Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, November 03, 1898, Page 9, Image 9
I mrnn r\-\r A TT A T A ti .V MMftMJfcin A v vritrr.iAm m-o iionu _ TESTING RAILROAD TRACKS Novel Instruments for Mapping the Condition of Boadbed and Hails , DUDLEY'S ' TRACK INSPECTION CAR IMIU'r , M'nrkHhoi * mill Iloiuc oil WlicclN How He Proven ( he y of Heavy Hull * for 1'iiMt Time. | NEW YORK , Nov. 1. In the yard at ttio Grand Central railway station there stands Just now one of the most curious railway j j cars in tha country. Externally It Is of Btich ordinary nppcaranco tliat the unin formed passenger would not Rive It a second j I Klnncc. Hut It Is well known on every railway - ! i way In the country. It has been over nl- I most every road from Maine to southern Call- i fornla. Thu car belongs to Mr. I' . II. Dudley , I vho Is described na a track expert. Ho ami 1 Ills wife hnvo lived In It for twenly-ono years. They have traveled In It nil over this country and Mexico. It Is Mr. Dudleys pri vate ofllco , workshop and library ; It carries Ills Instrument ! ) , books and other parapher nalia. It la Mrs. Dudley's parlor , dining loom and kitchen ; It contains her piano , her hewing machine und general household tltcn- Blls. One end of it looks like a draughts man's office ; the other end resenbles for all the world a cosy little Now York flat. Kvory person who rides ) comfortably and safely on railway trains lian a direct In terest In this constant ! ) moving home of the Dudleys. From It have emanated some of the most radical Improvements that have boon inado In railroads during the past score of years. In this car Mr. Dudley Invented the Kruplro State Express , which Is capable of running at the rate of seventy miles an hour. That Is , ho determined by means of his car and the Instruments with It the con- dltlonc of track and roadbed necessary tor a continuous speed of over a-mllo-a-mlnute. Ho has done similar service for several j ' roads , for he owes no allegiance to any ono company. In fact , It Is generally agreed that ho Is not to belong to any one system. Ills decisions gather weight from his Inde pendence. Ho Is the unbiased arbiter of dis putes ; a traveling judge of the knotty prob lems of railroading. Attached to way trains , oppresses or freights , his car Is dragged over all the roads while ho makes reports on track conditions , suggestions as to rolling block , or settles disputes which cannot be hcttlcd without him. Ho Is enabled to do this by means of the machinery hlch ho has Invented and which Is always at work within the car. This machinery Is really the most wonderful part of the outfit. Part of it looks llko a cylinder printing press. Cams , cog wheels , chain belts and Indica tors reach down under tbo car and connect with the axles , the wheels and even the track itself. When the car moves these con trivances Indicate and telegraph the condl- ' tlon of the roadbed up through the floor of the car to the printing cylinder , where llttlo glass fountain pens wrlto an exact ac count of It all on long rolls of paper. As the car moves Mr. Dudley can sit and watch his fountain pens write down the unclula- tlon or rolling of each track , how much the car sways from stdo to Mdc , how much. grade up or down there Is , how much space 1 there Is between the cuds of two rails , whether ono rail Is higher or lower than the next ( oven by a hundredth of an Inch ) , the number of revolutions of the wheels , the speed of the train every ten seconds , the distance traveled. In case there Is any dlsI crcpancy In the roadbed , the apparatus not only records It on paper , but It also drops a largo spot of yellow or black paint on' the ties at the faulty spot , so that the track hands may find and repair the fault without difficulty. At every mlle post a boll rings \vlthln the car. In fact , every marked sin gularity , discrepancy or positive fault Is noted by the fountain pens on the roll of paper. If the general manager of a system wishes to learn the exact condition of a loadbed ho has merely to nsk Mr. Dudley tor a record. The Dudley homo Is attached to a train and dragged over the road. The machinery In the car operates Itself. Mr. Dudley writes or draws or otherwise occu- jilee his tlmo at his work bench , for ho Is an Inventor. Mrs. Dudley cooks or plays the piano or sketches In water color , for she is an artist. At the end of the trip n long roll of manlla paper Is handed