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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 21, 1896)
8 TUB OMAHA DAILY BEE- SATURDAY , NOVEMBER st , isno.
THE GREAT SAHARA DESER1
A Summer Visit to the Wastes of Ban
and Rock ,
PANORAMA OF ARID DESOLATIOr-
.Vnrlon * AKpcrln of Ilic Orcnt DoHerl-
S it in in IT Temperature niul VcweJn-
Ilini Tlic Ileml I.nko nnd
As the Iron horse hurries throuRh the flna
break In the Atlas mountains writes a cor
rcflpomlont of the Philadelphia LcclRer , at
eyes nro Instinctively turned In the direction
of the desert The poetry of travel la now
presumably to bo turned Into prose , the
eoft and smiling picture of nature Into thn
Jiard rugRcdncis which speaks of a landscape
scapo not yet finished. And yet the firs
view of the desert Is that of ono of Its oases
nnd of ono which Is very nearly the falrca
of them all , for It receives the coolness o
the north as well n the heat from the south
nnd the stream that carries the luxury o
growth Into Its deeper recesses has not yc
boon sapped of Its vitality by n continuous
Ix > ng before wo reach the fine gardens o
Mount Knntnra wo are In the desert. Glan
rocks , burned brown and red under the glow
of the southern sun. otand out In wild pin
nacles from the gently undulating surface
their ragged sides burled deep In the sand
which they themselves have made. This Is
not the desert that Is ordinarily pictured In
the mind that flat , endless expanse which
fades off unmoved and unbroken to the limits
of vision but It la the desert , nevertheless
lust as much as the mountain snowa of the
far north arc a part of the great Arctic "sea
of Ice. " Ueyond. however , Is the great plain
Itself , Its swelling undulations hardly reliev
ing to the eye the appearance of absolute
flatness which the picture presents.
The truth Is that the Sahara has a double
nspcct , that of the Hat and sandy plains and
that of the rocky rldgo or mountain , the to-
called Hammnda. It Is the latter that Is
moro particularly dreaded by the caravans
for among their wind-swept crags there are
no , or but few , oases , nnd only the blowing
Bands and a relentless sun arc the com
panions of the footsore pilgrim. In the flat
desert , at least , where the sand Is not too
deep , traveling Is moderately easy , for over
long distances ihc surface has become coated
Into a hard , calcareous crust a solid base
ment rock , one may call It , Wo saw no sand
dunes of any magnitude , those along the
fiouthcrn fuco of the great Chott Mclghlgh ,
ubout twenty feet In height , being the high-
rat , lint I was Informed by competent
authority at Ulskra that beyond Tuggurt ,
on our route , they rlso to the prodigious
height of 1,200 to 1,100 feet. This Is cer
tainly an Imposing monument to the power
of the wind ono that speaks far moro olo-
ciucnlly even than the wind-swept sands of
It has become custom In certain book
quarters of Into to say that the Sahara Is
not as flat as It Is commonly assumed to
be , and that It Is almost everywhere torn
into ridges and rents. That Is , however ,
nn Imperfect statement of the truth. The
flat desert Is almost Interminably flat lor
days or weeks of travel , with hardly a rise
of moro than a few feet for mlle after mile
of perspective. All around Is the same expanse -
panso ; In vain the cyo searches for some
Epcclal object to give It relief ; It does not
exist , unless It bo the far-off tufts of an
I am not sure that these endless eands arc
truly Imposing. Sometimes they certainly
nro , but they present most exquisite pic
tures In the varying lights of the morning
nnd evening sun. It la. then that they seem
to constitute a world of their own , speaking
in color that belongs to them alone. We
were not to any extent troubled by their
presence , cither as Impediments to traveler
or as freely floating discomforts In the at
mosphere. Only ns wo approached Mrclr ,
tit the close of a hard day's Journey of sixty-
four miles , did wo como In disagreeable con
flict with them. Our horses had moro than
their shnro In the second half of the day's
work ; for the better part of four miles we
had been dragg'cd through deep sand , and
finally the courage of the poor animals had
spent Itself. Wo wcro stuck fast In the Sa
hara sands at a point some seventy feet be
low sea level. Coaxing and urging had llt-
tlo effect , and It was not until wo ourselves
took a long hand In pushing and pulling that
wo succeeded In extricating ourselves.
Let It not for a moment bo assumed that
the Sahara , even In the parts that do not
belong to the region of the oases , Is every
where dcstltuto of growing vegetation. Far
from this Is really the case. Along the entire -
tire length of our Journey a generous sup
ply of terebinth bushes , ono to two or three
feet In height , covered most of the sand
elevations , and with them was a form of
sickly green salcolaeclous plant , the exact
nature of which I was unable to discover
And If wo can fully bellevo a war Illustra
tion that has recently appeared from the
pencil of a staff correspondent , the same
feature must bo a characteristic of the Sa
hara about Tlmbuctoo no well. There are ,
Indeed , a number of spots whcro the vegeta
tion Is oven moro luxuriant If a scattering
of plants can In any sense bo called luxu
riant comprising a number of dry herbs ,
such as the rose of Jericho , which hardly
rises a few Inches above the surface , and
ngaln thcro arc largo areas where the vege
tation has been completely stamped out , or
where It has been burled deep beneath Its
canopy of sand.
It la the oasis that Is the redeeming pearl
of the desert. No poetic temperament Is
needed to prepare ono for the enjoyments of
its coming. Prom miles of distance the cyo
fastens Itself upon the trcctops ; the dark
green la a break In the landscape , and , llko
the black shadow of clouds , it seems to go
nnd como , the gcntlo undulations of tbo
desert throwing It now and again out of
night. Wo had penetrated but a moderate
distance Into the desert , but the coming of
the oasts was n relief that can hardly bo
described those dense groves of date palms
nnd the circulating streams of water. What
must. Indeed , the oasts bo to those who have
wearily plodded Its sands for weeks at a
time. When wo returned to Dlskra after
our southerly Journey the sun had Just set
behind the palm forest. Illuminating the slc'y
with that soft African yellow , which has
been matched only by the brush of Edward
Krere. The tall tree trunks rose against this
in specter shadows of brown , ellcnt uiono-
llths , rising us If from a silent grave. An
A rub group appeared hero and there , the
flowing waters and the roosquo asking each
to hla special devotions.
