider ilncks. fright
ened, shriektil ami Hi il away before him.
while fast as ho ran yet f.istrr down the
cliff plunged ati'l whirled ,i dancing Intuit",
which seeini il lietit on capturing the
cliltnsy native of the Arctic wastes, yel
which was nothing more or li ss than a
his meal sack full of real.
We wire gathering coal from the vast
deposits of the far north, ami Hoodlum
1 1 hat was as ncr.r ;,s we I'oiihl got to his
Kskinio name) was onr man Friday. It
was aingular what a il; silt , what a yearn
ing, those sacks of coal seemetl lo have.
fill- 1 liiiiilliiiii Tti. i' it ..I I....
kimos in the party at work for in, luit
none of the coal sacks hail any malignant
yearning toward them. Pome of them
workcil with ns on llie vein at the cliff top,
some pilcil the coal into the sacks, ami
smut" were at tin" cliff base with H.md
liim, helping Inail the sacks aboard the
whale, boat, thence to lie transferred to
the ship, hut none of the sacks chased
them. The sack was sure to follow
llooilliim, however, wlietlur ho ran up the
loach or ilown. ami It only matlo him
more certain that there was some witch
craft about the whole business, ami that n
malevolent spirit having designs nn his
life dwelt in the coal. The Mack stones
he was familiar with. Put that any man
should he so "kukawlllow," as he termed it
as lo load these stones aboard the Mi;
canoe, the utnlak puk, and carry them
away, savored obviously of evil spirits, and
the more coal came down the harder he
ran from it.
There was magic in it, too. The magic
of money; for these same black stones soli
in Nome that year for $xn the ton and n it
enough of Hum were to be hail at any
price. Hut how was Hoodlum to know
Ainu st the t ill ire northern coast of
Alaska from Hcring strait to l'oinl Harrow
is striped wilh seam of semi -bit umlnous
coal, and these veins extend in'and no
man knows how far. I'pnn the beach live
tht year round a few R-kltno families wilh
two wolves ever nt the igloo door, famine
and cold. Yet In the very ground under
the Igloos, in the cliffs nn which tlu-y pre
carims'y snare sea fowl for a scant refuge
from starvation, lies wealth which cannot
be estimated, and find enough to heat the
whole world for untold Kent rat ions. Knor
mmH supplies of coal lie almost on the sur
faceno man has yel estimated the quail-
(Copyright, I'.m., by R p. ("Karmcr")
IN TIIK very glow that makes the
spring beautiful the black tor
nado is born. Those same soft
comli'ioiis of weather that
give the season Its charm fulfill
the cumin ions that are needed for the
ereation of Ihe most awful and deadly
slerni known to man.
l - .. 1 . : 1 . .i... I . .. l , . t. t ..,!...
ijlt'll nun.' llie ijiii.l in Ki.ntiil ufiiuilltll.
nrona .it lull- i.l'i'Uuiir.i lupin tiincf rpn.
qnen'ly. The air rushes In to fill th'.'
vacuum. Soon these on-rushing winds be
gin to turn spirally, thin they dance. th"n
they xxhirl and tut ef the heart of tho
fair weather springs the tornado, blasting
th" land in i's path.
Tornadoes tire most frequent In May,
April, June and July in the order given.
Occasionally they occur in the other
months, anil, In places where the tempera
ture from a local cr general cause greatly
exceeds the normal for the season, they
may occur even In winter.
I'raxv a square that xxill take in the cen
tral wi st from Kansas and Nebraska east
to thf Allegheny nuunttlns nnd from Min
nesota and Mi' hi -jan s- lit li to eastern
Texas, Mississippi, Alal an a and Georgia.
l , ',''-': : - i
" v'"'''' ' ' '':.,'-:' :': .
IKlOHI.rM-- ANI "CKACKF.UIIASll."