to the general manager. It Is on absolutely correct record of the condition of the roadbed. InureiiHliiK 'I'riiln Spooil. Mr. Dudley Is not a mere reporter of track and general roadbed conditions. Ho Is n civil euglneer whose years of experience have made him an authority on. mechanical railroading and whoso scientific researches have resulted In quickening the general speed of trains more than 50 per cent during the last twenty years. In the early 70's ho was employed by railroads In Important branches of construction. His business occupied all of his time , and night and day ho was constantly on the move In quest of outlying work. It was a most uncomfortable existence and not at all compatible with married life. Then he was struck with the Idea of purchasing a car and living In Jt. People lived in boats the year round , why not cars ? Bolug a man of means the experiment was easily tried. Ho bought a wide , substantial car of the first class and fitted It up as a traveling home. The forward half ho furnished as a combined oillco and work shop. Then he Installed liU desk , his book cases and bla Instruments. The other half ho fltted up as a suite of living rooms. Mrs. Dudley moved her square piano , some furniture and pictures Into the room next the office ; a folding bed and wardrobes filled up the next room ; a dining and general living room held Its quota of furniture , and adjoining the kitchen just beyond was a "back yard" and pantry , made by closing In the rear platform of the car. The farallUr furniture , the pictures of ancestors and friends on the walls and the general presence of household goods gave this car n homo-like air Inside that would not bo suspected from without. That was twenty , one years ago , and the couple have lived In the car e\er since. That they like their modu of llfo can bo judged from a remark nude by Mrs. Dudley to the effect that not only did the enjoy her roving life , but that now she could not bo happy la any other. In all this tlmo not an accident of any kind has happened to tha coach , and Its owners have como to believe that sucl ) a thing could never occur. Once airs. Dudley left her ca , and traveled a short distance In an ordinary Bleeping car. Palo Ironically ordained that there should bo a smash-up and that the woman should sprain her ankle. Her acapo was lucky enough , Omc she uow nuy \ that the safest place for her Is In her own home. llcnvr Hull * for Illicit .Speed. Constantly moving about on railroads , Mr. Dudley could not help accumulating a store of knowledge on the subject. As his knowl edge extcudcd over a period of yetirs ho was able to make some valuable averages of his Information. In summing up ho deduced a theory and formed an opinion of the require ments necessary for Increasing the speed of modern trains , yet keeping within n. wldo margin of safety. He became an advocate of solid roadbeds , but his pet hobby Is very heavy rails or tracks. "Increase the size of your tracks , " he says , "and you may In crease the speed of your trains. " In the days before very fast 'trains ' were known he was able to demonstrate mathematically ivhy this would be so. Now he cannot only point to fast trains running on heavy tracks , but ho has an Instrument which mechan ically demonstrates the limitations of the conditions which exist during the passage of a fast train over a given point. Formerly , however , he had to use the power * of persuasion - suasion to carry bis point. It Is something of a feat to get a company to change the weight of the tracks of Its system. It means much expense to the company ; for just as a modern olllco building must bo provided with especially substantial foundations , so the eighty-pound rail requires a proportion ate foundation advantage over the thirty- pound specimen. Ilut Mr. Dudley never stopped Insisting , and gradually he had the gratification of seeing the weight per yard Jump from forty pounds to sixty-live , and finally on some roads at the present day to eighty pounds. The most significant result of this culmination was tbo Umpire State and other fast expresses. Even here Mr. Dudley has not paused In his argument for heavy rails. Ho has had manufactured and laid sections of rails weighing 100 pounds to the yard. It Is his Idea that on rails such as these , trains might bo made to Increase their speed until the much talked of limit of 100-mlles-an-hour might bo reached. Action of Steel I ! ml or