The heat of the deaert Is an unquestionable
reality ; and yet. perhaps , In the month of
our travel , the hottest of the North African
months , It was nof so dreadful as might
liavo been assumed. It la true that the
mercury , whether by night or by day , felt
little disposed to leave the region of the
ninety-eights , unless It was In the direction
of an upward journey. During tbo hours of
midday It stubbornly ulung to the division
line of 110 degrees , passing oven beyond It
slightly ( although porhnpa not In the most
perfect shade ) ; at Illakra , during our brief
nbecnco. It stood at 11C degrees. lu travel
ing , however , wo were subjected to oven a
Highest Honors World's Fair.
MOST PERFECT MADE.
A pure Grape Cream of Tartar Powder. Free
from Ammonia , Alum or any oilier adulterant.
40 Yeats the Standard *
much higher temperature , n , nt rapidly re
curring Intervals , the heated reflections from
the burning sands wcro , as It seemed , blown
bodily Into us. It was then that wo re
marked : "This In llko nn oven. " And In
truth It was very much no.
I was surprised to find that there was a
difference of only20 degrees between the
heat of the open sun (1.12 ( degrees ) and that of
the shade ; the temperature of the sunny
sands was at Its highest 123 degrees. The
excessive dryncss mndo the heat perhaps
on the whole moro bearable thin If the at-
.mosphcro had been In n measure charged
with humidity , at Iccst such Is a general
belief , and I am not sure but It Is well
founded. Certain It Is that exrcsstvo pers
piration has been largely reduced thereby.
On the other hand , this extremely dry heat
brings to many a partly suffocating feeling
a feeling as though the atmosphere was
lacking In the proper amount or quality of
The parched palate asks for a molstcncr
and for repeated lotions In decreasing
periods of time. Still the whole Is both
brarablo and supportable , nnd the foreign
ers who liavo located at Biskra ficcm to liavo
acclimated themselves in a comparatively
short space of time.
It would bo doing the Sahara an Injustice
to allow It to pass without referring to Its
great salt lake , the Chott Mclghlgh. When
wo first caw It from a distance of a few
miles It broke upon the landscape with a
dazzling whiteness. The salt was on the
surface , and the cyo failed to distinguish
the presence of water. It was llko a vast
field of Immaculate Ice thrown Into the
sands , over which hung the. Images that
wore thrust Into the sky by th6 rarely fall
ing mirage. This Is the largest saltpan of
the Sahara , and It occupies a position de
pressed considerably below the level of the
sea. It Is hero that the gifted Koudalro
had hoped to bring the waters of the Mcdl
terrancan to glvo back to the sea that which
ouco belonged to It.
The unprecedented sale of Dr. Bull's
Cough Syrup provokes competition ; but the
people cling to Dr. mill's Cough Syrup.
' KinA11 KIJCS.
Orchard & 'VY'lllielm IMnce I.oi of IMilt-
ii < 1 t-li | hi n KnInliN on Sale Saturday.
Kulahs Philadelphia Kulah rugs con
ceded to bo the most perfect Imitations of
Turkish rug * extant , como In all the Orien
tals colors. They are alike on both sides
the facings being all wool. We can safely
guarantee the colors not to fade.
In our west show windows wo cxhlbtl
samples from a special lot of Kulahs that
go on sale Saturday morning. These prices
are special for the ono day.
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , 2 feet G Inches
by 3 feet. $1.25.
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , 5 feet by 2 feet
2 Inches , $1.3S.
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , 5 feet C Inchea
by 2 feet 6 Inches , $1.75.
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , C feet-by 3 feet ,
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , 7 feet by 3 feet ,
Philadelphia Kulah rugs , 7 feet by 4 feet ,
It's decidedly the best rug opportunltj
Llils neason SatiWay. ( remember. '
ORCHAnO & WILHEIM CARPET , CO. ,
1414-141G-1418 Douglas St.
Appeal on Hi-half of Hie Worthy I'oor
of Our City.
The Associated Charltlca are having very
argo and urgent demands upon them at this
time and cannot meet them on account of
an empty clothing room and exhausted
Donations of clothing of all kinds , shoes ,
irovlslons , coal , etc. , arc earnestly sollc-
ted. Drop a postal card , or telephone 1G4G ,
and our wagon will call.
THOMAS L. KIM HALL , . President ,
JOHN LAUQHLAND , Secretary.
807 Howard ctreet.
Via the AValiusli llallrnnil.
WINTER TOURIST tickets now on sale.
HOMESEEKER'S TICKETS on sale November -
vembor 17 , December 1 , and 1C.
THE WA11ASH Is the short line nnd quick
est route to St. Louis nnd points south.
? or tickets or further Information call at
Wabash office , 1415 Farnam street , ( Paxton
Iflotcl block ) or write.
G. N. CLAYTON , Agent.
Dine , Smoke , Sleep , IIve ,
\s comfortably as In your own home on
ho llurllngton's "Vcstlbitled Flyer" THE
TRAIN THAT RUNS ON TIME.
Leaves Omaha 5:00 : p. m. EXACTLY.
Arrives Chicago 8-20 a. m. NO LATER.
Tickets and berths at 1502 Farnam atrcct.
The Overlnml Limited.
Via UNION PACIFIC.
Runs every day In the week.
Fastest train In the vtpft.
Muriel smoking and library cars.
City ticket office ,
A reriilexliiR Problem.
Whether to take "Northwestern Lino" No.
2 at 4:45 : p. m. or No. G at G:30 : p. m. , Chi-
cogoward. ' "No. 2" arrives at Chicago
7:45 : a. m. and "No. G" at 9:30 : n. m. Doth
rains are models of modern art , skill and
uxury. NO EXTRA CHARGE ON EITHER
ONE. Call at the City Office , 1101 Farnam
trcct , and talk It over.
