Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, July 14, 1895, Part III, Image 17

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    PART III. OMAHA UNDAY BEE ccccccccccccccccccccceoccd PAGES 17 TO 20.
A Chat with Hoiii John Sherman on Various
Public Matters.
drcnt llonil Slle iif the Ilnftiintitlon | 1'orlod
Tlin I'rtililrncf mill tlio I.r
Asplrnnts for tlio Olllce Itrcnllrc-
tlou * of a I'lilllUnl I'nul.
( OopyrlRhtndtn , b > Pronk O. Carpenter. )
MANSFIELD , O , July 11. "No. 1 am not
a candidate for the presidency , and If all the
people ot the United ( Sates should join to
gether and offer It to me , I would not accept
the position. I am too old. No man of 7
lias the right to undertake the work and re
sponsibility which come to the chief cxecu
tlvo of the United States. It la a position ot
wear and tear , and It should ha\e a younger
man. "
These were the words of Senator John
Sherman as we sat together In a llttlo sum
iner house just back of his Ohio home , and
feasted our eyes on one of the most beautiful
farming scenes of the " "United States. Tor
miles on three sides of us , rising and falling
In billowy rolls , extended the fat farms of
Illchland county , a vast crazy quill of many
colored crops Away off to the right was the
new Ohio reform school , looking like a castle
with Its walls of gray stone work Nearer
still In tlio valley were tlio b'g factories which
have made Mansfield one of the richest towns
and befit business points In tlio United State *
and just In front of us fur off on the north
ern tiorl/on lay the county fair grounds ,
where the races were thrn going on , and
which Senator Sherman told me we could
tec through his telescope , If I were Inter
cstcd In the horses , or vvanteti to get a
sight of Mansfield's sporting men. I was
more Interested , however , In the coming race
for the , presidency , and I had asked the sena
tor point blank the question as to whether
he would again bo a candidate The above
was his reply. It came from his lips In
firm , sharp nnd decisive tones , and I could
Bee from the expression of his face that his
presidential ambitions have passed forever.
After making the above remark he stopped
A moment In t-eemlng meditation , and then
went on.
"Yes , the presidency has always been a
position of gr ° at wear and tear. It has
broken down many men In the past. It will
probably do the same In the future. And
still I don't see why It should bo BO I have
a different Idea of the presidency than that
which has been held by many of our prot
Idents. I believe tint the chief executive
oh on hi be a man of leisure rather than an
official hack , He should have time to con-
elder and study the great matters of public
policy connected with his office and he
should not worry himself over details There
should be left to his subordinates His cab
inet ministers should relieve him from all I
that drudgery They should be his assistants In i
the carrying out of his policy. Ho should
rely upon them to do their work and 1
ho should not devote his time and brain to
examining the papers of petty postmasters or
of the tide-waiters at every small custom
house. Ho should rely upon his cabinet min
isters to carry out his policy If they do netlike
like his policy , and will not accept It , let him
discharge them and take others. But he
has no right to fritter away his vital force
I-1" . on clerical details. "
"What presidents have appreciated this
fact , senator , " slid I , "and have saved them
selves for the great questions with which
they had to deal ? "
Senator Sherman thought a moment , and
then replied"Abraham Lincoln , I think ,
did so more than any of the others. He
chose great men for his cabinet officers ,
nnd he trusted them He left each man to
do his own work , and ho often laughed at
the members of lilH cabinet on account of
the fuss they made about their trouble
with office seekers nnd their details of ofll-
clul management. Lincoln's mind was
taken up with the great things of the war.