MINIMI (U'KHATKiNS ON TIIK AH
As you sail from Cape I. islamic to
Hcaufoil you may see miles of cli'T
in which ih" dark hands of il ulant ribbon
like from beat h to summit. When the
brief summer thaws Ihe Ice the coal falls
out of these veins in masses that Me In th
icy surf, blnckis conta:ninn tons of fin 1
each. There arc plac, s where a ship's
crew can actually pick up a carno of Kol
coal from the heath and the surf at th-'
base of the cbffs. A blast set in Hose
veins semis many Ions of it rumbling
Where and Why
That w ill ccntain the tt matin territory.
These fierce wind storms occur occasionally
only east of the Allegheny mountains
in the vic'nlty of the lake regions nnd
southern New England; they Infrequently
occur south t f central New York and rarely
west (f the 1021 meridian (along Ihe line
dividing Colorado ami Kansasi, or north of
the .'nth parallel of latitude, or in soutlnrn
(Jer rgia or Florida.
Their formation over ih" ocean is pre
vented by the uniformity of temperature.
Although waterspouts present a similar
funnel formation they do not possess the
wind force and are comparatively harmless.
The accounts usually given of tornadoes
and cyclones and the indiscriminate use
inado of ihe two terms show that few
really understand the distinguishing char
acteristics of these two classes of wind
All th strut live winds are whirlwind.
They vary from a few feet to l.ono miles
or more In diameter. The smaller whirls,
such as thunder Ktorms, dust storms or
tornadoes, may be distinctively outlined by
a singlo observer when In the distance.
In the larger or cyclonic whirls the gen
eral on. line is not visible to any single
observer. Tin Ir revolution U so huge that
Lydia liriiun Woods' Free
ItKAIMNCi HODM KXTKIUtiK FALLS CITY UHKAKV. I'OoK KOdM
TWt) KSK1MOS WHO WOKKKIl IN Cn.U.
down to the wat r and from the summit
of the headland you may see the surface
flopping slrtlchiiiK milis inward iu (lie
firm of ia rail. I i-Mkcs. In iln-in the
I row n u; d s.piitr Is, which the KsMinos
trap for fur and food, din their burrows
and Ihrow up black heaps of crumbliiiK coal
al Ihe (lours.
l'robably Ihe widest sinule vein of coal
known in the world is found there. Such
a vein is considered a noo.l one when it is
eiht feet wide; this one is einht limes
the Tornado is
the winds in this Instance appear to blu.x
on straight lines. Their complete con
formation can only be detected by com
paring the reports of many observers scat
tered over a large extent of country.
The velocity of the cyclone is easily de
termined; that of thf tornado has never
been known and It Is not likely to be
accurately determined. It can he roughly
approximated, however, by the destruction
resulting from Its passage.
The tornado differs materially from the
cyclone, principally In size and rotary
force. The tornado is the smallest and
most destructive of all storms. Its diameter
varies from fifty feet to a thousand miles In
diameter. To give a comprehensive Idea
of the birth, development, movenn nl an I
destructive power of the tornado it will
first be necessary lo know something of the
nature of general cyclones and anti
cyclones, whi h usually are tinned areas
f low and high pressure respectively and
which are a ci-ntributt ry if not the direct
ause of the tornaibies.
Tornadoes s dilnm occur except In con
Junction wilh cyclt n s er anas of low
pressure ami th y invariably form fn m
300 to 500 mlle-s south cr southeast of the
c clone crntir. T( i- Is th" una. Irani of the
Library, Recently Dedicated to the Public at Falls
that width. If you paddle aloni; the bc.ndi
a lit 1 1 north of t'apc Hcaufoil in a
kyack t u may bu k ocr the side in -1 1 1 1
low water and see the dark band ninnm:;
In from the sea fully wivty feet in 'Mi.
