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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 13, 1898)
THE OMAHA DAIIA" 35EE : TUESDAY , SEPTEMBER 1 , 1898.
Philanthropic Movement for Women Started
by Jane Addams ,
ADJUNCT TO AN OLD INSTITUTION
Moil or n I'nrllltlcn for IMurntlmi C'nni-
MIIIM ! Midi Ciimrorliililc Mtltiir
for n Trllh Union anil
One of the moat significant and delightful
outgrowths of the Hull house movement Is
Its nummer school now held each year at
Kockford college , Illinois. The college , from
Its organization ns a seminary In 1847 , has
been ono of the leading educational forces
in the nest , and It was from this Institution
that Miss Jane Addams took her I ) . A. In
Her alma mater naturally watched with
moro than ordinary Interest the work of
this original and brilliant woman from Its
first Inception , and convinced of the power
and usefulness of her methods , In 1801
turned over the entire college equipment to
her us < < for the summer months , since which
tlmo the summer school has been an annual
Kockford college Is beautifully situated on
Hock river , Ha broad and rolling campus ,
abundantly shaded with oak , maple and
evergreen , sloping down to the water's edge.
The conditions for living are absolutely
comfortable , and hygienic according to the
moat modern standards. The rooms are
large , airy and clean , with good beds , com
modious closets , ample appointments and con-
venlenccs , with no superfluities In the way
of drapery , bric-a-brac , rugs or furniture ,
ample of that co-operation which Is the
mainspring of all noclologlcal movements.
Among the guests ore many public school
teachers from Chicago , some of them young
Intlio Held , on smalt salaries , whoso op
portunities for culture bavo been exceed
ingly limited and whose knowledge of the
world Is bounded by a very narrow horizon ,
Their constant Intermingling with older ,
college-bred and traveled women , to say
nothing of the great opportunities offered In
class work , Is for them a liberal education.
I'rrciliim In Work nnil Piny.
The beauty of the whole scheme , however -
over , Is that no pressure Is brought to
bear upon any one. Miss Addams desires
that every ono who comes shall go Into at
least one class , but any ono with her In
dividual pursuits to follow may work In her
room with perfect quiet and the weak and
weary Ho all day undisturbed under a tree.
Recreation , indeed , is the distinguishing
feature of tha school. Tennis , croquet and
base ball divide the campus. Good , hard
country roads , through charming scenery ,
lead out of Hockford In every direction and
blcyclo meetd nro dally affairs.
There are ample opportunities for rowing ,
but perhaps nothing so delights the eum-
i mcr school as the announcement that there
will be a sail up the river. On such occa
sions a steam launch is chartered , the school
turns out In a body and rides for miles be-
' twccn lovely wooded banks , to alight near
some high blurt from which they can watch
1 the glories of the sunset ) and tackle the
' runch baskets. Then follow story and
narao around the ecampflro , and a sail homo
by starlight or the light of the moon.
Piano and song recitals nro frequently
given , and always by good artists , as Hull
house never puts the stamp of Its recogni
tion upon bad art. Lcccures by distin
guished men and women are also Included
In the summer's program. For the rest , the
gymnasium Is given over evenings to char
acter parties , dances , charades , Jarley wax-
EO that the care of them Is reduced to the
Ii'ur I'll rot * Dollar * 11 Week.
A step away from the main building is
Sill hall , with its admirably equipped gym-
iioalum and music department. Then there
is Addams hall , with Ha scientific library ,
physical laboratory , aparatus rooms , studio ,
etc. All this splendid equipment , with free
use ot gymnasium , pianos , casts , library of
7,000 well-selected volumes and valuable art
collections , are turned over to the summer
Kuests unhampered by rules or regulations.
And all Including abundant and wholesome
board for the sum of $3 a week.
This affords Miss Addams exactly the op
portunity she wants ot offering to working
women n , really delightful vacation at the
lowest possible cost. She has arranged with
nil the railroads to carry the "students"
at half ratcj. so that the round trip costs
Chicago women only $2.50. The $3 a week
covers the actual expenses of running the
house , with enough left over for picnics ,
etc. , though how it Is done puzzles the skep
tic who llnds himself sitting down < o three
good meals a day. Of course , It could not
bo managed except the cleverest head for
affairs were at the helm , nnd that the sys
tem of work is moro or less co-operative.