Ho had only one Idea , and that was to
eave the union. This was the Idea that
dominated the country and the whole north
during his presidency It overshadowed
everything else and It absorbed him. As for
Cleveland , ho Is a busybody , and he must
know cvcrj thing "
"Who will be the republican candidate for
the presidency , senator7" I asked
"I cannot say I have learned not to
prophesy much as to the future I can sec
no further Into a millstone than any other
man. What you ask us to the past I will
bo glad to answer , but not as to the fu
ture. 1 can only say that wo do not lack
good candidates. ) There Is Heed of Maine
His ability Is beyond question nnd he would
bo acceptable to the republican party Ills
locality Is against him , however. There Is
McKlnlcy. He Is an able man and will
make a good candidate. lie will , I believe
have the support of Ohio , and I would like
to see him nominated. Going further west
wo flnd Senator Allison. He Is a tounJ
limn and has a good record. Ho would
make a good candid ito and a good presi
dent. I think the situation Is such tint
there Is little doubt of our electing a presi
dent , and that a republican will take his seat
In tlio white house In 1S97. "
"What will be the Issues ? "
"They will bo the tariff and the financial
question. The democrats have to tampered
with the tariff that they cannot raise enough
revenue to pay the government's exp-nseb
and this will have to bo remedied The sli
ver question will come up In some shape's *
other , and this may divide the democrat
party. I don't believe that It will greatly In
jure the republican party. "
"Will the republican party ever espouse
the cauw ot a double standard , senator ? "
"I think not , " replied Senator Shermin
"You can't have two standards of money
You may have gold or you may have tllver
but > ou can't have both as stanJards. Al
the present value and fluctuation of sllvet
1 don't think there Is any danger of the people
ple choosing It as our standard There Is a
wide mldmpresslon and misunderstanding
concerning the condition of silver In the
United States. Wo have more silver In use
now than ever before There Is $500,000,001
worth of silver In circulation , which IB repre
eented by silver certlttcates , and there Is
$340,000,000 worth of gold As a reserve
fund to redeem tlio gold , we havt
5100,000,000 In the treasury , or lesi
than one-third. As a reserve turn
to redeem the silver certificates we lia\i
enough bullion and silver dollars to redeem
them dollar for dollar In tllver. In othei
words , there Is three times as much sllvei
as gold u ed ana In circulation. The silver
however , Is used as a i > ubsldlary coin W <
will never ha\e anything like bimetallism It
this country except at a change of ratio. Ni
International agreement will ever be reaclui
( or the use of bllvor and gold at the ratio o
1C to 1 , which Is demanded by the free co'n
age advocates of the United States. Tnl
free silver movement Is made up of the ( ami
elements which composed the greenbscl
movement along late In the sevent cs The ;
then sati } the country would go to ruin If tie
government did not shovel out greenback
by the hundreds of millions. T ey prophe ,
sled that resumption could never take pla"e ,
They always belong to that class who wan
to contract debts in a dear money an ! thei
change the laws go they can pay them In i
c'icap'r money. They did not succeej In tin
just. They canont succeed now. "
"You were secretary of the treasury , Sen
ator Sherman , under 1'rcildcnt Hayei , at th <
tlmo of rs > notion , an ! you were author o
the resu . . act. DM you not find I
tailor to than you thought ! "
11 Ye. ! . I sutpoio 10 , " said Senator Sher
man. "I have always had faith In he
business ability ot the American p'ople
I have always believed In their honesty , Ie3d
am an optimist rather than a pessimist , am
J. oover lost faith In our ability to pay ou
debts. When I became secretary of the
treastliy I believed the debt could be re-
dtteed , and that our rate of Interest could
be lerscnud , though I had no Idea how
quickly and how easily the latter could be
done When I became secretary of the
treasury wo had about $700.000,000 of re
deemable G and 6 per cent bonds outstand
ing , and there was a contract existing be
tween a syndicate of bankers In this country
and Eut po for the Bale of $300,000,000 of
bonds at 4'4 per cent These bonds were to
be sold for refunding purposes , and about
$10000,000 worth had been sold before I
became secretary I thought this could bo
reduced , and I wrote a letter to the Roths
