Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, November 03, 1898, Page 9, Image 9

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mrnn r\-\r A TT A T A ti .V MMftMJfcin A v vritrr.iAm m-o iionu _
TESTING RAILROAD TRACKS
Novel Instruments for Mapping the Condition
of Boadbed and Hails ,
DUDLEY'S ' TRACK INSPECTION CAR
IMIU'r , M'nrkHhoi * mill Iloiuc oil
WlicclN How He Proven ( he
y of Heavy Hull *
for 1'iiMt Time. |
NEW YORK , Nov. 1. In the yard at ttio
Grand Central railway station there stands
Just now one of the most curious railway j j
cars in tha country. Externally It Is of
Btich ordinary nppcaranco tliat the unin
formed passenger would not Rive It a second j I
Klnncc. Hut It Is well known on every railway - ! i
way In the country. It has been over nl- I
most every road from Maine to southern Call- i
fornla. Thu car belongs to Mr. I' . II. Dudley , I
vho Is described na a track expert. Ho ami 1
Ills wife hnvo lived In It for twenly-ono
years. They have traveled In It nil over this
country and Mexico. It Is Mr. Dudleys pri
vate ofllco , workshop and library ; It carries
Ills Instrument ! ) , books and other parapher
nalia. It la Mrs. Dudley's parlor , dining
loom and kitchen ; It contains her piano , her
hewing machine und general household tltcn-
Blls. One end of it looks like a draughts
man's office ; the other end resenbles for all
the world a cosy little Now York flat.
Kvory person who rides ) comfortably and
safely on railway trains lian a direct In
terest In this constant ! ) moving home of
the Dudleys. From It have emanated some
of the most radical Improvements that have
boon inado In railroads during the past score
of years. In this car Mr. Dudley Invented
the Kruplro State Express , which Is capable
of running at the rate of seventy miles an
hour. That Is , ho determined by means of
his car and the Instruments with It the con-
dltlonc of track and roadbed necessary tor a
continuous speed of over a-mllo-a-mlnute.
Ho has done similar service for several j '
roads , for he owes no allegiance to any ono
company. In fact , It Is generally agreed
that ho Is not to belong to any one system.
Ills decisions gather weight from his Inde
pendence. Ho Is the unbiased arbiter of dis
putes ; a traveling judge of the knotty prob
lems of railroading. Attached to way trains ,
oppresses or freights , his car Is dragged
over all the roads while ho makes reports
on track conditions , suggestions as to rolling
block , or settles disputes which cannot be
hcttlcd without him. Ho Is enabled to do
this by means of the machinery hlch ho
has Invented and which Is always at work
within the car. This machinery Is really the
most wonderful part of the outfit. Part of
it looks llko a cylinder printing press.
Cams , cog wheels , chain belts and Indica
tors reach down under tbo car and connect
with the axles , the wheels and even the
track itself. When the car moves these con
trivances Indicate and telegraph the condl- '
tlon of the roadbed up through the floor
of the car to the printing cylinder , where
llttlo glass fountain pens wrlto an exact ac
count of It all on long rolls of paper. As
the car moves Mr. Dudley can sit and watch
his fountain pens write down the unclula-
tlon or rolling of each track , how much the
car sways from stdo to Mdc , how much.
grade up or down there Is , how much space 1
there Is between the cuds of two rails ,
whether ono rail Is higher or lower than the
next ( oven by a hundredth of an Inch ) , the
number of revolutions of the wheels , the
speed of the train every ten seconds , the
distance traveled. In case there Is any dlsI
crcpancy In the roadbed , the apparatus not
only records It on paper , but It also drops
a largo spot of yellow or black paint on'
the ties at the faulty spot , so that the track
hands may find and repair the fault without
difficulty. At every mlle post a boll rings
\vlthln the car. In fact , every marked sin
gularity , discrepancy or positive fault Is
noted by the fountain pens on the roll of
paper. If the general manager of a system
wishes to learn the exact condition of a
loadbed ho has merely to nsk Mr. Dudley
tor a record. The Dudley homo Is attached
to a train and dragged over the road. The
machinery In the car operates Itself. Mr.