Four first-class kitchen maids connected
with the colleco nro retained for the sum
mer school. Thei.e , of course , do the en
tire work of the kitchen , tnko care ot bath
rooms and closets and the public rooms.
Koch guest docs her own chamber work
nnd assists In the lighter duties ot the
house. This' Is so'specialized and system-
ntlzcd that It docs not seem work In the
least nnd consumes the smallest possible
amount , of time , not above throe-quarters
of an hour a day. For instance , two girls
wash nnd wlpo the glasses every noon.
Another two nt night. Ono relay clears the
tables , nuother brushes up the crumbs , and
bo on , each girl keeping to the same duty
during her entire stay.
Ily paying CO cents a week extra ono may
be excused from participating In this part
of the life , but very few care to do BO , as
ono doesn't feel quite in It unless Included
in the domestic service. Besides , those who
know Miss Addaras feel that this Is an ex
ponent of her foundation principles of life.
Within certain limits , a follower ot William
Morris and Tolstoi , the keynote of Miss
Addams' faith Is that all Hhould labor and
no ono bo overburdened : that work should
bo a Joy , not a weariness , nnd that there
should bo no sharply drawn line between
pleasure nnd work , but that the two should
ever commingle. She always docs her share
of the work. Ono day when a young girl
wloued to take the broom from her hands
she said :
"Why , my child , this Is not work ; It Is
Summer Seliool rrofenm > ri .
Uvcry one knows Miss Addams' power for
attaching to her cause the best trained In
tellects and artists In the country , consequently
quently , when she broached her subject of
n Bummer school , she met with hearty co
operation from specialists In nearly every
line ot work , the outcome of which Is that
classes In n wide range of subjects nro
conducted , not by the philanthropic dilet
tante , but by the trained educator , and
not to make it too much a work-a-duy
world , ery little preparation Is required
of the students out ot the class room.
The teacher of botany takes her class
with her to adjoining woods and meadows.
The class In birds. with field
glasses over their shoulders , start off
on their wheels to distant fields and groves
In search of the unknown specimen. The
teacher of American art brings with her
rare and costly prints with which to clarity
and illustrate her lalka. There Is a pro-
feseor In gymnastics , a pretty society girl to
teach dancing , native teachers of French and
Oerman from the best Institutions , teachers
ot Urownlng , of 1'lato , of pedagogy. There
.nro sketch clauses , travel talks , Instructions
lu nccdlo work , etc. , a veritable embarrass
ment of riches.
As the teachers are nt the school for rest
nnd rccre.itlon , very few of them teach more
than nn hour a day , so that each goes to
her class room with freshness and enthusi
asm and the hour usually devolves Itself
Into an Informal and delightful talk upon
her favorite 1oplc. The professors receive
rj no salaries for their 'Aork , but pay their
> - - board and wlpo dishes along \\lth the stu
dents. There is absolutely no distinction
i' i between them. They are In the work for
the lovn ot It and frequently make happy
exchanges of wares. The teacher ot
lliownliiK , for exumplo , may be very glad
to brush up her French with an Instructor
fresh from tbo Tarls university. And the
professor of botany may bo equally nnxlous
to Icaru the latest work lu art u good ex-
works , "deestrlct schools , " or any amuse
ment that the cleverness or Ingenuity of the
guests can devise. No one Is , however , ex
pected to Cake part In these , even ns specta
tor , whoso tastes Incline them to more quiet
ways , and they are always over at 10
o'clock , so that no one's rest need be dis
In fact it is the spirit of the whole insti-
futlon that Is the vital thing. It Is an abso-
rule working out ot the principle , "Ono for
all ; all for one. " There are no cliques , no
shirking of responsibility , no disagreeable
looking out for No. 1 , no class distinctions.
Hebrew and Catholic artist and artisan
fraternize In the most natural manner.