childs shortly after I became secretary ,
telling them I proposed to withdraw these
bonds as soon as their sale reached $200,000-
000 , as I expected to put a 4 per cent bond
on the market. At this time there didn't
seem to be much of a demand for the 4',4 I
per cents They were below par In Europe , I
and only a little above par here The an I
nouncement of the prospective 4 per cents |
caused them to rite , and wlthlng about [ \
tliico months the whole $200000,000 were
taken The credit of th' country rose nnd I got
par for my 4 per cent bonds Then con
gress met , nnd thirteen bills were Introduced
to repeal the resumption net , and a large
number of other bills were brought forth to
restore the unlimited coinage of the silver
dollar , which was then worth 85 cents In
gold. This scared the Investors , and the
subscriptions to the 4 per cent bonds ceased
Ai congress went on , however , It was teen
that these bills could not pass , and during
the next session the people saw that re
sumption was to be a fixed fact , and the J
per cents again eame up I had sold enough
to give me a sufficient gold reserve , and on
the 1st of January , 1879 , the government was
ready to give coin for all legal tender notes
To our surprise no one seemed to want It
One well known financier of New York haJ
said only a few months before that ho would
give $30,000 to be at the head ot the line on
the day of resumption. He could have gotten
his place for nothing It was lalo In the day ,
only , that a few stragglers came In nnd asked
for coin , and at the end of the first day of
resumption , the government really had more
coin than It had In the morning "
"But how about the bonds , senator ? " I
"They had been selling steadily , " was the
reply , "and after resumption the people
were cra y to get them One hundred and
fifty million dollars' worth of the 4 p r
cents were sold during January , and this
against $25,000,000 the preceding month. We
called In the 6 per cent bonds , and still the
subscriptions Increased Along about the 1st
of April the bonds began to appreciate , and
there was a great rush to get them. One hun
dred nnd fifty million dollnrs' worth were
tnken In one day , and I received a tele
gram one morning at a cabinet meeting
at the while house asking for $40,000,000
woith of bonds I opened It leisurely , and
when I looked at It I thought there was a
mistake I supposed It must be $4,000,000
I telegraphed nt once to the man to repeat
his telegram H came bick within an hour ,
and there was no mistake about It for the
words were written out The man wanted
$10,000,000 worth , and he wanted to know
whether he could have them I replied that
he could This telegram came from the
National Bank of Commerc2 of New Yoik
Soon after another New York bank tele
graphed for $10,000,000 , nnd following this
I we got two telegrams each asking for
I $ _ ' 5,000,000 , and another asking for $30,000-
000 We had to refuse $00,000,000 worth of
bonds that dny because the requests came
too late. It wns nbout two weeks after
this that I concluded to rnlse the price of
the bonds , and to put them at a premium
of one-half of 1 per cent nbove par. I
vvunted to redeem the ten-forty bonds that
were then outstanding , and I offered to
sell $150,000.000 of 4 per cent bands at this
premium. Most ot the financiers of the
United States thought this wax too low. I
asked a number of them what they thought
of the plan , and they told mo I would never
sell 4 per cent bonds nt a premium. The
day the loan was opened I had another big
surprise. The bonds were offered at noon
on April 16 , 1879 , nnd before the close of
banking hours I received a subsetIptlon for
$2,000,000 worth. The next afternoon the
telegrams began to come. One was for $10-
000,000 , and just before the close of business
that day the First National bank of New
Yoik telegraphed that they would take the
entire $150,000,000 , and $10,000,000 of re
funding ceitlflcates In addition. We re
fused to give them the refunding certificates ,
nnd they got , I think , $111,000.000 worth ot
the bonds , the remainder of the loan hav
ing been taken before their telegram came
There were $75000,000 more subscriptions to
that loan that day than wo could supply ,
and wo closed out the whole of the bonds
and were able to call In the entire outstand
ing ten-forty loan. The amount of the sub
set Iptlons and the rapidity with which they
came In that day staggered me , and I re
member I telegraphed the New York bank-
erb that I would like to know If they were
not all ciazy.