Dudley writes or draws or otherwise occu-
jilee his tlmo at his work bench , for ho Is
an Inventor. Mrs. Dudley cooks or plays the
piano or sketches In water color , for she
is an artist. At the end of the trip n long
roll of manlla paper Is handed to the general
manager. It Is on absolutely correct record
of the condition of the roadbed.
InureiiHliiK 'I'riiln Spooil.
Mr. Dudley Is not a mere reporter of track
and general roadbed conditions. Ho Is n
civil euglneer whose years of experience
have made him an authority on. mechanical
railroading and whoso scientific researches
have resulted In quickening the general
speed of trains more than 50 per cent during
the last twenty years. In the early 70's
ho was employed by railroads In Important
branches of construction. His business
occupied all of his time , and night and day
ho was constantly on the move In quest of
outlying work. It was a most uncomfortable
existence and not at all compatible with
married life. Then he was struck with the
Idea of purchasing a car and living In Jt.
People lived in boats the year round , why
not cars ?
Bolug a man of means the experiment was
easily tried. Ho bought a wide , substantial
car of the first class and fitted It up as a
traveling home. The forward half ho
furnished as a combined oillco and work
shop. Then he Installed liU desk , his book
cases and bla Instruments. The other half
ho fltted up as a suite of living rooms. Mrs.
Dudley moved her square piano , some
furniture and pictures Into the room next
the office ; a folding bed and wardrobes filled
up the next room ; a dining and general
living room held Its quota of furniture , and
adjoining the kitchen just beyond was a
"back yard" and pantry , made by closing
In the rear platform of the car. The
farallUr furniture , the pictures of ancestors
and friends on the walls and the general
presence of household goods gave this car n
homo-like air Inside that would not bo
suspected from without. That was twenty ,
one years ago , and the couple have lived In
the car e\er since. That they like their
modu of llfo can bo judged from a remark
nude by Mrs. Dudley to the effect that not
only did the enjoy her roving life , but that
now she could not bo happy la any other.
In all this tlmo not an accident of any kind
has happened to tha coach , and Its owners
have como to believe that sucl ) a thing could
never occur. Once airs. Dudley left her ca ,
and traveled a short distance In an ordinary
Bleeping car. Palo Ironically ordained that
there should bo a smash-up and that the
woman should sprain her ankle. Her
acapo was lucky enough , Omc she uow nuy
\
that the safest place for her Is In her own
home.
llcnvr Hull * for Illicit .Speed.
Constantly moving about on railroads , Mr.
Dudley could not help accumulating a store
of knowledge on the subject. As his knowl
edge extcudcd over a period of yetirs ho was
able to make some valuable averages of his
Information. In summing up ho deduced a
theory and formed an opinion of the require
ments necessary for Increasing the speed of
modern trains , yet keeping within n. wldo
margin of safety. He became an advocate
of solid roadbeds , but his pet hobby Is very
heavy rails or tracks. "Increase the size of
your tracks , " he says , "and you may In
crease the speed of your trains. " In the
days before very fast 'trains ' were known he
was able to demonstrate mathematically
ivhy this would be so. Now he cannot only
point to fast trains running on heavy tracks ,
but ho has an Instrument which mechan
ically demonstrates the limitations of the
conditions which exist during the passage of
a fast train over a given point. Formerly ,
however , he had to use the power * of persuasion -
suasion to carry bis point. It Is something
of a feat to get a company to change the
weight of the tracks of Its system. It means
much expense to the company ; for just as
a modern olllco building must bo provided
with especially substantial foundations , so
the eighty-pound rail requires a proportion
ate foundation advantage over the thirty-
pound specimen. Ilut Mr. Dudley never
stopped Insisting , and gradually he had the
gratification of seeing the weight per yard
Jump from forty pounds to sixty-live , and
finally on some roads at the present day to
eighty pounds. The most significant result
of this culmination was tbo Umpire State
and other fast expresses. Even here Mr.
Dudley has not paused In his argument for
heavy rails. Ho has had manufactured and
laid sections of rails weighing 100 pounds
to the yard. It Is his Idea that on rails such
as these , trains might bo made to Increase
their speed until the much talked of limit
of 100-mlles-an-hour might bo reached.