J. A. KUHN , General Agent.
G. F. WEST , C. P. T. A.
mill ) I3f STOI.K.V FKATIIHIIS.
Ion' a Corpulent Thief SlirunU on
The Yonkcrs pollco recently captured
50 pounds of burglar which netted thciri
50 pounds of prisoner , relates the New-
York Herald. The extra hundred was stolen
emlnlno attlro and miscellaneous dry goods ,
n which the thief had so swathed hla person
hat ho could not escape when pursued. He's
hrlnklng now in the gloom of a prison cell.
John Foster , the gardener of Meadow
Brook , the homo of David Slcher , at No.
040 North Broadway , Yonkcrs , saw n. bulky
hapo waddle out of his employer's houeo
at 7 o'clock yesterday morning. It scorned
o bo that of a man weighing at least 260
lounds. Over the ample girth was perched
o small a head nnd so scrawny a neck that
ho gardener opened his eyes In surprise.
'ho fat man walked with n crutch and , over
its shoulder was a great bundle , which
bounced to nnd fro against his back.
The gardener cried : "HI , there ! " and pur-
uol. The bulky shape dropped the rrutch ,
ittchcd up Its trousers and broke Into an olc-
ihantlno stride. The burglar tried to nin ,
mt his swaddled legs refused to do his bid-
Ing. The gardener pursued and hit the
ieclng man n vicious blow In the back. Ills
st rebounded as though ho had struck a
lunching bag. the man yelled , stumbled
iver himself , fall prone upon the earth nnd
evolved twlco on his waistband before the
mpctus of his fall was stayed.
Tbo gardener bound the man hard and
ast nnd telephoned to the Yonkera' pollco
tatlon that ho had captured the biggest
burglar that he hud over seen.
"Better send half a dozen men , " ho said.
'ThL fellow's as big as a feather bed. "
A patrol wugon , manned by n largo por-
lon of the Yonkcrs pollco force , arrived
lalf an hour later , and the burglar was
pitched Into It.
At tbo elation the sergeant ordered the
man to toke off his coat and vest.
Layer after layer of clothing was re
moved , 'and , when It was all done , there
teed before them a person weighing about
50 pounds. These are some of tbo things
n which ho was clothed :
Tlireo pairs of corsets.
Two corset waists , '
A woman's night robo.
A balloon elecvo pink waist.
A black merino skirt.
Two whlto vests.
A red plush wrapper.
Ono pair'of black stockings.
Ono breakfast gown.
The bottom parts of the gowns were
luffed into hla trousers , which gave him
ho appearance of great corpulency. Stuffed
n his bosom waa a feuther fan and a plcco
f ducbcas lace.
"You'ro howling swell aren't ? "
a , you ro-
iiarkcd Captain Mangln ,
"Not at present , " said the sergeant.
He's In reduced circumstances. "
In the bundle which bo carried wrro cv-
rat hundred miscellaneous articles , some
f which wcro valuable. Thcro were
lothlDg , shoes , bats , caps , pipes , pocket-
ooks , jewelry , silverware , two watches and
small handbag containing money. , (
LIGHT THROWN UPON HISTORY
Thrilling Story of Prof , Hilprcoht'a Eica
vntions in Old Nippur.
CIVILIZATION OLDER THAN CLAIMED
AVondrrfnl Dlnenvcrlcn Slailp liy
American Kxiilorrrn lit the
lonlnii Mo u mix Ancient
CltU-H anil Temple * .
The remarkable archaeological discov
eries of n commission that the University
of Pennsylvania sent to tuako excavations
on the slto of the old Nippur , the oldest
city of the world , were detailed by the Now
York Herald last August. This commission ,
of which Rev. John P. Peters , D. D , , was
the first director , nnd Prof. Herman V. Hll-
prccht the permanent assyrlologlst , discov
ered the unexpected nnd scientifically sen
sational fact that the ancient Unbylonlan
mound contained not only the old cities
known collectively ns Nippur , but also n
still moro ancient city In whlch-wero found
cuneiform Inscriptions dating back to the
year ( estimated ) 5250 13. C.
This showed with concluslvcncss that civ
ilization Is centuries older than we believed ,
for the beginning of the world has , until
these discoveries , been placed at 4004 I ) . C. ,
nnd this dnto appears lu all our modern edi
tions of the bible.
But greater things have developed since.
Prof. Hllprccut has returned fresh from
the scene with further Information of a
most Interesting nature , which Is published
by the Herald. Ho now declares that his
knowledge of the development of cuneiform
writing Justifies him in saying that the
earliest writing found could not have been
developed In less than 3,000 years.
Prof. Htlprccht Is one of the halt dozen
men in the world who have so mastered all
the developments of cuneiform inscriptions
that ho can at a glance determine the ngc
of the writing. It was ho who three years
ngo enunciated the principle of the develop
ment of the cuneiform writings from pic
tures and of their gradual change from , the
scmblanco of the the pictured things to the
signs of the later forms. The truth of his
theory is admitted now by all students of
archaeology. It forms an important part In
the proof that ho brings to support his an
The discoveries wcro made In the univer
sity's excavations at Nippur. Eight years
ago , when It was decided to send out nn ex
pedition for Babylonian research. Prof. Hll-
prccht and Rev. Dr. John P. Peters , then
professor of archaeology at the university ,
decided upon Nippur as the spot that offered
promise of the most ancient finds.
They wcro not mistaken. The English ,
German and French scientists at work In
Dabylon and Tcllo have little chance of find
ing anything nearly so ancient as the bits
of vases that the American excavators dug
up under the Temple of Del.
THEORY OF THE EXPEDITION.
From the beginning of religion In the
east thcro has been a firm belief , which
thousands of years have not been able to
shako , that nothing about a temple must
ever bo destroyed. The vases on which wrro
written the -temple archives were kept ( pr
thousands of years , and wcro broken only
by accident. The worshipers Dcllcvcd tl'at
never could any temple prosper or bring
pcaco and happiness to Its people that did
not stand on the outlines of the first temple
that had been built there. If the old temple
was In ruins they did not remove the fallen
walls , but built upon them.