"You are asking about the Rothschilds , "
Senator Sherman went on , "A curious In
cident happened In connection with the
head of the London house In regard to ono
of these tow bond l&'Uds , He had had the re
fusal of $10,000000 worth of the 4 per cent
bonds In case they were not subscrlbeJ for
In America He was written to and askci :
, If he would take them. Ho replied that he
thought he would take $1,000,000 , but that
ho would like a week to decide as to whether
he wouU do so or not. In the meantime the
great rush for the bonds occurred , am
Rothschild then wanted his $10.000,030
worth At this time , however , the bonds had
been all sold , and I had to tell him that he
could not have them. He niido such a fuss
abcut It that August Helmont and others of
a New York syndicate who were dealing
with him took $10,000,000 worth of bonds
from their own purchases and rent them over
to him He was too proud to accept the
, bonds In this way anJ h& sent them back
At least this 1.3 the story that was told me
I trial to keep the bonds as far as possible
In the United States , and to favor our own
p irchasers over the c of Europe. "
"What was the difference In the tnteres
paid by the government through these re
tumllng operations' "
"It was enormouV rtpllei Senator Sher
1 nun "Yonffce , the amount of the publl
dubt which was refunded In the above way
was nearly $ sriO,000,000 , and the saving In
interest amounteJ to nearly $15,000,000 a
I am very fortunate In my visit to Senate
- Sherman at the present time. I came to
Mansfield because I had understood that he
wis writing his memoirs , and I knew that hi
collection of private papers was greater than
that of any other man In public life During
my talk with him he told me that he wa
working among his papers , but he had not a
yet decided whether ho would publish a booker
or not , and that he could not allow me testate
state that he proposed doing so. He began
the work , he said , with the Idea of making
a collection of his speeches , but he finds hi
material so vast and of such a varied and In
terestli.g nature that he Is still at sea as to
v.tut he will do with It His letters are num
hered by the tens of thousands , and they em
brace the names of every man who has been
prominent In the United States during th
past fortj years , and of the greatest thinker
of all pins of the world John Sherman ha
l > ° en a part of every public movement In th
t'nlted States , and there Is scarcely a mil
lionalre , a scientist or a statesman who ha
not consulted with him. He has fit
teen volumes of autograph letters , each o
which la a : b'g as a dictionary , which h
has kept chiefly for the take of th
names appended to them , and his private cor
- rospcndenco embraces a large part cf th
unwritten history of the past generation
. Jamei G. Bhlne was a mm rather of speech i
than of deeds. John Sherman has been i
Q man of action , and still he has made more
speeches then Blalne. His public work be <
gan when Frank Pierce was president , ant
he hag been In the very thick of affairs froir
that tlmo to this. He has always had a lar t
* correspondence , I doubt whether he has evci
received a letter which he has net answered
and he has been so noted for his reserve thai
public mei have opened their minds nm
hearts to him without restraint. In addlt'or
to hU vast correspondence he hai saved his
torlcal material of all kinds. He has th
I public speeches ot the men of the past lift
yesrs , gathered from pamphlets and news
papers and bound into volumes , 10 that the
make a library of themselves. Ho his dozens
of volumes of newspaper scraps about h'm-
self , some lauding him to the skies and some
damning him to hades. Hla congressional
speeches fill a score or more of volumes , and ,
all told , ho has perhaps the best collection
of historical material In the United States.
During my stay with the senator I spent
some time In his library , and asked him
some questions as to his habits of work. 1
have known him for years , and he Is one
ot the most methodical public men I have
ever met. He never wastes time , and dur
ing the whole of his life he has been sav
ing the Intellectual pennies. Ho has four
great workshops two here and two at Wash
ington. At the top of this Mansfield house
there Is a room , perhaps thirty feet long ,
which Is lined with shelves , and which Is
filled with congressional documents and scrap
books. Here he goes when he wishes to
get away from any one else , and here he
his written many a speech. Ho has a similar
workshop In his new house In Washington ,
and Ills library there Is of the same character
as the one here Dawn htalrs In his Wa'
ton home he has a fine library filled with well-
bound books and containing all the classics.