No ono could commit a selfish or snobbish
act without feeling that ) ho was doing violence
lence to the whole spirit ot the place. Anyone
ono planning a game or pleasure trip hoe
It publicly announced , and all are Invited
to Join In. Only the shy , awkward , -weak
unfortunate or Ignorant are singled out foi
special attention. This , ot course , all sprang
originally from Miss Addams' powerful per
sonality and Inspiring teaching. Her mantle -
tlo has , however , fallen upon shoulders en
tirely worthy to wear It , for Mlsi
Addama herself now gives llttlo persona
attention to thu school , although it Is ono o
her most cherished enterprises.
Miss Ella Doynton , who has been con
ncctod with the school since 1894 , has si
grown into the work that she now man
ages ovqry department financial , domestli
and Boclal with the utmost tacUand with
out a creak of the machinery.
Ono cannot but reflect what endless gooi
might accrue to the people if every othe
Institution In the country Wellesley , Vas
sar , Smith , etc. , would follow the exampl
of Rockford college and turn over its equip
ment during two months In the summer ti
a similar enterprise. They would sufle
such small loss and could uplift so many
Take a single example. A Russian Jew
employed as a prcsser In a tailor shop , bu
gifted with a line Intellect and great ambi
lion , has been studying for some time will
a view to passing examinations this autunu
which will admit him to a medical college
For less than $25 ho has had good , whole
some living for the summer , a large , coo
library In which to workywlth every boo ]
and appliance necessary to his special sub
Jccts , aud as much outside assistance as h
has required. Ho will go up to his exam
splendidly prepared nnd In a much bette
physical condition than could have been pos
slblo had ho worked in the hot , dusty
crowded quarter of his accustomed environ
The main cost to the college is In the wea
and tear of Us furniture. This the summe
school endeavors to make good by kecplni
up the linen supply , furnishing aheets , pll
low cases , towels , table cloths nnd napkin
whenever the stock runs low.
aoon nxouoii pou $ i A MONTH
SolilU-r KxnlnliiH Why Ilruiikciine *
Oiiitlit to lie Allnivulilc.
One ot the heroes who was in Cuba dolni
his share of the suffering for freedom's saki
is given to indulging In the now Ing bowl
not a mild Indulgence , either , but n rip
roaring indulgence that Is simply terrlfl
In its mildest aspect. One day before he hai
Hooted over to the shores of the gem of thi
Antilles , relates the Washington Star , tin
colonel of his regiment called him Into hi
tent for the purpose of talking to him llki
a father , as he had known him for years.
"Now , look here , John , " said the colonel
kindly , "what do you mean by this sort o
thing ? "
"I mean to quit , colonel. " he responded.
"You've said that a million times. Yoi
ought to bo ashamed of yourself. You ar
a man of moro than ordinary Intelligence
you have nice people at homo , you are of i
good family , you are quick to learn thi
duties of a soldier , you are clever , you lool
wajl , you keep your accoutcrments In fln
condition , you are obedient , you are alway
willing to tnko your shore of the hardships
you never complain and in fact you are \
model soldier , with ono exception. "
"What's that , colonel ? " asked John , Jus
a Bhade leerlly , It must be confessed.
"You will get drunk. "
"Is that all. colonel ? "
"That's enough , Isn't It ? "
John steadied himself by the colonel'
"Now , colonel , " ho said , as volunteer
have a way of talking to their superior !
"it I'm all these good things that you so
I urn , why not let the drinking go with tb
balance ? You don't expect to get r > l th
cardinal virtues for $13 a month , do you ?
Cook's Imperial Champagne , Extra Dry.
r Vs Imperial Champagne , Bxtra Dry.
Cook's Imperial Champagne , Extra Dry.