The same practice Is still adhered to in
Constantinople and other modern cities ,
which are continually rising on their old
walls. The spectacle of a house being
torn down and taken away is seldom offered
In the cast.
In days when Noah built his ark the
kings and high , priests of Babylonia had the
same belief , and some of them in making
alterations In the temple left such inscrip
tions on clay as this :
"Hut previous kings have not kept the
boundary of the temple ; they have not
searched out Its foundation stone , and gath
ered their architects to lay out the lines
on tbo true places of the former temple ;
and the gods wcro not in favor , nnd did
not look kindly on the people. "
And so they built their own temples with
a care nnd precision that they thought
would meet with the approval of their
All this may not seem at first to have
very much to do with the work of the Penn
sylvania expedition , but It has. If It had
not been for this belief of the worshipers
of Del there would have been no such rich
veins of the strata of civilization as the
scientist unearthed there , uncovering their
finds with more sprldo and Joy than they
would have had In discovering a gold mine.
From 7,000 years before Christ the Inscrip
tions of the world's history , scratched In
clay and baked to a hardness against which
tlmo and weather have had no effect , hod
been placed here , ns If a treasure were
being slowly deposited by the human race
for the enlightenment of races that should
It was this , spot which , of all the other
places In the world , promised the richest re
turn for the enthusiasts' money and labor ,
that the two archaeologists cf the University
of Pennsylvania decided upon in their coun
cil before the first party wn sent out , eight
years ago. Fortune placed the enterprise in
bo right place and Hllprecht and his sturdy
assistants saw the work done properly. They
'el ! to and began to pick and pull the temple
o pieces in ono place and another to sco
low It was built , and who had built It. They
iad guessed pretty definitely that they
would unearth "strata of civilization , " nnd
hey found the idea truer than they bad
And hero enters the reasoning on which
Hllprecht's claim that thcro wcro civilized
men 7,000 years B. C. must stand or fall ,
High outer and Inner walls surrounded the
temple , and , In parts , are still fitatidlng.
The hilltop , over the tower. Is ninety-seven
cot above the desert level nnd fifty feet
nbovo the surrounding debris. The Arabs
call the hill "Daughter of the Prince. "
On the exterior the temple gives little In-
lleatlon of its real antiquity. The walls , as
hey wcro found nt first , seemed to have
icon built by Kadashman-Durgu , who lived
only 1,200 years before Christ.
It took very little work , however , to show
hat the bricks bearing bis name formed
only a thick veneer , or extra wall , on t'no
real body of the temple. They were put
here by the pious king to prevent the wear-
ng effects of wind and rain and sand , as
were also the canals that carried the water
away , nnd the bitumen , a foot thick , that
tept It from getting through and wearing
away the lower cud of the wall and the foun
The temple "proper" had been built , they
ound , by King Ur-Gur , who flourished 2,800
3. C , over that part of Kengl "the land of
canals and bulrushes" later called llaby-
onla , for a. younger but greater city than
SARGON'S EXISTENCE PROVED.
Tbo Penrtylvanlans dug away until they
iad reached Ur-Gur's foundation , and ho
iad inado It well. It was of baked brick ,
Iko tbo walls , and eight feet thick. Di
rectly under it was Sargon'u platform two
courses of Immense baked bricks of a size
and ehapo llko nothing over before found
n Babylonia or anywhere else In the world ,
a foot and a half square nnd four inches
hick. Kach had a convex top , being shaped
Ike a loaf of bread halt risen from the pan.
n addition to King Sargon's name In
cuneiform figures , the brick bore the delib
erate Imprint of the thumb of tbo slave who
Tbo scientists wcro dumfoundcd , Sargon ,
archaeologists had taught , was a myth , for
hero bad never been anything found in the
cast to corroborate the biblical mention of
its name. Naramsln , they Bald , by the moat
Iborol count , was the oldest In the line or
mown mcicarchs. History could trace the
succession no further.
But hero In hard brick wcro the works of
ioth Sargon and of Naramsln , tbo son of
largon , The truth of the list of kings was
nettled boycnd question , and , by It , the date
of the building of the platform , for the
clentlata know from their unbroken line of
dngs that If Sargon lived at all It waa
blrty-elKht hundred ycari before Christ.
They bad reached the latest remains that
hey could bavo expected , but they went
till lower ,
Under the two courses of great brick laid
by Snrgon they found strata about Uilrt ;
feet thick , containing , vasts and Inscribe
fragments that haoismdually been depooltci
there by centurlnilof lnhabltant * . An the ]
went further downj-provlng with each spade
ful the hlitory oft 0.1 kingdom and n pcopli
that had for thousands of years beet
wrapped in Iraponrtrsblo darkness , the ]
found broken pleccw Of the tablets or vase *
on which temple records had been kept.
The cuneiform idnicrlptlon grew more
primitive nt overyfroot.
Hllprecht , who k'now that at ono tlmo the
cuneiform wrltlng&Ad'.had its origin In plc <
lures , felt euro tnnt.lmforo the bottom of the
vein was reached fitho pictures would be
found. The pits , two-iof them side by side ,
and having n totnl.nrca : of about ono hun
dred square yards , wore sunk until they were
thirty feet below the platform which formed
such an Important mllcpost In computing
the passage of ages. The- broken clay came
to nn end and all traces of human llfo dls
The excavators wcro now cutting Into the
virgin clay of Babylonia , and carrying out
earth that slnco the creation of the world
had lain undisturbed by man. They had not
yet unearthed writing In which the- pictures
wcro whole , nor even the form in which
round objects were pictured In curved lines ,
a stage that must have preceded the tlmo
when the straight strokes were used for nil
They found that the present desert level
wna not the one that had existed In the early
days of Nippur. There was an older deaert
thirty feet or so 'below the present line , and
on this plain Nippur had been founded.