How far inland it cvlcnls no m in
knous. eirtain it i- thai far back in ihe
hills a siream cuts it and runs thvi'in-h
Mai k coal cliffs oxer a pebbly be I of . I
Its depth, too. is unknown, but il nil
similar smaller ones are supposed to i
wilh thi" sandstone and conulomei ai e
far beneath the Inland hills, ilo v . or -ta'iily
reappear sevi ral hundred mile-. i,
th" south on the shores of lot,'ebu.
sound. The few Kskiint s who have t
plored the Inland rivers iu their hunt in:
expeditions tell of cliffs through wln.'i
llu- water breaks thai are siuiil.nh
teamed with "adloha." the
w hit h t he w hitc men covet
Whalers, too. who have
lleisrhel i-land and taken
inland wilh the natives, tell
.iill - e
W hit cl i
hundred or so miles bat k from
sea ar" river brant he whose w.i
wanned by heat from underground
that for n certain portion of their i
fhey do not freeze over, even in I In- s.-.
crest weather, the unlives resi.tnnu
thither for winter IkshliiK. Whence mines
Hit" heat for the wartnlm; of this w.i'ei '
It Is not a volcanic region. All about for
ten inontliw of llie year the snow lus
fathoms deep, driflnl under the pel p. tail
l ii;ht by the icy tales in whose loin h lie.
death for cery living thltiK lorn; exposed
to them, yet tint of Ihe earth Li m ath
bubbles warmth that tlellcs I he lelllp i a t in
of Ihe pole. Such men claim lhal witli n
a limited area a snioiilderini; combus
.leep-biiried stores of
the coal is there, and n -
presence on the n asi has been Ih s i'
vation of mere lhan one hardy wha'iti'
crew nipped in the Arclic im and obit d
otherwise to spend Ihe lolli! fraen h'lf
xtar ninhl withnii fuel. Yel. ev. n if t ' : i s
underKroiinil hlow combustion Is tolnn mi it
will be centuries before Ihe supp'y ef to I
is exhausted, or Indeed well allre. M.-;i:i
while, is Ihe region of almost p rpeiuil
winter, Ihe terrible frozen north In whl h
explorers have tiled in vain attempts to pi n
ctrate, th" repository whence Ihe world N
tt tlraw lis ult niale supply of fuel.
It seems strange, but why lit t? Alrenly
Ihe miner is camped upon lis edges and
the prt speclor is tramping toward Its fro
zen heari from many directions. The vast
Impulse which the discoveries of rich go'tl
bearing territory in northern Alaska has
given to the exploration and working ef
this region, the settlement of the reg'on
beneath the Arctic circle now rapidly g' ltig
on and the great demand I here for fuel for
domestic purpo-cs and for mining Is turnlm;
Ihe eyes of the shrewd pioneers of Ih'
a Terrible Storm
git ult si heat and moisture and Ihe winds
How xvilh considerable force to the nor h.
It has been the ac-cpicd theory that the
formation of the tornado is the direct re
sult of the la p tl I rushing warm, moist air
from the south toward Ihe storm center at
the north; In &o doing the warim r air uu
derruiiM the extt nslve laycis of cold air
lhal arc being thriwu off from t!r' art a of
high pressure heated to the northwest.
At ci rdir.g to the laws of nature, Ihe
warmer air thus confined must liud an out
let and In so doing create a violent, whirl
ing, upward motion, rapidly drawing tho
remaining warm air from nnd r the cold
strata. Th. re is generally a vast differ
ence in the temperature of these layirs of
warm and cold air and the gnalcr tliff' r
ence the more powerful will the tornado he
just formed And the tornado conlinuis In
action until the temperatures of the differ
ent air layers become equalized, wh"li the
storm ceafes suddenly.
All the power Is concintialed in the fun
nel; without Its complete formation there
would be no danger. Sometimes It Is de
flected or broken by natural objects at the
earth's surface. The dark clouds above th
funnel bear litt'e slgnlfit an-e. Tiny ar
spread out by the less dense atnn sphere.
world's industiles toward llie all but mi
kiiiwn rll- ii.il lields. and their tie
i l p et ill Is alreadv v.ituely bctuti. Shlp
I. ads if llns ioal. blasted from the face of
ihe i lifts or puked 1 1 1 on the hern battered
In aches alreadi l each Nome. I'.'rl t'larcncc
a' d oilier Arctic ceast towns, where its neeil
s m-cat. The tpialilv mere nearly rtsein
bl'. cainit 1 coal Ihau .mvlhlim else I have
s t II
lb mil inn
I ag bogies
i aped then
I. lie ah ill
l-Vl.i'ic. whom Hi.' c al
i has im up i he beach, es
afety and lit"d to tell the
lamp in Ihe winter luloo.