MAKING OF MODERN BIG GUNS
Improved Constriction Keeping Face with
SMOKELESS POWDER DECREED BY THE WA
Iiinlructlvc Tnctn About Hie Mniiufne-
ture , Mounting , 1'otvcr , KITect-
IvriiPHN nnil Cnrc of
Captain E , L. Zallnskl , Inventor of the
dynamite gun and n retired array officer ,
writes about modern artillery In the Inae-
pendent. Ho says :
Modern artillery owes Its great Increase
of power to a combination of the Improve
ments In manufacture of steel and method
of gun construction , the powder and the
projectiles , without which the energy de
veloped would be useless.
Forged steel has replaced cast metal of
Iron or bronze. Improved methods of treat
ment of the steel have secured a higher de
gree of available strength , The masses re
quired for the heavier guns nro so great
: hat even the enormous hammern of 125
tons and hydraulic presses of 14,000 tons
do not sufflce to secure assured homogeneity
of structure of the metal throughout. A
thick mass of metal In a cylinder cannot
glvo Its maximum resistance to a bursting
strain from the Interior. That Is to say , a
thick cylinder having walls four times as
thick aa another cylinder will not be four
times as strong to resist a bursting strain
After forging the mass of metal , It must
30 tempered and annealed to secure the
requisite maximum qualities of strength
and toughness. This Is not feasible as yet ,
In very thick masses of steel.
The gun Is made up of a ccntrat tube ,
which is strengthened by having shrunk
thereon various so-called "hoops" and
"Jackets. " In order that these may all con
tribute to the support of the gun tube ,
when It Is strained by the internal powder
pressures , they are shrunk ou the tube and
on to each other , by being first expanded
by heating , slipped to place and held there
firmly by the contraction on cooling.
This is done with a degree of accuracy
which the layman can hardly realize when
be sees the enormous masses of modern
beavy guns. It Is not too much to assert
that the accuracy of work required .is
greater than that of n watch , even of the
Guns constructed of large masses of steel ,
In the manner Indicated , are designated aa
"built up. "
Guns are also made by covering an Inter
ior steel tube with steel wire , wound at the
tension which will secure the necessarj
support to the Interior tube. Such gun ;
are very strong and relatively lighter. Thej
nro so light that they are partially coveret
with .1 cast Jacket to Increase the welghi
and also to protect the wlro from being
cut bv gmall missiles.
Where the gun Is very light , the forci
and velocity of recoil becomes too great
The carrlnco must , In such case , ho madi
much stroncer to provide for this.
Recent attempts have been made to con1
struct guns of medium sizes of single forg
Ings , treated by cooling -with water fron
the Interior , to secure such adjustment o
the strains of the metal as to contrlbuti
to the maximum resistance to Interua
pressures. This was the method Inventei
by Hodman for application to cast Iroi
guns and was most successful. The ex
perlmcnt made thus far seems to show tha
the method Is likely to secure success li
medium-sized forged steel guns ; but w
cannot ns yet conclude that Itwould b
equally successful In the largest guns , eve :
it they could be forged in single pieces.
Improvements made In the manufactur
of powder have very greatly Increased th
power of modern artillery. The first 1m
provements made have been In the dlrec
tlon of giving definite shapes to the grains
resulting finally in the perforated prismatl
powders. For centuries gun powders ha
been made practically of the same con
stltucnts with but Blight variation of th
proportions. In , late years smokeless pow
dcrs have appeared , entirely different 1
their constituents , the best being elthe
chiefly nltro-celluloso or nltro-celluloso an
The advantages of the smokeless powder
1. Absence of smoke , thus leaving th
view unobstructed and permitting contlnult
of aimed fire and not defining to the enem ;
one's own position by a cloud of smoke.
2. Lower pressures and high vclocltlcs-
with ordinary gun-powder , pressures o
twenty-seven tons gave velocities of abou
1,400 feet per second , while smokelcs
powder , giving pressures of only fifteei
tons , would produce velocities of 2,800 fee
The reason for this apparently nnomalou
result Is elven later on.
3. Less weight of charge by from one
third to one-halt of that of ordinary gun
Recent experiences in the ' -nd attacks o
Santiago and of Cervera's flee ? have demon
stroted the great advantages duo to th
absence of smoke of the smokeless powders
Some question still exists as to th
stability of the smokeless powders , under al
service conditions. But these doubts ar
not considered of sufficient weight t <
counterbalance the obvious advantages nm
fair degree of stability already demonstrated
Greater precaution will have to be taken t
avoid a high temperature In the magazines
to prevent chances of decomposition.