But they found that the oldest of these
fragments , those taken from the bottom of
the pit , were scratched with cuneiform char ,
ncters , dating 6,000 years before Christ. Prof.
Hllprecht has no hesitation In stating this ,
and adds that It Is based on a very con
servative calculation. Sargon lived 3800 11.
C. , and high above his platform of bricks
the gradual action of the busy llfo of Nippur ,
the Industry of the Inhabitants , the accidents
of building changes , nnd the annual sand
storms had heaped forty feet of dirt and
debris before the opening of the Christian
era. Four thousand years , the professor
counts , was required to pile those forty feet
of earth. On that computation ho thinks It
fair to suppose that the thirty feet of grad
ual deposit found under the platform was
3,000 years in piling itself from the original
soil. Nippur was not always ns busy and
as great as she was in Sargon's day nnd
In the days of his successors. Her beginning
may have been small , and the process of
the deposit thus much slower than It was
In. later years.
CONFIRMED BY EXPERTS.
So Hllprecht satisfies himself with stating
that the lower layers of the strata were
thrown there 2,000 years before Sargon , nnd
nearly G.OOO years before Christ. It may
have been very much earlier than that. It
certainly was not later.
The world was not nu Infant even In those
days. The earliest of the writings found
represent n development that could not have
been reached In less than 3,000 years. How
long men lived without writing may nqvcr
be known , but there is proof enough In the
results of the expedition to show that the
worshipers of 'Bel ' wrote oil clay 9,000 years
before Christ. Prof. Hllprecht makes the
statement advisedly. It Is based on his
knowledge of cuneiform development , and
as there nro barely half a dozen men In the
world today who can compare with him In
that science , thcro. will bo few to dispute
Ho stated his belief In this computation
n few days ago , .and lit is published now
for the first time.
Hllprecht believed It firmly when he wrote
the first volumes of'tho report , but he
held It back until , after unothcr year's
study , his belief bccamo a positive cer
The deciphering of the Inscriptions and
the piecing of tho-frngmentnry text will be
the work of years. After poring over thou
sands of fragments lot vases , marked by
him as the product of n single century , the
professor became convinced that each vase
had borne the same Inscription a tcmpli
history nnd ho set about restoring It.
The text , when completed , was formed o :
eighty-seven fragments , nnd had 132 line !
of cuneiform writing. Its translation oc
cupled nearly n year.
"Illlprccht nn y wtll bo Tiroud , " said Prof
Sayco of Oxford , "of the magnificent re-
isults ho has achieved-and the other Euro
pean archaeologist , who , with Sayce , Is con
sidered a leader in the science , Hummel 01
Munich , added -that "No other living As
syrlologlst could equal such a contribution
to science. "
As It Is , Hilprccht has added to hlstorj
about thirty new kings , previously unknown
to us , and has cleared up by his reconstruc
tion of Babylonian history the exact rela
tions of the early Semitic dynasties to the
old Sumcrlan kings of Babylonia.
CUNEIFORMS OF VAST VALUE.
Prof. Hllprecht's summer work for the
last thrco years has been the cataloguing
and organization of the Semitic and Hlttltc
sections of the Imperial Ottoman museum ,
as an officer of the Turkish government. The
result of his work has been of Incalcula
ble advantage tn the University of Pennsyl
vania. The Turkish law now forbids the
removal of any archaeological material from
the country , all antiquities being deposited
In the museum in Constantinople , but In
recognition of his work the sultan presented
blin with moro than sixty boxes of the an
tiquities that ho chose as most valuable In
the expedition's find.
The university now has thrco times as
many cuneiform writings as all other Eu
ropean museums put together. None of
the tablets nro from the latest expedition ,
the results of which have not yet reached
Constantinople , being now en route from
Ilassorah by way of j\rabla and the Red
sea. Thceo In turn will have to bo arranged
nnd catalogued , llko all the other pieces In
the museum , In two languages , French and
Hllprecht has found tlmo to hunt through
the cast for many other antiquities , and has
brought homo with him objects which are
worth thousands , and which were bones of
contention between the earnest representa
tives of the greatest universities In Eu
rope. Some came by devious ways , cs
Turks are over devious in matters of trade ,
and the most valuable 'pieces , therefore
must not bo photographed for fear of tho"
Jealous measures that the German and
French collectors might take. Ono of the
finds , among the most Important , Is a mar-
bio vase , the only vase in existence dated
In the tlmo of Artaxerxes. It Is valued
at $3,000 , and is inscribed in Median , in
Babylonian cuneiform and in Egyptian hier
oglyphics. It was in private possession ,
and thrifty German buyers had for two
years been leisurely trying to lower its
Prof. Hilprccht also bought for a song com
paratively tbo oldest cuneiform tablet In
existence , bearing the name Enkhegal , ono
of the oldest kings of the city and land of
Tello. Six rivals were working for the same
tablet , and the utmost delicacy had to be
used. It Is worth atloast $5,000.
For six years Prof. Jlllprccht'a special se
cret aim has been to flrid out the exact spot
in Asln Minor where the famous Cappadoclan
tablets cnmo from. To find the place ho
made n special tour in Asia Minor , using the
two branches of railroad as far as they went ,
some SOO miles. Baron von Kuehltnan , chief
of the railroad , gave him a special car nnd
placed every facility of the road at his dis
posal. By this means ho was nblo to ex
amine carefully nil places from Scutari to
Kutahla and Koulah. and at last found
where the tablets came Irom.
The Turkish government has given him
permission to excavate thcro for four weeks
In order to Identify the ancient city burled
there. Prof. Hilprccht means to avail him
self of this permission on his next visit to
Ho has fixed tbo date of the Cappadoclan
tablets definitely as 2400 B. G. No other
scientist knows where tbo tablets are to bo
Prof. Illlprccht , while nt work In Con-
stantlnoplo , was an officer of the Turkish
government. Before ho loft Constantinople
ho was banqueted by Turkish officers , diplo
matic friends and scientists. Ho wears In
his scarfpln a garnet carved with the
"Wo are true to you while you are true to
The gem was given to him by the sultan.