I'rexmiro. A person unacquantcd with the action of steel when heavy weights are put upon It will bo very apt to ask what difference the weight of a track would make In the speed of a train. It la In answer < to just such a question as that and also for scientific demonstration that Mr. Dudley Invented his ! stremmatograph. This instrument Is In- I tended to bo attached to the track Itself and f MB. DUDLEY , INSPECTION CAR .WORKSHOP-JU D.ELKCTIIICAL , APPARATUS. Is so sensitive In operation that It will record ' exactly how hard each wheel of the train presses down on the track when the locomo tive and cars pass along. By means of the stremmatograph It Is found that no rail can bear the passage of a train over It and yet remain absolutely rigid. It seems that rall- road tracks move around , under the passage of a heavy train. For Instance , the tracks . bend down under the weight of each wheel and , comparatively speaking , bulge up be- tween the front and rear wheels of each car until the section of rail under the train ) I undulates to a really remarkable extent. All kinds of stresses are set up In the fiber of 'the steel. At one Instant a small section I of rail may be compressed many thousands ; of pounds ; the next Instant that same part will bo subjected to a state of tension which , measured by thousands of pounds , may bo oven greater than the compression. This process Is repeated over and over again as the tiatn passes along. The train even pushes the track up In front of the forward wheels of the locomotive ; that Is , the track rises In front of the wheels Just as water docs before the prow of a boat. There are other phenomena peculiar 'to tracks which add to the quota of rail peculiarities. Ilut ono can easily see how they all assist In re tarding the speed of a train. Now , accordIng - Ing to the strcmraatograph , which was tried on trains running first on 65-pound rails and then on 80-pound rails , the adverse condition was much woree on the for mer than ou the latter. In short , the C."i-pound rails were much moro flexi ble and allowed tbo train to make a greater series of depressions In them than was possible with the more rigid SO- pound Tall. For comparison , a somewhat analogous condition confronts two aerial performers , ono of whom walks a slack wire , the other the tight rope. It Is much easier to do the latter trick. Such a comparison may seem overdrawn , but just such a condi tion exists In miruitla in railway tracks of the weights mentioned. Until from Tcsfn. The rigidity of the tr.ick Is then a hau- mount requirement , and this is what Mr. Dudley seeks to prove with his instrument. Just how much a big locomotive will puin a heavy track down below It ? ordinary level may bo judged from the following : On a special section of 95-pound rails laid on the Boston & Albany railroad , the depression made by a 100-ton locomotive was measured. The driving wheels of this engine carried 37,500 pounds per pair , but locomot'ves ' with much greater weights on the driven are In use. The depression under the front truck wheel of the engine was 0.094 of an Inch ; between tbo wheels O.OS6 of an Inch , and under the rear truck wheel 0.100 of an Inch. In the wheel space between the engine truck and front drlvra the depression was O.OSS of an Inch ; under the front driver 0.13S of an Inch ; in the wheel space between drivers 0.008 of an inch , and under the rear drivers It was 0.110 of an Inch. The tensions under the front and rear truck wheels were , re spectively , 0,780 and 5,310 pounds. The ten sions under the front and rear drivers were , 1 respectively , 9,160 and 9.920 pounds. I Some miles of 100-pound rails have al ready been laid , and In order to show the advantage in their use a New York Central locomotive carrying 125,000 pjunds on the drivers was tried and measured , first on 65- i pound rails and then on 100-pound rails. The result was aa follows : C5-lb. rail. 100-lb. rail. Compression in front of driver..3,071 Ibs. 1,161 Ibs. TenxUm under front driver 51.M4 Ibs. S.031 Ibs. Compression be tween front and middle driver . . . . 2.121 Ibs. 2,631 Ibs. Tension under middle driver . . . .22,415 Ibs. 6.S49 Ibs. Cumuresblon be tween middle and rear driver. . . . 