ISffCCt Of fillNCH.
With the very large charges fired li
modern guns the bore of the gun become
eroded to an Injurious extent. Thla is due
probably , to a combination of chemical an
mechanical action , both being furthered b
the great heat developed. A portion of th
erosion la ascribed to the rush of heate
gases , under high pressures , moving at hlg
velocities through the opening left in th
copper band which serves to rotate th
The erosion Is reduced somewhat by raor
perfect gas checks attached to the base c
the projectiles. This erosion removes th
rifling and enlarges the bore to such an ex
tent ns to give Insufficient support to th
copper rotating bands of the projectiles , an
does not , therefore , rotate them properlj
The gases escaping over and around th
projectiles gives Irregular results , with re
duccd velocities. While the strength en
durance of the guns may not be material !
affected , their usefulness In securing ac
curacy and uniformity of fire has been vcr
much reduced. To avoid or counteract thl
erosive action Is one of the most Importer
problems which the artillery engineer 1ms
find a solution of ; guns may be rellned , tt
eroded Inner tube being removed , but th
Involves the return of the guns to m ;
cblne shops having the especial facilities d
manded In heavy gun construction.
The changes and Improvements lu tt
powders used have led to changes In tl
designs and methods of construction of tt
guns. With the older powders the maxlmu
pressures were obtained very near tl
breech , while at the muzzle the prcssu
had fallen very much. For example , In
thirty-eight-ton gun , a pressure of twcnt ;
three tons per square Inch was given , whi
at the muzzle , sixteen feet away , the pre
sure bad fallen to six-tenths ton. With
modern 10-Inch wire-wound gun , now raal
lug , using smokeless powder , the bree <
pressure will bo about eighteen tons , whl
at the muzzle , thirty feet away , the \ITC :
sure will still be about ten tons.
Thus it Is seen that with the smokele :
powders , giving lower Initial pressures , this
falls moro slowly , and at the muzzle still U
AVvllclit < ' I'oirilrr nnil 1'rojcclie.
The charge of ordinary gunpowder It
about one-half of the weight of the projec
tile ; but smokeless powders arc , as used
at present , only one-fifth to one-fourth the
weight of the projectile.
It follows that guns are now made les :
masslvo at the breech than heretofore , bul
the portions forward of this must bo made
heavier than heretofore. As the powdcn
have been made slower burning , the gum
have been made much longer. For ex
ample , our 15-Inch Hodman gun Is onlj
about eleven times Its diameter of bore
while the length of the new IC-lnch gur
(125 ( tons ) Is thirty-five times that of th <
diameter of bore.
Foreign guns , especially of smaller call'
bcrs , have been made of lengths as muct
as eighty times the diameter of the bore
Int ) In making the larger guns difficulties
have been met -with , in that they lack it
longitudinal stiffness and are likely to stif
toward the muzzle end. Herein wo find on <
of the limitations In Increasing the povsci
of guns by lengthening them.
With future improvements In powder wi
nay look to ECO It capable of produclnf
iractlcally a uniform pressure throughou
ho length of the gun. This would lead the t <
ho gun becoming a tube of uniform thick'
ness of walls in its entire length. Such :
gun Is likely to provo lacking In longitude
ml stiffness , If made very long. We maj
hen see the gun of the future a very long
ube , of uniform thickness of walls rela
Ively light and thin. This will be mountci
on a suitable truss , or girder , which -wll
urnlsh the necessary longitudinal stiffness
vlth the minimum weight. This construe
Ion will be but a logical sequence of thi
leveloptucnts and changes In shape and dl
mcnslons which the gun of today prcsenti
when compared with the guns of less thai
orty years ago.
The projectile has borne Its share In tbi
changes and Improvements which have beei
made In recent times. These changes havi
icen brought about chiefly because of ncces
sitles demanded nt the different stages o
mprovements In armor.