Action of Steel I ! ml or I'rexmiro.
A person unacquantcd with the action of
steel when heavy weights are put upon It
will bo very apt to ask what difference the
weight of a track would make In the speed
of a train. It la In answer < to just such
a question as that and also for scientific
demonstration that Mr. Dudley Invented his
! stremmatograph. This instrument Is In-
I tended to bo attached to the track Itself and
f
MB. DUDLEY , INSPECTION CAR .WORKSHOP-JU D.ELKCTIIICAL , APPARATUS.
Is so sensitive In operation that It will record
' exactly how hard each wheel of the train
presses down on the track when the locomo
tive and cars pass along. By means of the
stremmatograph It Is found that no rail can
bear the passage of a train over It and yet
remain absolutely rigid. It seems that rall-
road tracks move around , under the passage
of a heavy train. For Instance , the tracks
. bend down under the weight of each wheel
and , comparatively speaking , bulge up be-
tween the front and rear wheels of each
car until the section of rail under the train )
I undulates to a really remarkable extent.
All kinds of stresses are set up In the fiber
of 'the steel. At one Instant a small section
I of rail may be compressed many thousands
; of pounds ; the next Instant that same part
will bo subjected to a state of tension which ,
measured by thousands of pounds , may bo
oven greater than the compression. This
process Is repeated over and over again as
the tiatn passes along. The train even
pushes the track up In front of the forward
wheels of the locomotive ; that Is , the track
rises In front of the wheels Just as water
docs before the prow of a boat. There are
other phenomena peculiar 'to tracks which
add to the quota of rail peculiarities. Ilut
ono can easily see how they all assist In re
tarding the speed of a train. Now , accordIng -
Ing to the strcmraatograph , which was tried
on trains running first on 65-pound rails
and then on 80-pound rails , the adverse
condition was much woree on the for
mer than ou the latter. In short , the
C."i-pound rails were much moro flexi
ble and allowed tbo train to make a
greater series of depressions In them
than was possible with the more rigid SO-
pound Tall. For comparison , a somewhat
analogous condition confronts two aerial
performers , ono of whom walks a slack wire ,
the other the tight rope. It Is much easier
to do the latter trick. Such a comparison
may seem overdrawn , but just such a condi
tion exists In miruitla in railway tracks of
the weights mentioned.
Until from Tcsfn.
The rigidity of the tr.ick Is then a hau-
mount requirement , and this is what Mr.
Dudley seeks to prove with his instrument.
Just how much a big locomotive will puin
a heavy track down below It ? ordinary level
may bo judged from the following : On a
special section of 95-pound rails laid on the
Boston & Albany railroad , the depression
made by a 100-ton locomotive was measured.
The driving wheels of this engine carried
37,500 pounds per pair , but locomot'ves ' with
much greater weights on the driven are In
use. The depression under the front truck
wheel of the engine was 0.094 of an Inch ;
between tbo wheels O.OS6 of an Inch , and
under the rear truck wheel 0.100 of an Inch.
In the wheel space between the engine truck
and front drlvra the depression was O.OSS of
an Inch ; under the front driver 0.13S of an
Inch ; in the wheel space between drivers
0.008 of an inch , and under the rear drivers
It was 0.110 of an Inch. The tensions under
the front and rear truck wheels were , re
spectively , 0,780 and 5,310 pounds. The ten
sions under the front and rear drivers were , 1
respectively , 9,160 and 9.920 pounds. I
Some miles of 100-pound rails have al
ready been laid , and In order to show the
advantage in their use a New York Central
locomotive carrying 125,000 pjunds on the
drivers was tried and measured , first on 65- i
pound rails and then on 100-pound rails.
The result was aa follows :
C5-lb. rail. 100-lb. rail.
Compression in
front of driver..3,071 Ibs. 1,161 Ibs.
TenxUm under
front driver 51.M4 Ibs. S.031 Ibs.
Compression be
tween front and
middle driver . . . . 2.121 Ibs. 2,631 Ibs.
Tension under
middle driver . . . .22,415 Ibs. 6.S49 Ibs.