2,365 Ibs. 1,834 Ibs. Tcnolon under i rear driver 23.S5C Ibs. 6,112 Ibs. Iho amazing difference In the tension uudtr the driving wheels of this locomotive j when used on tracks of different weight * In sufficient argument In favor of the heavier kind. Dut ono other argument has been placed on record. It was at first attempted to run the Empire State express on 65-pound rails. , A continuous speed of sixty miles an hour-Van accomplished with Home dlfllculty. Now & train running nt the rate of sixty miles ait hour moves forward eighty-eight feet each second , which Is longer than the entlto wheel base of the engine , tender and front truck of the first coach and which would allow eleven wheels to run over a given point In the rail per second , Each of thcso wheels caused stresses of several thou sand pounds besides violent tremors and vibrations and the result was a permanent "set" In the rails In numberless places along the line a condition which acted heavily against high speeds. As a matter of fact the 65-pound rails had to be replaced with 80-pound rails since which tlmo the difficulty has greatly decreased , Simplicity of ( hi ; IiiNtrttniciit. The stremmatograph which Mr. Dud ley makes his calculations , apparently , Is a very simple Instrument. Its principle is to record on a moving strip of metal the mole cular compression that elongation of the rail as the train passes over It. As a matter of fact , the instrument Is firmly attached to the edge of the rail surface at two points. When a wheel passes over the small section of rail between these two points the elongation of the metal causes a pen pointer to draw an Irregular line on the moving metal plate. The Irregularities of the line correspond in size to the tensions and compressions pro duced In the rail. The line Is drawn in ink and one can see on it the mark made by every wheel In the train , from the big notches made by the drivers , to the small ones made by the wheels of a caboose. This , then , Is the purpose of the Dudley car , and these the occupations of Its owner. This homo Is ono of the most curious on earth , but Its utility has been thoroughly proved. The general public owes much of Its comfort In traveling to what has been , evolved within the coach. Doubtless In the years to como it will ewe much more , for Mr. Dudley Is Indefatigable In search of new ways to ride his hobby. But even If ho dis covers nothing now henceforth , the fact that ho has rendered possible and comfortable the mlle-a-mlnutc-cxprees should ( endear him forever to the great army of American travelers. THEODORE WATERS. TOMBS OF THE 3Vo State Contain * More of Them Thau Virginia. Of the first nix presidents of the United States four were Virginians and are ourled in that state. The other two were John Adams and his son , John Qulncy Adams , both of whom are burled at Qulncy , Mass. No other state , says the New York Sun , contains so many graves of presidents as Virginia , which has 'been ' aptly called "the ! mother of the presidents , " and only ono of her sons who was chief magistrate of the United States Is not 'burled In , her sail ; he , however , was not elected from that state. Washington , Jefferson , Madison and Mon roe wcro 'born ' and three of them died In Virginia. Monroe died elsewhere. William Henry Harrison , the ninth president , was born in Virginia , where his father was gov ernor , as well as a signer of the Declaration of Independence , tout was elected from Ohio. John Tyler , the tenth president , was another son of Virginia , 'whoso ' grave Is In that state. Washington's tomb at Mount Vernon Is the property of the nation and Is visited by thousands of his countrymen annually. The remains are Interred In a vault , the second ono that has held the bed } * . The , old vault was near the present ono and was abandoned after an attempt was made to rob It. The remains of 'Mrs. Washington and of several members of the Washington family repose 'besldo those of the first presi dent. Mount Vernon IH owned by an asso ciation of 'women ' und the tomb will he guarded through all coming time , One other president's grave , Jackson's , was purchased by an association of women and Is now the property of the state from which ho was elected. Thomas Jefferson , llko Washington , was burled on his old homestead In Virginia , and though Moatlcello passed out of the hands of his defendants shortly after his death , the graveyard Is well preserved and u granite monument marks the spot where he was burled. The word "Montlcello" means , "Llttlo Mountain , " and this country ceme tery U on an eminence. It is near Char- lottesvllle. James Madison's