Thanks to the Introduction of Salvation
Oil , your bicyclers need not fear a fall , 2Gc ,
Six-Thirty 1' . Sit Train.
, & ST. PAUL RY.
ELECTRIC LIGHTS ,
City office : iGOi Fnrnam ,
Tfii i uv CTIPPD p rn
JlliLLM , MlUlll iV CO ,
Clearing Bnlo of Winter Underwear foi
Ladies and Children ,
GOOD SHAPES-SEASONABLE GARMENTS
The I.orvrnt I'rlc-eH Hvor limited for
Klr < Claim GoodnThc Untlrc
Winter Undc-rivriir Department
I oil Special Sale Saturday.
AT 35 CEN'TS.
Ladles' heavy fleeced natural ribbed vests ,
long sleeves with gussets , drawers to match ,
36c , 3 for $1.00.
- Wo hnvo placed on the counter for Satur
day two odd lines of ladles' wool underwear ,
slightly soiled , broken sizes , regular $1.00
nnd $1,50 garments , closing the entlro lot out
at 3Cc and 50c each ,
AT 60 CENTS.
Ladles' heavy ribbed fleeced union suits ,
the Florence patent , In silver grey , Satur
day COc suit.
AT S5 CENTS.
Ladles' extra line quality natural ribbed
vests nnd drnwero. these nro finished with
wool fleece , non-ehrlnknblc , without imita
tion , a value seldom offered , Saturday Sue
AT $1.00 A VEST.
Ladles' whlto and natural wool ribbed
vests nnd drawers , mndo from firm twisted
yarn , full xlzcs and length , n soft , warm
garment , non-shrinking , Saturday $1.00 each.
AT $1.00 A SUIT.
Ladles' heavy black ribbed wool tights ,
open or closed , ankle length , Saturday $1.00
AT $1.60 A SUIT.
Ladles' fine black wool tights , knco or
ankle lengths , full fashioned nnd long fibre
wool , ninny nro Bold at $2.00 that are no
hotter value , Saturday $1.50.
AT $2.00 A SUIT.
Ladles' fine fast black saxony ribbed union
suits , silk finished , clastic seams , all full
Izes , a very good value , Saturday $2.00 each.
AT 25C FOR BOYS.
Heavy naturnl fleeced shirts and drawers ,
all sizes. 21 to 34 , Saturday. 25o each.
OUR CHILDREN'S ' UNIONS.
Just received , another lot of the cele
brated Florence patent Union suits for
sGCs' nnd children , silver gray , wool
ribbed , non-ehrlnklng , slzo 2 , 3 , SSc suit ; 4 ,
nnd G , nt ? 1.00sult ; 7 , 8 , nt $1.25 suit.
AT 29 CENTS.
Wo have reduced n line of misses' Union
suits , for our Saturday's sale , broken elzcs ,
icavy natural ribbed , close out the balance
at 20c a suit.
ADIES' AND CHILDREN'S WINTER
BARGAINS IN HOSIERY.
AT 25 CENTS.
Ladles' black cashmere hose , merino heel
and toe , full length and size , Saturday ,
! 3c a pair.
AT 35 CENTS.
Ladles' silk fleeced , fast block hose , mace
ole , high spliced heel and toe , Saturday ,
35c , 3 pair for $1.00.
AT 25 CENTS.
Children's 1-1 ribbed black wool hose , all
izcs , exceptional value , Saturday , 25e pair.
AT 35 CENTS.
Children's extra heavy ribbed black wool
lose , double knee , heel and too , special
weight for winter wear , all sizes , 5 to 10
nchcs , Saturday , 35c , 3 pair for $1.00.
AT 60 CENTS.
Boya * double twisted black Saxony wool
hose , extra double knee , heel and toe , n
cal bargain for cold weather and hard
wear , all sizes , 7 to 10 Inches , Saturday ,
"Oc a pair.
KELLEY. STIGER & CO. , ,
Cor. Farnam and 15th Sts.
Xe\v Tlmo Card.
On and after Sunday. November 15. the
Missouri Pacific fast train for St. Louis
leaves Webster street depot at 3:00 : p. m.
Instead of 3:30 : p. m. , ns heretofore.
A XI3W YOSI3.MITC.
t .Sronrr.v In the Nordi-
extern 1'nrt of Montana.
"Wo have discovered a second and greater
Youcmlto valley , nnd n grnndcr National
park than the Yellowstone , " said Prof. L.
W. Chancy of Carlcton college. Minneapolis ,
In telling a correspondent of the New York
Sun about his recent visit to Avalanche
Basin , which ho discovered last year In
the northwestern corner of Montana.
A year ago Prof. Chancy and some other
scientists , ono of them a lecturer on the
natural scenery of the west , found in the
western part of Montana a country which
had seldom been seen by man red or white.
They heard vague rumors of n glacier val
ley , nnd cut their way from the then newly
found Lake McDonald through the forests
that crowd the mountains.
They wcro told by the original settler In
the vicinity of this lake that a year before ,
In following up the slopes of Brown peak ,
north of Lake McDonald , with the idea
that glaciers were to bo found , bo had seen
not only a glacier , but also a beautiful
valley nnd a lake now to the world.
The scientists found the basin and lake ,
and , by rcator. of the constant roar of ava
lanches , they named the valley Avalanche
Basin , nnd spent as long a tlmo as their
provisions would allow in searching the
Lcautles of the spot. They hnd no Instru
ments , nnd were unable to get any measure
They determined to return at the earliest
opportunity. This they have now done ,
armed with all the needed instruments , to
m alto a thorough Investigation. In the mean
time others have been to Avalanche. Basin ,
and the trail from Kallspel has been so
chopped out that a woman Mrs. J. H. Ed
wards of that place has within the last
week made the perilous trip.
Some of the dozen of moro men who have
scon the basis have been world-wldo travel
ers , and declare that thcro is nothing In the
SwUs mountains or in tbo most famed re
sorts of Europe that can compare with It.