Cumuresblon be
tween middle
and rear driver. . . . 2,365 Ibs. 1,834 Ibs.
Tcnolon under i
rear driver 23.S5C Ibs. 6,112 Ibs.
Iho amazing difference In the tension
uudtr the driving wheels of this locomotive j
when used on tracks of different weight * In
sufficient argument In favor of the heavier
kind. Dut ono other argument has been
placed on record. It was at first attempted
to run the Empire State express on 65-pound
rails. , A continuous speed of sixty miles an
hour-Van accomplished with Home dlfllculty.
Now & train running nt the rate of sixty
miles ait hour moves forward eighty-eight
feet each second , which Is longer than the
entlto wheel base of the engine , tender and
front truck of the first coach and which
would allow eleven wheels to run over a
given point In the rail per second , Each of
thcso wheels caused stresses of several thou
sand pounds besides violent tremors and
vibrations and the result was a permanent
"set" In the rails In numberless places
along the line a condition which acted
heavily against high speeds. As a matter
of fact the 65-pound rails had to be replaced
with 80-pound rails since which tlmo the
difficulty has greatly decreased ,
Simplicity of ( hi ; IiiNtrttniciit.
The stremmatograph which Mr. Dud
ley makes his calculations , apparently , Is a
very simple Instrument. Its principle is to
record on a moving strip of metal the mole
cular compression that elongation of the rail
as the train passes over It. As a matter of
fact , the instrument Is firmly attached to the
edge of the rail surface at two points. When
a wheel passes over the small section of rail
between these two points the elongation of
the metal causes a pen pointer to draw an
Irregular line on the moving metal plate.
The Irregularities of the line correspond in
size to the tensions and compressions pro
duced In the rail. The line Is drawn in ink
and one can see on it the mark made by
every wheel In the train , from the big
notches made by the drivers , to the small
ones made by the wheels of a caboose.
This , then , Is the purpose of the Dudley
car , and these the occupations of Its owner.
This homo Is ono of the most curious on
earth , but Its utility has been thoroughly
proved. The general public owes much of
Its comfort In traveling to what has been ,
evolved within the coach. Doubtless In the
years to como it will ewe much more , for
Mr. Dudley Is Indefatigable In search of new
ways to ride his hobby. But even If ho dis
covers nothing now henceforth , the fact that
ho has rendered possible and comfortable
the mlle-a-mlnutc-cxprees should ( endear
him forever to the great army of American
travelers. THEODORE WATERS.
TOMBS OF THE
3Vo State Contain * More of Them Thau
Virginia.
Of the first nix presidents of the United
States four were Virginians and are ourled
in that state. The other two were John
Adams and his son , John Qulncy Adams ,
both of whom are burled at Qulncy , Mass.
No other state , says the New York Sun ,
contains so many graves of presidents as
Virginia , which has 'been ' aptly called "the
! mother of the presidents , " and only ono of
her sons who was chief magistrate of the
United States Is not 'burled In , her sail ; he ,
however , was not elected from that state.
Washington , Jefferson , Madison and Mon
roe wcro 'born ' and three of them died In
Virginia. Monroe died elsewhere. William
Henry Harrison , the ninth president , was
born in Virginia , where his father was gov
ernor , as well as a signer of the Declaration
of Independence , tout was elected from Ohio.
John Tyler , the tenth president , was another
son of Virginia , 'whoso ' grave Is In that
state.
Washington's tomb at Mount Vernon Is
the property of the nation and Is visited
by thousands of his countrymen annually.
The remains are Interred In a vault , the
second ono that has held the bed } * . The ,
old vault was near the present ono and was
abandoned after an attempt was made to
rob It. The remains of 'Mrs. Washington
and of several members of the Washington
family repose 'besldo those of the first presi
dent. Mount Vernon IH owned by an asso
ciation of 'women ' und the tomb will he
guarded through all coming time , One other
president's grave , Jackson's , was purchased
by an association of women and Is now the
property of the state from which ho was
elected.