beautiful home , Mont- puller , In Orange county , Va. , was the scene of his death , and bis grava Is in sleht of the southern windows of the house. The monument Is a circular one , with a dome resting on an entablature , upheld by large dorlo columns. Betide htm Is burled his wife , Dolly Madison , whoso sunny heart made her one of the most popular of the American women of her time. j President Monroe's home , Oak Hill , was In London county , Virginia , and hero Mrs. Monroe died and was burled. After her death the president went to live In New York with his daughter , Mrs. douvorneur , and died there on July i , 1831. His funeral was the largest and most Imposing seen In New York up to that time. The body was placed In a vault in the old cemetery on the north side of Second street , between First and Second avenues , and It remained there for a number of years. Then the Virginia , log- Islaturo ordered Its removal to Richmond , where It was Interred on President's Hill In Hollywood cemetery. The other Virginia president who Is burled In her soil Is John Tyler , whoso grave is near President Monroe's. Over Monroe's grave Is a cojtly and beautiful monument , erected by the state. Tyler's grave Is still unmarked by a monument , though the Vir ginia legislature voted to have ono placed there. The civil war came on and the mat ter was dropped. It Is said that the neg lect Is to be repaired by the coming legls lature. The necond Mrs , Tyler , who ur vlved her husband twcnty-seveu years , dying lo 1SS9 , la burled beside him. You Invite disappointment wnen you ex. pcrlment. DoWltt's Little Early Risers are pleasant , easy , thorough tittle pills. They cure constipation and sick headache ju t ai euro s you take them. WAVES FROii OUTER SPACE Audible Sound from Apparently Silent Waves of the Air , SIGNIFICANCE OF RECENT DISCOVERIES Simrkn Hint Uxcltc. I'lilxntloti In Dlmtnnt AtoniN , I'roiluoliiK Vll > rntloim-l.riiltrnl Plol.l of Ilenrnrcli. The strongest Impression I received on as- ending a enow peak In Switzerland , 13,000 cet above the sea , writes Prof. John Trow- irldgc , director of the physical laboratory f Harvard university , in the Independent , is not from the view of the lower peaks , fhlch extended far toward the plains of taly like a tumultuous sea suddenly trans- Ixed. Impressive as this scene was , I do not recall It to forcibly as the consciousness it the perfect silence in the space nround nd above me. Judging by one sense alone .hat of hearing unaided a traveler through ho space between us and the distant stars pparently might conclude that there were no motions which could , by any possibility , affect his sense of hearing. Yet certain ex periments which I shall describe show how llcnt waves in the air can announce their oinlng by audible sounds. The space betwcn us and the furthest star corns cold and desolate , silent and lifeless ; yet it is full of wonderful wave motions , which wo are just beginning to interpret. Wo see tbo light of the sun ; wo feel the heat waves , and wo are sure that the dls- ant stars are also suns , for wo can analyze heir light ; and wo find that It Is substan tially similar to that emitted by the sun. Do wo also receive other waves from the stars which our present Instruments can not detect ? This question would seem at first sight to lead away from the region of accu rate knowledge Into that which , perhaps , may bo termed Intuitional philosophy. Wo have , however , a justification In asking this question , for wo can photograph stars which the eye of man can never sec. The short waves of light beyond the visible vlo et In the sun's spectrum or that of the stars affect a sensitive plate , although these waves can not bo detected by the eye. Can wo go further and believe , with sure ground for our belief , that there are stars which can never bo revealed by our present pho tographlc methods ? I think that this be- tcf rests on a sure foundation , for it has been discovered that the glass lenses of our telescopes absorb a large proportion of the rays of light from the stars , and this In evitable loss can never be compensated by making larger glass lenses. H the lenses could bo made of quartz of a sufficient size since quartz absorbs less than glass wo could obtain the Images of a great number ot stars that are now unrevcaled. Such lenses seem Impossible to obtain. Or If a very largo concave mirror could bo accurately constructed and