When face-hardened ( Harveylzed ) nrmo
vas Introduced , the projectile appeared to bi
defeated for n time. It was found that a
,700 to 1,900 feet per second velocities tin
projectiles were broken up on impact -will
ho hardest faced armor. Hut on Incrcaslnt
ho velocities up to about 2,100 feet thi
projectiles appeared to be usually able ti
overcome its resistance. The projectile !
vere , however , often broken up in doing this
The points being covered with a soft stee
cap , the face-hardened armor was men
easily penetrated , while the projectile re
inalncd unbroken. Wo may expect the ve
ocltles to approach 3,000 feet per seconi
and even exceed that. With the cappei
projectile fired at these high velocities th
gun appears at present to overmatch th
armor when hit normally.
A normal hit of the armor , while fcaslbl
on the proving ground , Is not so likely t
occur In action. There is considerable dls
rarity of effectiveness as between a norma
ill and a slanting ono ; BO armor whlcl
may bo perforated on the proving ground
bas still a chance to resist the projectile li
action , and this game of see-saw , botwee ;
the gun and armor , has still to go on with
out a conclusive finish for ono or the othei
The greater power of modern artlllcr
not alone insures penetration of armor , bu
It makes Hatter trajectories , which give
greater chances of hitting the target am
also gives long ranges.
The longest authentic range obtained thu
far is about thirteen miles. But th
maximum ranges possible cannot be secure
from guns ns they aroijiow mounted , elthe-
land or sea ; the carriages ore dpslgnoj t
pel m It maximum elevallons of only 15 t
20 degrees , while maximum ranges deman
an elevation of 45 degrees.
The effective cosslblllty of modern artll
lery Is greatly enhanced by the rapidity o
fire which Is made possible by the Improve
breech mechanism , the mechanism of th
gun-carriages and the use of metalll
Two 12-Inch guns mounted In a ship'
turr.ct have been fired three times each , i
107 seconds , thus delivering an oggregat
of energy. In the six projectiles discharged
of 400,000 tons. Four rounds have bee
fired In sixty-two seconds from the 8-lnc
guns mounted on the Chilian armoro
cruiser "O'HIgglns. "
Six-Inch rapid-fire guns arc capable c
being fired six times per minute , while tb
G-lnch guns may be fired ten times pc
minute , aud the 4-lnch , fifteen times pe
The six-nounder rapid-fire cun can b
fired twenty or thirty times per minuti
Calibers smaller than this can be fired eve
moro rapidly. It would seem that the spee
of firing heretofore Indicated would satlsf
all requirements ; but Hiram Mnxlm ho
devised automatic guns which far exceed th
ordinary rapid-lire guns. To accomplls
this he utilizes the force of recoil. His one
pounder automatic gun can bo fired 3C
times per minute , while his nlne-poundc
can bo fired sixty times a minute.
A better realization of the effoctlvcncE
of the rapid-fire and automatic gun can b
obtained If the weight of metal Is estl
mated which can bo thrown from these gun
In , say , ten minutes.
Weight of No. fired
one In ten Weight i
Caliber. projectile , minutes. mete
fi-lnch rapid fire 100 CO fi.C
6-Inch rapid flro 50 100 5,0
4-lnch rapid fire 3.1 150 4,5
C Ibs. rapid fire C 2SO 1,6
9 Ibs. automatic ( I COO 5,4
1 Ib. automatic 1 3,000 3,0
Mortars play an Important part In tl
scheme of our seacoast defenses. Abe
1,000 12-Inch mortars are embodied In tl
scheme of defense. They throw a shell <
from SOO to 1,000 pounds' weight a dlstam
of six miles with a considerable degree <
acuracy. The mortars are fired In foi
groups of four each. They are fired i
angles ranging from 40 degrees to CO d
grecs. In trials at Sandy Hook a grot
of four were landed lu rectangles of 1
yards by 17 yards , and the greatest dUpe
sion was 228 yards by forty yards. As tl
target would bo the deck of a ship , at lea
one-half would have struck at the rang
of about six miles.