Thomas Jefferson , llko Washington , was
burled on his old homestead In Virginia ,
and though Moatlcello passed out of the
hands of his defendants shortly after his
death , the graveyard Is well preserved and u
granite monument marks the spot where he
was burled. The word "Montlcello" means
, "Llttlo Mountain , " and this country ceme
tery U on an eminence. It is near Char-
lottesvllle.
James Madison's beautiful home , Mont-
puller , In Orange county , Va. , was the scene
of his death , and bis grava Is in sleht of
the southern windows of the house. The
monument Is a circular one , with a dome
resting on an entablature , upheld by large
dorlo columns. Betide htm Is burled his
wife , Dolly Madison , whoso sunny heart
made her one of the most popular of the
American women of her time.
j President Monroe's home , Oak Hill , was
In London county , Virginia , and hero Mrs.
Monroe died and was burled. After her death
the president went to live In New York
with his daughter , Mrs. douvorneur , and
died there on July i , 1831. His funeral was
the largest and most Imposing seen In New
York up to that time. The body was placed
In a vault in the old cemetery on the north
side of Second street , between First and
Second avenues , and It remained there for
a number of years. Then the Virginia , log-
Islaturo ordered Its removal to Richmond ,
where It was Interred on President's Hill
In Hollywood cemetery.
The other Virginia president who Is burled
In her soil Is John Tyler , whoso grave is
near President Monroe's. Over Monroe's
grave Is a cojtly and beautiful monument ,
erected by the state. Tyler's grave Is still
unmarked by a monument , though the Vir
ginia legislature voted to have ono placed
there. The civil war came on and the mat
ter was dropped. It Is said that the neg
lect Is to be repaired by the coming legls
lature. The necond Mrs , Tyler , who ur
vlved her husband twcnty-seveu years , dying
lo 1SS9 , la burled beside him.
You Invite disappointment wnen you ex.
pcrlment. DoWltt's Little Early Risers are
pleasant , easy , thorough tittle pills. They
cure constipation and sick headache ju t ai
euro s you take them.
WAVES FROii OUTER SPACE
Audible Sound from Apparently Silent
Waves of the Air ,
SIGNIFICANCE OF RECENT DISCOVERIES
Simrkn Hint Uxcltc. I'lilxntloti
In Dlmtnnt AtoniN , I'roiluoliiK
Vll > rntloim-l.riiltrnl Plol.l
of Ilenrnrcli.
The strongest Impression I received on as-
ending a enow peak In Switzerland , 13,000
cet above the sea , writes Prof. John Trow-
irldgc , director of the physical laboratory
f Harvard university , in the Independent ,
is not from the view of the lower peaks ,
fhlch extended far toward the plains of
taly like a tumultuous sea suddenly trans-
Ixed. Impressive as this scene was , I do
not recall It to forcibly as the consciousness
it the perfect silence in the space nround
nd above me. Judging by one sense alone
.hat of hearing unaided a traveler through
ho space between us and the distant stars
pparently might conclude that there were
no motions which could , by any possibility ,
affect his sense of hearing. Yet certain ex
periments which I shall describe show how
llcnt waves in the air can announce their
oinlng by audible sounds.
The space betwcn us and the furthest star
corns cold and desolate , silent and lifeless ;
yet it is full of wonderful wave motions ,
which wo are just beginning to interpret.
Wo see tbo light of the sun ; wo feel the
heat waves , and wo are sure that the dls-
ant stars are also suns , for wo can analyze
heir light ; and wo find that It Is substan
tially similar to that emitted by the sun.
Do wo also receive other waves from the
stars which our present Instruments can not
detect ? This question would seem at first
sight to lead away from the region of accu
rate knowledge Into that which , perhaps ,
may bo termed Intuitional philosophy. Wo
have , however , a justification In asking this
question , for wo can photograph stars
which the eye of man can never sec. The
short waves of light beyond the visible vlo
et In the sun's spectrum or that of the
stars affect a sensitive plate , although these
waves can not bo detected by the eye. Can
wo go further and believe , with sure ground
for our belief , that there are stars which
can never bo revealed by our present pho
tographlc methods ? I think that this be-
tcf rests on a sure foundation , for it has
been discovered that the glass lenses of our
telescopes absorb a large proportion of the
rays of light from the stars , and this In
evitable loss can never be compensated by
making larger glass lenses. H the lenses
could bo made of quartz of a sufficient size
since quartz absorbs less than glass wo
could obtain the Images of a great number ot
stars that are now unrevcaled. Such lenses
seem Impossible to obtain. Or If a very
largo concave mirror could bo accurately
constructed and properly mounted we could
obviate the loss by glass lenses and greatly
Increase our knowledge of the limits of the
universe. Such a mirror may be constructed )
yet wo have still another formidable ob.
stacle which cannot be overcome by our
present photographic methods.