properly mounted we could obviate the loss by glass lenses and greatly Increase our knowledge of the limits of the universe. Such a mirror may be constructed ) yet wo have still another formidable ob. stacle which cannot be overcome by our present photographic methods. AVnveM of The xvaves of energy which con stitute llcht meet with a serious ob stacle when they Implngo on the atoms which constitute the atmosphere of the earth. This atmosphere seems a very slight affair to oppose wave motion to such a ser ious degree that It hide * the limits of the universe from us ; , . Indeed , n observer OB Mars would have JdiaicuJ iin ascertaining whether the earth In surrounded by an at mosphere or not. * Yet this comparatively slight envelop of nlrv nnd vapor ex tending barely to a 'distance ot hundred miles from the surface. of the earth completely shuts out even our photographic vlow of very distant stars If wo could observe even the sun and the visible stars from a elation a hundred miles above the earth , by means of our pres. ent methods In photography we should find a vast realm of wave motions opened to us and the apparent solar spectrum might greatly Increased In length. At present therefore , wo can form no conception of th extent of the universe , nnd we can set n limits. Such limits have been set , however. The apparently vast collection of vlslbl stars Is said not to TJO so vast as It Beems , The visible stars seem to form a swarm In space shaped somewhat llko a lens , or i vessel consisting of ono saucer coverln another. An observer in the middle of sue a lenticular space would see moro star toward the edges of the saucer than h would at right angles to this direction. Th edges of the saucer might therefore rcpresen the Milky Way. An Egyptian nstronome ; might thus have arrived at a conception o the limits of the universe ; but the Imaglna tlon of the physicist Is not satisfied wit ! this estimate ; It Is better satisfied wit ! the wonderful lines of Kipling : "Beyond the paths of the outmost fun through utter darkness hurled Further than ever comet /lured / or vagran star dust swirled Live such (19 fought and walled and rule and loved and made our world. "And oftlmps cotneth our wlss Lord God imiHter of every trade , And tells them fulry tales of his dally toll of Edens newly made ; And they rise to their feet as lie passes by gentlemen unafraid. " AVnvcM McnHtircil. We know that there are short waves o light shorter than wo can at present detecl Are there also long waves of energy whlc elude our senses ? The question 'brings ' us t a consideration of recent rcmarkaWo dlscov cries In electricity. We have said nothlm thus far of the long waves of light and bea which leach us from outer space. Sue ! waves lonccr than l-60,000th of on Inch an not absorbed appreciably by our atmosphere The longest of such waves which our Instru ments can detect as heat waves Is bare ) ; l-20,000th ot an Inch. The physicist , however , knows that there are longer waves o energy than this. Waves of electricity eve 100 feet In length have .been measured and the electro-magnetic theory of Ugh supposed that the waves ot light , heat an electricity do not differ except In wav length. In one sense , therefore , the wavi of electricity 100 feet In length can b considered a wave length of light or heat o electricity. The Egyptian had no conceptlo of this world of waves of this tumultuou surging , so to speak , across the realms o space. Even Faraday , fifty years ago , ha no conception of the extent of the Influence , to which we are subjected. Is It not possible that we shall detect an receive the long waves that come acres space from the distant stars ? And what 1m presslons will they convey to us ? We no detect such long waves over great dlstanc on the surface of the earth , and I know o nothing In the realm of physical sclenc more stimulating to the Imagination tha the recent experiments with electrical waves These waves are excited by electrical sparks , such as can bo produced by an ordinary clec trlcal machine. It has been discovered tha such sparks send forth waves of electrlcll which can pass through brick walls o wooden partitions , and even hills of earth An electrical ipark one inch In length pro duccd at a station thirty or forty feet obov the ground will excite waves which can b detected at a distance of four miles ; an telegraphic messages have been sent b ; means of guch waves through space wlthou the use of wires. The practical man 1m mediately tees In this a method of prevent Ing collisions In fog , for ouch waves nre not absorbed by the fog. There ore certain radical difficulties In the way of utilizing ho method for this purpose which may bo vcrcome , and which wo hnll not discuss this paper. Wo are chiefly concerned at resent In setting forth the remarkable ex- cnrlon of our knowledge of the possibilities 1 wave motion. 