f .1' there
nirjil, or, rather, at sleep time,
is no iilc.hi iu thai count ry In
summer, aflef basing In en i h.'tt d Inlo
el by a lasl and particularly vii I ms coal
sack. Id o. Hum apptared In fore Ihe captain
end ruefully explained lliat he milsl give
up his Job. lie liked Ihe pay of ti l ace i,
Hour, aminnnii leu and cloth passing well,
but he could not sland the work if Ih'
li'a. k spirits whi h ihe white man e..k. .l
from the cliff It was explain d lo him lhal
il was not the spirits whiih the white man
was gelling from the 1 IT . but fue'. and In
demons! ration ef Ihls fat! and thai h" and
the other K-ktinis might not baxe us. the
whole Iribe was iuiil.il lo lie cmip ashore,
where an ordinary coal burning mi k-t ive
I'US Ml 1 1 1
litre a wood lire was well slarlid be
fit'.' Ilnir exes, and when it xxas burn
ing xxtll coal xxas pill on. A look of
t fill cnipl nous intelligence passed from init
io another if tle fur-, lad inniiii-i. ant
Ihoy xx inked and murmured "Kokopolook"
In one another. Kokopolook is the I'.sMino
1 1 i 1 1 v : 1 1 1 1 of "darn fool," and Ih" look
meant. "We thought tin so men were t ray
and now x" know it." lint a few moments
afl.rward Ihe cover xxas again taken off
he lite and the coal shown lo be blazin,;
nerrilv and glxlng forth much heat. Tin a
lliero were nods of appreciation ami uu
ilerslainling. and Ihe tribe relired to Hull
top.'ks fill ship, exidelllly milch llllplessel
wiili a new li uinl scheme for cheap fuel.
The next nun nine evii y Ksklino xxahlnee
v.as much belated by her husband for not
linking the breakfa xxoll or not having
il on time. And ihe reason was lhal each
had Iricl and tried again lo make frag
in. n!s of i i al burn in the open on an or
dinary driftwood tire, and had simply put
In.1 Ill'' on' I hereby. This carried them
back lo their original conviction thai I'
w is the while man's magic thai evoked
wicked spirits from the cliff, spirits tha'
i ul red ci nl b igs and chased them, and
thai II xxas that, mid 'hat only, thai mad
the Mack sloniyi burn.
The coal lies In countless millions of
Itlis. locked beneath the Arctic lee today
as il has lain since Ihe first Ksklino trod
Ihe Arctic seabeach. but Ihe tribes freeze
ever this sit ft house of warinlh, and onlv
the while man ha t Ihe key that unlocks
the door lo Ih magi t f its use.
The xx bllh af d st rii 't ion corresponds lo the
width of the funnel. Once a tornado has
attained full formation ami headway noth
ing has been known to resist lis force.
Tornadoes are almost always preceded or
folloxvi d by a frightful pelting of huge hail
stones nnd attended by a downpour of rain.
Tornadoes have been known to occur In
many places on the same day, with only n
limited extent of country separating them.
They nlso have occurred In Virginia, Ken
tucky, Tennessee, North and South Caro
lina, Georgia, Mississippi nnd llllnnU.
About R'iO persons were reported killed,
more than 2. (WO wounded and several thou
sand houses xvere destroyed.
It was supposed at flr.t that the violent
rotary met ion was the only cause of de
struction attending tornado action. Hut
It was dt monstratcil that many houses
hail their roofs, side walls, windows or
doors blown out. while the furniture and
brlc-a-brne was li ft practically undisturbed.
Tornadoes require a vast amount of heal
radiated nilckly for their formation. Thl.
can be obtained only over n great extent
ef level ground, without mountains, hills
cr cities built of brl.k or stone to retard
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