AVnveM of
The xvaves of energy which con
stitute llcht meet with a serious ob
stacle when they Implngo on the atoms
which constitute the atmosphere of the
earth. This atmosphere seems a very slight
affair to oppose wave motion to such a ser
ious degree that It hide * the limits of the
universe from us ; , . Indeed , n observer OB
Mars would have JdiaicuJ iin ascertaining
whether the earth In surrounded by an at
mosphere or not. * Yet this comparatively
slight envelop of nlrv nnd vapor ex
tending barely to a 'distance ot
hundred miles from the surface. of
the earth completely shuts out even
our photographic vlow of very distant stars
If wo could observe even the sun and the
visible stars from a elation a hundred
miles above the earth , by means of our pres.
ent methods In photography we should find a
vast realm of wave motions opened to us
and the apparent solar spectrum might
greatly Increased In length. At present
therefore , wo can form no conception of th
extent of the universe , nnd we can set n
limits. Such limits have been set , however.
The apparently vast collection of vlslbl
stars Is said not to TJO so vast as It Beems ,
The visible stars seem to form a swarm In
space shaped somewhat llko a lens , or i
vessel consisting of ono saucer coverln
another. An observer in the middle of sue
a lenticular space would see moro star
toward the edges of the saucer than h
would at right angles to this direction. Th
edges of the saucer might therefore rcpresen
the Milky Way. An Egyptian nstronome ;
might thus have arrived at a conception o
the limits of the universe ; but the Imaglna
tlon of the physicist Is not satisfied wit !
this estimate ; It Is better satisfied wit !
the wonderful lines of Kipling :
"Beyond the paths of the outmost fun
through utter darkness hurled
Further than ever comet /lured / or vagran
star dust swirled
Live such (19 fought and walled and rule
and loved and made our world.
"And oftlmps cotneth our wlss Lord God
imiHter of every trade ,
And tells them fulry tales of his dally toll
of Edens newly made ;
And they rise to their feet as lie passes by
gentlemen unafraid. "
AVnvcM McnHtircil.
We know that there are short waves o
light shorter than wo can at present detecl
Are there also long waves of energy whlc
elude our senses ? The question 'brings ' us t
a consideration of recent rcmarkaWo dlscov
cries In electricity. We have said nothlm
thus far of the long waves of light and bea
which leach us from outer space. Sue !
waves lonccr than l-60,000th of on Inch an
not absorbed appreciably by our atmosphere
The longest of such waves which our Instru
ments can detect as heat waves Is bare ) ;
l-20,000th ot an Inch. The physicist , however ,
knows that there are longer waves o
energy than this. Waves of electricity eve
100 feet In length have .been measured
and the electro-magnetic theory of Ugh
supposed that the waves ot light , heat an
electricity do not differ except In wav
length. In one sense , therefore , the wavi
of electricity 100 feet In length can b
considered a wave length of light or heat o
electricity. The Egyptian had no conceptlo
of this world of waves of this tumultuou
surging , so to speak , across the realms o
space. Even Faraday , fifty years ago , ha
no conception of the extent of the Influence ,
to which we are subjected.