The mortars are placed in sunken on
placements and are directed by data ol
talned from range and position finding li
struments. These Instruments are pract
cally triangulating Instruments , by whli
the distance of the enemy's ship as well ;
their exact positions are constantly locati
and the Information transmitted electrical
or otherwise to the guns. Without the
the full accuracy and potentiality of the gui
could not well bo realized.
lion * riiniH Arc Mounted.
The rapid-fire guns arc mounted on ca
rlages so that they may be pointed mo
easily than a small-arm rifle. Using smok
lees powder , BO that the view Is unobstru
ted , the fire , being properly directed , can !
This has been fully exemplified In our r
cent naval battles at Manila and Santlag
The heavier guns are mounted EO th
i they can be easily handled with a mlnimu
> of manual effort , hydraulic , steam and ele
' trlcal power being used for the loading ai
i manipulation of the guns. At the ear
' time , they are so arranged that manu
> power may bo used in case of accident
the power , mechanism or to the pipes
i cables by which It is transmitted to tl
i Guns are mounted on disappearing ca
) rlages. In these the force of recoil Is utl
Izcd to depress the gun after It U fircxl ,
i that it will be entirely out of sight und
> i cover of a breastwork or. being In a pit ,
a protected by the natural surface ot the
The United States has the UuffinRton-
Crazler disappearing carriage , which Is op-
rated by n countcrpolso weight. When the
un Is fired the recoil carries the gun back
nd down , while nt the same tlmo It raises
a counterweight , which Is then hold by a
detent. This being removed , the gun U
alsed by the counterweight to the firing
The system has been successfully applied
o all calibers up to and Including 12-Inch
guns. When It Is remembered that this gun
weighs moro than 100,000 pounds and that
n charge of about COO pounds of powder Is
Ircd nt each discharge , the magnitude of
ho achievement In successfully handling
his gun may more readily bo grasped.
Thus far no other nation has succeeded
n constructing disappearing carriages for
guns of so large a caliber.
Only an outline of the status of artillery
of today can bo presented here. Very great
advances have been made within the last
en years , mid oven a greater ratio of ad-
anco can be looked for in the near future.
The greater the improvements of the artll-
cry material , the moro necessary It becomes
hat the artillerist , the "mau behind the
gun , " shall bo highly trained , In order to
evolve Its fullest possibilities.
Modern artillery material Is expensive.
The cost of the ammunition Is great. Out
f their full potentiality Is to be educed in
ho tlmo of battle , considerable expenditure
or firing practice must bo permitted. The
allowance of expenditures for our navy has
iccn moro liberal than that of other navies.
The recent victory gained , largely by the
excellent gunnery practice from our ships ,
has fully Justified the policy pursued. If the
expensive armament being constructed for
our scacoast defenses Is to secure similar
efficiency when the tlmo of trial comes , It Is
essential that a liberal policy be pursued
lereafter In the allowances ot ammunition
o bo used for target practice.
AVli } anil Wherefore * .
Chicago News : AVhy Isn't a good wife
a woman possessed ?
Why are weak-minded men usually head
Why Isn't n decree of divorce a parting
Why doesn't the glutton dig his grave
with his teeth ?
Whv is the moat of the bread cast upon
the waters stale ?
Why hasn't the man who lives In a gar
ret a good outlook ?
Why does a man seldom meet another
man smarter than himself ?
Why does a girl seldom attempt to ex
tinguish the spark of love ?
Why are our losses usually much easier
to bear than our victories ?
Why does the average man always got
i-ss credit than ho thinks ho Is entitled to
and moro than ho deserves ?
A stubborn cough or tickling In the throat
yields to One Minute Cough Cure. Harmless
n effect , touches the right spot , reliable and
ust what is wanted. It acts at once.
Soldier * Shot liy I'olleeiniiii.
GALVESTON , Tex. , Sept. 12. Kdward
\loxander Callaghfn , a private in the First
United States volunteers ( Immunes ) was shot
to death last night , and his companion , Jack
Elliott , a civilian , was wounded In the ab-
lomen. Harry Owens , a supernumerary
lollcemau , surrendered himself. He says he
attempted to arrest the men , who had 1m-
io3ed upon a little boy , and they threw him
lown , kicked him and began knifing him.