The valley Is a scenic gem set In a frame of
cloud-touching peaks , and Is unrivaled in
brilliancy and in natural interest , but owing
to the purity of the atmosphere and the
consequent Impossibility of getting distance
in the view It Is Impossible to make a pho
tograph that will show adequately the
beauties of the region.
Lake McDonald is located In the north
western portion of Montana , about thirty-
flvo miles from the little mountain town of
Kallspcl. It Is sixteen miles In length , four
or flvo miles wldo , at an altitude of about
3000 feet , and as clear as crystal.
Its mirroring effect is moro sharply defined
than Is that of the famous Mirror Lake
of California , and It reflects the forests of
the surrounding mountain slopes eo clearly
that the narrow , sharply defined beach of
smoothly polished gravel Is the only Indi
cation of whcro the reflections begin and the
forest ends. From Lake McDonald the trail
through the mountains extends to the north
ward about fifteen miles , up the rocky
steeps , and at tbo last cuts through n
gorge of crimson jasper qunrtzlte , In which
are many deep cascades.
Suddenly , and without warning , ono
emerges on the shores of Avnlancho Lake
and Into a valley of the most aubllmo and
Impressive giandcur. The way has been
hard and the climbing difficult , but the end
repays It all.
The basin Is moro than SOO feet higher
than Lake McDonald , and the surrounding
rocks tower In almost a perpendicular wall
fo ? from 3,000 to 0,000 feet higher. Rising
hero and thcro above the general level of
the wall of rock nro various peaks. The
discoverers bavo named ono the Matter-
horn and its altitude Is1,000 feet above
the level of the lake ; another has been called
tbo Cathedral Dome , from its resemblance
to the dome of St. Peter's , as seen from
the Campagnl , and It rises nbout 4,500 feet ;
a third has been called the Sphinx , and a
fourth the Castle. The last rises to a height
of over 10,000 feet above the sea. Down the
sides of thcso walls cascades fail , at heights
varying from thousands to about * 400 feet ,
breaking in foam on the lake below , and
filling the valley with the roar of a Niagara.
The basin is nearly two mllca long and
nearly the name in width. In its center Is
Avalanche Lake , three-fourths of a mlle In
length and half n mlle wide. Its waters ,
when seen from the shore , are of a turquoise
blue , but when looked down upon they are
as clear as crystal , even moro no than those
of Lake Superior , and the rainbow and
mountain trout lying In their depths can
readily bo Been.
The upper end of the basin is about two
miles cast of the entrance , and plunging
down the precipitous rocks are some dozen
mountain streams , forming a series of beau
tiful cascades and cataracts , All nro fed
from the DOOW.B of tbo mountains , nutl they
1)04 ) , NOV. SO
PURSE OPENING SALE
AT THE NEBRASKA.
Saturday morning , at 8 o'clock sharp , The Nebraska'
doors will open on a sale of transccnclant importance to
every man , woman and child in Omaha who has money
to spend for anything1 in our line. Never before in the
history of Saturday selling have such bounteous values
been laid before an expectant crowd of buyers , and
never again , in all human probability , will purses bo
opened with such cheerfulness and alacrity as they will ,
on the occasion of this our Eleventh Annual Third-
Saturclay-in-November-Pursc-Opening-Salc. Every item
that we will have to offer you Saturday will be of such
extraordinary worth , such real value , sterling merit , and
will be spread with such big and bountiful bargain flavor , ,
that all other "sales" mustpale into pitiable insignificance
alongside of the offerings which none but The Nebraska
can show. There will be. men's long Shetland Ulsters , with
shawl capes , silk frogs , lined with double warp Italienne
cloth and worth in the average Omaha "sales" from
$20.00 to $25.00 these we will sell at $10.50 each.
There will be men's high grade dress Kersey and Mel
ton Overcoats , with satin linings at $9.50 , $12,00 and
$13.50 each. There will be magnificent Irish Frieze
Ulsters at $10.00 each , There will be genuine "Ver
mont Grey" Ulsters at $3.75 each , and there will be
a hundred or so elegant all wool Kersey Dress Over
coats at $4.50 each. There will be men's suits at $3.75 ,
men's suits at $4.00 , men's suits at $5.00 , $6.00 , $7.50
and up , that are equal to the suits in ordinary hair-lift
ing sales marked $6.00 to $15.00 each , There will be
magnificent cashmere all wool underwear , Shirts and
Drawers , at 750 each , fleece lined mottled dollar under
wear at 5oc each and heavy derby ribbed shirts and '
drawers at 250 each. There will be so many bargains
and so good bargains that you must see them to believe
them , and if there is too much of a crowd Saturday you
can make your mind easy , for the same goods will been
on sale every day while they last. Come Saturday.
Come early. Come to The Nebraska. Come with your
are largo and small according as the sun
has had an opportunity to melt the snows.
Avalanches bavo cut their way down the
slopes and have left tbclr gashes on the sur
North from Avalanche basin to the British
line the scenery Is of the grandest. It rivals ,
It it docs not surpass , that to bo found in
the Sellclrlts and in the Canadian Rockies
Glaciers abound , and about thirty mile
north of Avalanche ls-cno of the greatest t
bo found in America.
CHEAT SUMf-KIKIXa GU.V.
It Cnn IJlHchnrKc Kour lliuulrcil lllllc
Hull * u Minute.
The Navy department at Washington ha
just ordered fifty of the most remarkable
guns in the world. Each of them is able
to discharge. 400 rlflo bullets a minute , and
continues at that rate until the marksman
wants to stop , Moro than that. It flrca itself
only requiring to bo aimed. U Is the Col
This wonderful gun weighs only forty
pounds , says the New York Journal. It Is
a magazine rllle , with ono barrel , the cali
ber of which is the same as that of the
improved rifle newly adopted by the navy
a little less than a quarter or an inch. This
means that the bullet , which is of lead
with a steel Jacket , is much less In diameter
than an ordinary lead pencil. The bullet
la about an inch long , almost cylindrical In
shape , tapering somewhat and rounded al
the front end. The gun discharges seven
of these projectiles each fcccond , and they
leave the rauzzlo of the weapon with a ve
locity of nearly half a mlle a second.