1'iiwcr of nircMrkSiiirUx. | . A simple electric spark can produce thcso onB electrical waves , and acts as the rnnsmlttcr. The receiver of thn Impulses s still simpler , and consists merely of a ttio glass tube about the size of one's fore- nger , which Is filled with Iron filings. Two Ires are embedded In the mass of filings nd are connected to an ordinary telegraph oundcr and a battery. When an electric , vavo falls on the tube of filing * , there .rises . n click In the telegraphic Instrument. The tube of Iron filings certainly seems a Implo affair ; the theory of Its action , how- vcr , Is complicated and not well under- tood. It Is known , however , that the clcc- rlcal waves Impinging on the particles of ron cause a response , n pulcatlon or a uctuatlon In them which allows the energy t the battery a. free flow for nn Instant. In . similar manner , perhaps , some recondite nllucnco can upset the particles In our rains , and thus communicate Impressions. iVbitt physicist can fall to be astounded at ho Immense possibilities In the future uowlcdgo of such phenomena which U tire to come ? Faraday could not discover any Influence f eucu sparks to a greater distance than en fcot. We have already extended our : onceptlon of the extent of Influence of such 'lerlrlcal ' sparks from a distance of ten feet o a distance of four or five miles. What seems to mo still moro remarkable s the work of a recent Investigator who has experimented upon the effect of wave * upon glass tubes filled with particles of carbon. If such a vessel is connected to the by a rubber tube , and the vessel Is held n the beam of an electric search-light , ono can hear human speech which Is spoken nto the transmitter placed in Iho electrical circuit ot the search-light , nnd which Is .rnnsraltted across at least a mlle of space .o the listener. It is known that there are waves involved in this phenomenon ; ana hero are doubtless both short waves and eng waves ; that Is , visible electric waves and invisible electric waves. Thcso waves excite the fine particles of carbon In the re ceiving tube Into pulsations which repro duce the speech spoken into the electric Ight circuit. The astronomer ot the present may ap pear to the astronomer of the future akin o the Egyptian astronomer ; for ho now deals merely with a comparatively narrow range of waves of light , or what wo prefer 0 call waves of electricity. When Instru ments are perfected which will take cog nizance of the long electrical waves from .he stars , Imagine the extension of our knowledge of the mysterious Influences that reach us across the ocean of space. Just as the waves of electricity from mi nute sparks cxclto pulsation In distant atoms , the electrical waves from outer space may set the atoms of our atmosphere into vibration. ludeed , It In now believed by many Investigators that the blue color of the sky Is caused in this manner ; the elec trical waves set the molecules of the air nto pulsation , nnd this pulsation results In sending forth waves which give the sensa tion of blue color. Cannot the student of physical science thus offer many fruitful suggestions to the hcologlan which may servo to fan the lat cr's bellcfe in secret spiritual Influences to 1 still brighter flame ? In the physical wtrld , even , It Is true that eye hath not seen nor ear heard what has been prepared from the beginning. A CELUSTIAb TnAMl"S ADVENT. Illela'a Comet , Hue In November , Will lie Ilcrnlilcd liy a Stnr. Blela's comet , the most strange and ec centric of the celestial tramps of our sys tem. Bays the New York Herald , Is now rushing , In his revolution of six and two- third years , toward the earth , and the tlmo table of the spheres makes his advance guard of shining meteors duo at the grade crossing of the earth's orbit about the mid dle of November , though the mjfp train o ! the dissipated and extended cometlc mass will not be duo there until our globe has made one more circuit of Its path. Then , about November 14 , we may expect