Is It not possible that we shall detect an
receive the long waves that come acres
space from the distant stars ? And what 1m
presslons will they convey to us ? We no
detect such long waves over great dlstanc
on the surface of the earth , and I know o
nothing In the realm of physical sclenc
more stimulating to the Imagination tha
the recent experiments with electrical waves
These waves are excited by electrical sparks ,
such as can bo produced by an ordinary clec
trlcal machine. It has been discovered tha
such sparks send forth waves of electrlcll
which can pass through brick walls o
wooden partitions , and even hills of earth
An electrical ipark one inch In length pro
duccd at a station thirty or forty feet obov
the ground will excite waves which can b
detected at a distance of four miles ; an
telegraphic messages have been sent b ;
means of guch waves through space wlthou
the use of wires. The practical man 1m
mediately tees In this a method of prevent
Ing collisions In fog , for ouch waves nre not
absorbed by the fog. There ore certain
radical difficulties In the way of utilizing
ho method for this purpose which may bo
vcrcome , and which wo hnll not discuss
this paper. Wo are chiefly concerned at
resent In setting forth the remarkable ex-
cnrlon of our knowledge of the possibilities
1 wave motion.
1'iiwcr of nircMrkSiiirUx. | .
A simple electric spark can produce thcso
onB electrical waves , and acts as the
rnnsmlttcr. The receiver of thn Impulses
s still simpler , and consists merely of a
ttio glass tube about the size of one's fore-
nger , which Is filled with Iron filings. Two
Ires are embedded In the mass of filings
nd are connected to an ordinary telegraph
oundcr and a battery. When an electric
, vavo falls on the tube of filing * , there
.rises . n click In the telegraphic Instrument.
The tube of Iron filings certainly seems a
Implo affair ; the theory of Its action , how-
vcr , Is complicated and not well under-
tood. It Is known , however , that the clcc-
rlcal waves Impinging on the particles of
ron cause a response , n pulcatlon or a
uctuatlon In them which allows the energy
t the battery a. free flow for nn Instant. In
. similar manner , perhaps , some recondite
nllucnco can upset the particles In our
rains , and thus communicate Impressions.
iVbitt physicist can fall to be astounded at
ho Immense possibilities In the future
uowlcdgo of such phenomena which U
tire to come ?
Faraday could not discover any Influence
f eucu sparks to a greater distance than
en fcot. We have already extended our
: onceptlon of the extent of Influence of such
'lerlrlcal ' sparks from a distance of ten feet
o a distance of four or five miles.
What seems to mo still moro remarkable
s the work of a recent Investigator who
has experimented upon the effect of wave *
upon glass tubes filled with particles of
carbon. If such a vessel is connected to the
by a rubber tube , and the vessel Is held
n the beam of an electric search-light , ono
can hear human speech which Is spoken
nto the transmitter placed in Iho electrical
circuit ot the search-light , nnd which Is
.rnnsraltted across at least a mlle of space
.o the listener. It is known that there are
waves involved in this phenomenon ; ana
hero are doubtless both short waves and
eng waves ; that Is , visible electric waves
and invisible electric waves. Thcso waves
excite the fine particles of carbon In the re
ceiving tube Into pulsations which repro
duce the speech spoken into the electric
Ight circuit.
The astronomer ot the present may ap
pear to the astronomer of the future akin
o the Egyptian astronomer ; for ho now
deals merely with a comparatively narrow
range of waves of light , or what wo prefer
0 call waves of electricity. When Instru
ments are perfected which will take cog
nizance of the long electrical waves from
.he stars , Imagine the extension of our
knowledge of the mysterious Influences that
reach us across the ocean of space.
Just as the waves of electricity from mi
nute sparks cxclto pulsation In distant
atoms , the electrical waves from outer space
may set the atoms of our atmosphere into
vibration. ludeed , It In now believed by
many Investigators that the blue color of
the sky Is caused in this manner ; the elec
trical waves set the molecules of the air
nto pulsation , nnd this pulsation results In
sending forth waves which give the sensa
tion of blue color.
Cannot the student of physical science
thus offer many fruitful suggestions to the
hcologlan which may servo to fan the lat
cr's bellcfe in secret spiritual Influences to
1 still brighter flame ? In the physical
wtrld , even , It Is true that eye hath not
seen nor ear heard what has been prepared
from the beginning.
A CELUSTIAb TnAMl"S ADVENT.
Illela'a Comet , Hue In November , Will
lie Ilcrnlilcd liy a Stnr.