The rapidity of discharge Is so tremendous
deus that there seems to bo a continuous
stream of bullets flying from the muzzle
of the gun. So great ! s their velocity ,
howevcrv that thcro is actually an In
terval of 300 feet between each two. Car-
ttldgcs are fed to the weapon automatically
by the feed belts , which are celled In boxes
and readily attachable to the breech. Tbo
boxes hold from 100 to COO cartridges. All
the marksman has to do is to pull the
trigger once nnd the gun goes on firing
of Its own nccord ns long ns the cartridges
nro supplied. In short , the Instrument Is
a repeating rlflo with un inexhaustible
ina&azino and n rapidity of fire that la
almost Inconceivable. It uses the eamo
bullet as the new navy rifle , nnd they are
discharged with the same velocity , but
tba discharge Is automatic , the firing mec
hanism being operated by powder gas.
The weapon may bo carried comfortably
In a "boot" at the side of a trooper's
horse. Ordinarily , on land , it is designed
to bo mounted for action upon a light
tripod. It Is provided with a pivot , set
Into a socket on the tripod or Into a socket
on the rail of a vessel. All the ships of
the navy will eoon bo provided with these
guns. Ono of these weapons at a distance
of n mlle might mow down an entire regi
ment within two mlnutrs , ao that hardly
n man would bo left unwoumled. The Colt
gun Is sighted ordinarily for 2.000 yards ,
which Is n little over a mlle , but It Is an
effective at twlco that distance. However ,
It Is not practicable to flro at Individuals
beyond 2,000 yards.
The marksman uses both hands In aimIng -
Ing the gun , whether It Is set on a tripod
or on the rail of a vessel. It responds no
readily to adjustment that ho Is able to
wrlto his name with bullets upon a good-
sized target , and to do It with considerable
rapidity. If the weapon Is mounted on a
tripod , ho ficats himself on a uaddlc that
looks llko a blcyclo saddle , attached to the
leg of the tripod , which projects toward
the rear. The 'eaddlo is HO adjusted that
his eye is brought directly In line with the
sight of the weapon. Pulling the trigger
ouco , ho simply holds it back as long as
ho desires the gun io keep on firing , varying
the aim just us a peraou directing a gar
den hosa would do.
The United States army Is also going to
have guns of the Colt typo. The War
department has ordered a trial of them.
Guns of this pattern are comparatively
cheap. They can be made In quantities
for n soiling price of about $300. The
cartridges cent only $25 per 1,000 2V4 cents
IllKH Tilled Affect U'ellH.
The high-water marks of several extraor
dinarily high tides have been kept nt Hasten -
ton Point , St , Michael's and Oxford , says
the Baltimore Sun. What la known as the
"centennial tide" of September , 1870 , has
held tbo record of the water mark , and ntlll
holds It although the tide of October 1 WOB
within an Inch of the centennial mark ,
The recent flood had a alngular effect on the
flow of the artesian wells on TIlghman'B
Island , Thcsd wells nverago 400 feet In
depth , and many of them have a surface
overflow , which increased fully double In
The X ow Prices
Avurrn uto.v IIKDS *
At J2.GO. $100. $ l.rX > . J5.CO. WOO , $5.73 , J7.C9 ,
$9.00 , $10.00 , $12.00 , $15.00 , $18.CO , J22.00 , $2J.CO.
IIIIASS niiS : _ i
At $13.CO , $18.00 , $22.00. S2r 00. $2S.OO , $30 fO ,
$9 , $11 , $12 , $14 , $15 , $13 , $20 , $22 , $21. $23.
$2S , MO , : > , $35 , $10 , SI1. , W. $ . ? < S , KO.
$55 , $ .18. $ G3 , $70 $73. J&3. $ 'JO. $100. $118 , $123
$140 , $150 , $175 , $ iOO , $230.
1IKI ) HOOM SUITS
$200 , $240. $ :59 , 5215 , J2CO , J2S5 , J300 , $375 , $500. $750.
$3 ! ) , $37 , $27 , $85 , $30 , $123 , $113 , $175.
Leather , tnpestry or wood Henta. 200 styles
to cheese from $1 , $1.50 , $1.03 , $1 75. $2 , J2.25 ,
$2.50 , $ . ' ! , $ ' , $10. $4. $1.60. $ ! > . $7. JO. $7.6' ) . $160.
$11 , $12 , $15 , $13 , $19 , $17 , JIG. $2. , $21 , $30 , $25 ,
$2 , $3U , $3S , $35 , $2fi , $15. $12 , $ U , 150 , $35. $57 ,
$ CO , $70 , $75 , $90. x
I1AI.I , HACKS *
$83 , $75. $30 , $93 , $100 , $120 , $133 , $150.
DUSKS AM ) HOOKCASKS
$ S , $10. $12. $11. $14. $13.50 , $15. $17. $19. $2
$24 , $25. $29 , $30. $33 , $40. $3S , $30.
All the eoda nt the very lowest prices.
1'ho largest stock of Furniture in Nebraska.
12th nnd Douglas.
WMT. Wood &Co.'s Celebrated
Jas. Morton & Son Co. ,
Wrlto for Oatnlotfuo , U.V.AIIA ,
Sot Tooth , 85.00.
Teeth Extracted without pain
Alloy find miver fllllne. $1.W.
I'uro Kold nillncB , K up.
Gold Crowns , 27 lit. , $5 to $3.
BAILEY , the
THIRD FLOOR ,
liHh and Farnam Bt .
velocity and moro In volume when the tide
was at Its blgbttit. It Jinn been noticed
bcforo that any uiiusiml high lido U per
ceptible In tbo effect It has on tbo flow of
DAHMIANN-Mra. Minnie , wlfo of I'rVd
Duhlinimii , November W , 3 u. in , , ut 7Zt
Uouth icth utrcct. Funeral notice later. > ,
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