to see numerous meteoric flashes in our upper at mosphere , but an entire year must pass be fore we will plunge Into the great mass or debris of this wrecked comet. During all ot the coming year the remains of the comet will be sweeping through the November sec tion of our orbit at the rate of about two and a half million miles dally , nnd when wo come around again wo will see the pyre technlc effect of cometlc matter coming In contact with the earth's atmosphere. Blela's comet Is unique. No heavenly body known to astronomers has behaved after the manner of this comet. It has been divided into two distinct comets , has grad ually been dissipated. Its visitation of 1843 was the moat remarkable markablo of all. In the January following it was observed that It had separated lute two distinct portions of unequal brightness In the two returns Immediately previous 1 was In an unfavorable position for observa tlon , but in 1826 , when seen by the Aus trlan Bleln , after whom It was named , 1 appeared as ouo body. It was the sam when seen In 1S03 by the French astronome Poms and likewise when viewed by Mon talgne on March 8 , 1772 , likely the firs observation ever made of It. When , In January , IS46 , It appeared a two comets , It attracted tbo attention o the entire scientific world. Durlug th following two months the lesser comet in creased In brightness , until It became cqua to the other. Then It grew smaller nnd In March vanished entirely , though Its com panlon was seen for a month longer. Finally It disappeared Into the depths of the Kola system. If , durlfig the next few weeks , you se a "falling star" you can bo quite well satis fled that It Is a small portion ot Blela' comet that haa been drawn within our nt mosphero and consumed through the friction Its rapid passage produces. It Is a fore runner , telling of a greater display to coai < next year. This comet Is apparently doomed. Pleci by piece Its solid particles ore being con suraod or are falling to tbo earth as meteor Ites. Not only to tbo earth but to the sun and likely to every planet In the solar ays tern. They are growing on the debris from Blela's comet , particularly the giant Jup Iter the policeman of the system who ar rests more cometlc wanderers than all o the rest together. With this process con tlnulng Blela's comet will , In time , hav disappeared. Tlio New Oril r. Detroit Journal : The congrrsswoman fron the new state of Mpjkobrwp now rose nni addressed tb" hu > , se. "I move , " she exclaimed , "that all thl red tape bo dispensed with. " The motion carried unanimously , Bu when It was urged that there bo substitute' ' heliotrope tape with a sea-green border , dlf ucultlcH arose. The brunette wine of the dominant party supported by the agrarian bleached blondes Insisted urjon ehrlmp pink. Brain Workers , Horsford's ' Acid Phosphate supplies the needed nerve force. Hhiin Bulntilutn. Bold only in bottlei , ' MMWinMMWtW . . . . . . . " " - " " JQ f"- FREE ADVICE I'V ' ' r I'liyMrlmi nn.l n of om'mnTintiunTjifaiSpagoj'rro ( ) llnok trentiiiRalj dl rn e < lili JU excellent iecl"p9 | nto omo of Ihr IC.IHMH why ytu fliouli 's ' Renovator riuo * the tiry worst rnnusot l\v peinla , Constipation , Hendarlic , Liter Slid Kidney dl"ci : rs , hund for proof of U. 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Wine of Cardui is the assistance that Nature requires In her work of cleansing the system. It is a medicine from the fields and the woods a veg etable compound of roots and herbs , that acts altogether upon the organs of womanhood alone. It is good for all LADIES' ADVISORY DEPARTMENT. "female troubles" . Its action For adTlce In cates requiring ip - cltl direction ! . ddrMi , gltlni - ijmp- is , and its benefits , ' , quick are toml LaiUti' AAliiorv Iltpartmint The CbnttanooinftleillelneCo. permanent. Chattanooga , Tenn. Druggists Sell Large Bottles for $1.00. f FOR A HISTORY OF THE EXPOSITION ? The Bee s souvenir editions together Sf contain a complete history of the great * jk enterprise , illustrated with beautiful JU : half-tone engravings. We have a few - copies left of the ( June 1st ) Jubilee Editions for 5c each They contain pictures of the Grand Coitrt , the illumination , the build ings , the midway , all the officers , the directors , the Indian camp and sham battles , McKinley , his cabinet , the heros of the war all about the Peace Jubilee all about the Exposition. Ths Bee Publishing Co. , Omaha.