Blela's comet , the most strange and ec
centric of the celestial tramps of our sys
tem. Bays the New York Herald , Is now
rushing , In his revolution of six and two-
third years , toward the earth , and the tlmo
table of the spheres makes his advance
guard of shining meteors duo at the grade
crossing of the earth's orbit about the mid
dle of November , though the mjfp train o !
the dissipated and extended cometlc mass
will not be duo there until our globe has
made one more circuit of Its path. Then ,
about November 14 , we may expect to see
numerous meteoric flashes in our upper at
mosphere , but an entire year must pass be
fore we will plunge Into the great mass or
debris of this wrecked comet. During all
ot the coming year the remains of the comet
will be sweeping through the November sec
tion of our orbit at the rate of about two
and a half million miles dally , nnd when
wo come around again wo will see the pyre
technlc effect of cometlc matter coming In
contact with the earth's atmosphere.
Blela's comet Is unique. No heavenly
body known to astronomers has behaved
after the manner of this comet. It has been
divided into two distinct comets , has grad
ually been dissipated.
Its visitation of 1843 was the moat remarkable
markablo of all. In the January following
it was observed that It had separated lute
two distinct portions of unequal brightness
In the two returns Immediately previous 1
was In an unfavorable position for observa
tlon , but in 1826 , when seen by the Aus
trlan Bleln , after whom It was named , 1
appeared as ouo body. It was the sam
when seen In 1S03 by the French astronome
Poms and likewise when viewed by Mon
talgne on March 8 , 1772 , likely the firs
observation ever made of It.
When , In January , IS46 , It appeared a
two comets , It attracted tbo attention o
the entire scientific world. Durlug th
following two months the lesser comet in
creased In brightness , until It became cqua
to the other. Then It grew smaller nnd In
March vanished entirely , though Its com
panlon was seen for a month longer. Finally
It disappeared Into the depths of the Kola
system.
If , durlfig the next few weeks , you se
a "falling star" you can bo quite well satis
fled that It Is a small portion ot Blela'
comet that haa been drawn within our nt
mosphero and consumed through the friction
Its rapid passage produces. It Is a fore
runner , telling of a greater display to coai <
next year.
This comet Is apparently doomed. Pleci
by piece Its solid
particles ore being con
suraod or are falling to tbo earth as meteor
Ites. Not only to tbo earth but to the sun
and likely to every planet In the solar ays
tern. They are growing on the debris from
Blela's comet , particularly the giant Jup
Iter the policeman of the system who ar
rests more cometlc wanderers than all o
the rest together. With this process con
tlnulng Blela's comet will , In time , hav
disappeared.
Tlio New Oril r.
Detroit Journal : The congrrsswoman fron
the new state of Mpjkobrwp now rose nni
addressed tb" hu > , se.
"I move , " she exclaimed , "that all thl
red tape bo dispensed with. "
The motion carried unanimously , Bu
when It was urged that there bo substitute' '
heliotrope tape with a sea-green border , dlf
ucultlcH arose.
The brunette wine of the dominant party
supported by the agrarian bleached blondes
Insisted urjon ehrlmp pink.
Brain Workers ,
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ROCKY COMFORT , Ark. ,
Oct. 20.
I have been troubled with de
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with rush of blood to my head ,
causing falling sickness and great
pain afterward. Wine of Cardui
cured me.
me.Mrs.W. . H. GOLDEN.
Men and women make mistaken , but Nature never docs.
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always right. Nature's way is for women lo menstruate every
28 days. If there Is any impediment if the flow Is scanty
her signs of danger take the shape of dizziness , null of blood
to the head , fainting spells , cold feet and hands , pains under the
shoulder blades and in the sides. There Is much pain and suf
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Druggists Sell Large Bottles for $1.00.
f FOR A HISTORY
OF THE EXPOSITION ?
The Bee s souvenir editions together
Sf contain a complete history of the great
* jk enterprise , illustrated with beautiful JU
: half-tone engravings. We have a few -
copies left of the
( June 1st )
Jubilee Editions
for 5c each
They contain pictures of the Grand
Coitrt , the illumination , the build
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directors , the Indian camp and sham
battles , McKinley , his cabinet , the
heros of the war all about the Peace
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Ths Bee Publishing Co. ,
Omaha.