The Immunes were paid elf yesterday and
most of them were down town celebrating.
To lie Healthy nnd Strong :
Use "Garland" Stoves and Ranges.
"Take it back I told you 'Battle Ax. ' "
Every man who has once chewed Battle Ax
or who has made up his mind that he will chew
it will not accept any substitute. There is
peculiar excellence in
it that can only be
understood and ap
preciated by trying it.
No matter what brand you have been chewing
Battle Ax is better , and if you wilj try it you will
say so yourself.
Qemember the name
when you buy again ,
VUullziT will quickly cure all nervoui , or dlneascfi ot the Kunrr.iUvo or-
paiiB brouirlilon by youilifnl errors or I'XoenHi'H. such an I.onl Manhood ,
Insomnia , Spermatorrhoea , I'alnn In Hack Kvll Dreams , SomlniU limls-
Menu. Nervous Debility. i > lmplen , Ilondiicliu , UnlUnrBH to Marry , Ex-
liiiiiHtlnif LlraliiH , Varlcocel * and ConBllp.itlou. Stops IOSSCH by day or
nlKht , Prevents qulckno 8 of dlHchurRe , wtilob lead * to Swurniatorrlioc *
_ _ and Imuottncy Uloaaaes iho liver , kldneyB nnil urinary ontana of nil
DEI-UHB and AM'HI } lmyurUlen. Strengthen * an-1 ro lores small wralc orsann. ( l.OOnbox.
_ . . , 0 for SS.fii ) . Guaranteed to cure. Sand for free circular and SOOO testl-
mealali Davol MiCtcIne Co. , Sao i rancleco , Oul. i'or nalo by Meyera , Dillon Drug Co. Omalia , Nsb ,
Photogravures of the Exposition Now Ready.
Some day it will be pleasing to remember the simple , classic beauty of the Grand
Court , the Plaza with its music , the broad vista of the Bluff Tract and the hubbub and
gaiety of the Midway. t If you want pictures of the Exposition to bring it all back to
you you want the best. Every building and all the splendor of the Exposition ,
views of the whole effect and views showing detail , all have been reproduced in The
Thirty-Two Views Now Ready
The following views have been issued :
1 Opening Day , June 1 , 1898. 17 Grand Court from Restau
2 Northeast Corner of Court. rant To wor.
8 Government Building. 18 Administration Arch.
4 Aluin Entrance Agricultural in-Liberal Art Building.
building. 20-Govcrnmcnt Building and
5 Scene in Streets of AH Na Life Boat.
tions. 21-Manufacturer's Building ,
c firand Court , Looking West. 22 Interior Manufacturers'
7 Hagenback's on Children's
day. 23 Machinery and Electricity
8 Grand Court , Looking South-
25 Arch of States.
9-Fine Arts Building.
10 Nebraska . 20-Col. W. J. Bryan and Regiment
ment Military Day.
11 Grand Court , Looking East. .
27 Agricultural Building.
12 Section of Fine Arts Mldg ,
13 Grand Court at Night.
29 Looking North from Administration -
14 Main Entrance Horticul ministration Arch.
tural Building. 30-Suctlon of East Midway.
15 Scene on North Midway. .
31 Streets of Cairo.
10 Marine B.ind at Grand
32-Group of Orientals-Streets
Plaza. of All Nation ? .
Three for Ten Cents. for
. Eight Twenty-five Cents.
Thirty-Two with a Portfolio for $1.00.
n Thoao are offered to Boo rcadera on heavy paper suitable for framing or for a collection of Exposition viewu ,
id A Portfolio Cover for 15 Cents.
llO n ordering by mail state which pictures you wltli , by the title or mmb-r , and enclose C cents extra for mailtna Far
O the full thirty-two enclose 10 cents extra for mailing.
o Photogravure Department
0 The Omalia Daily Bee Omaha So. Oranha Council Bluffe.
It I .
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