He has a similar library on the ground floor
of his home here In Mansfield and It Is In
this that he Is now working among his pipers.
This Mansfield llbnry contains , perhaps ,
ten thousand volumes Its walls arc cov
ered with books , and there Is no great au
thor who has not a place upon Its shelves.
One section Is devoted to biography , another -
| other to science and another to fiction
I There are books In French and books In
i German , and the works of Huxley and
Darwin are as well thumbed us those of
. Dickens and Thackeiy The senator's desk
I Is In the center of the room It was covered
] with papers this morning when I called , and
I on the floor there were about fifty volumes
j of Congressional Records and a number of
i scrap books Just back of the senator &
' seat I saw a great , open vault , which had
been cut Into the wall , and which was so
largo that Jumbo could hive turned about
Inside of It This Is for the keeping of the
cnator's papers , It Is fireproof as well as
urglar proof. A little white dog with biack
ars was sitting In an armchair on the other
do of the senator and during our con
ersatlon he broke out again nnd ngaln Into
vociferous bark , until the senator at last
Icked him up and carried him out of the
oom. The senator's working hours were
ver when I called , by appointment. Ho
sually rises early , and by S o'clock Is at
ork with his stenographer. He finds a
real deal of his present work has to bo
one with his own hand , and ho told mo he
ound the writing very easy , but that the
ork of research and ot getting ready to
rite was very great.
As I looked at Senator Sherman my mind
an over his long public career. I could tee
ilm driving about RIchland county , a young
ongressional candidate , making speeches al
he country cro's-roads I could see him a
ew years later , a member of the Kansas-
Nebraska Investigating committee , sitting In
udgment of the ruffians of the west and re-
: clvlng warnings under pictures of coffins
, nd cro s-bones as he collected the testimony
vhlch was to form material for some of the
greatest congressional struggles of our hls-
ory I could pee him the leader of the
ewer house of congrebs , the chairman of the
ways and means committee In the later dajs
if Buchanan I could see him In the senate
fighting the battles of his country during the
( residencies of Lincoln , Johnson and Grint
ml then In the Treasury department , strug
gling with the giant of resumption , and now
n the senate again , , after forty years of con-
Inuous service , and the thought came to me
as to whether ho had not at times grown
Ired of It all , and longed for the rest of prl
vato cltlzensnip , and I said 'Senator Slier-
nan , tell me , have you at any time In your
career tried to get out of public life and back
0 private life'1
" " Sherman "I don'
"No. replied Senator ,
know that I have. I have always enjoyed
being In the thick of things , and having a
part In the carrying on of our government
There was only once that I came near going
out of public life. It was when I was secre
.ory of the treasury under President Haves
There was trouble about the custom house a
S'ew York It had been badly managed foi
years , and President Hayes had decided to
make a change. Chester A. Arthur had been
collector of the port for six years , and A. B.
Cornell was the naval officer of the New York
custom house. A commission had been ap
pointed to examine Into the management of
the custom house , and upon the basis of their
reports President Hayes decided to make a
Ho did make It , and I sent a letter to Mr
Arthur , requesting him to resign. He de
clined to do so , and Roscoe Conkllng gave
him and Cornell to understand that If they
held on to their positions he , Conkllng , had
such an Influence In the senate at Washing
ton that President Hayes' appointees could
not be confirmed. The president appointed
Roosevelt and Prince to take their places , but
through the Influence of Conkllng these nsmes
were rejected by the senate After adjourn
ment of that session , however. President
Hayes suspended Arthur and Cornell and ap
pointed Merrltt as collector anl Burt as naval
ofilcer. When the benato again met , and
these mines came up for confirmation , Sena
tor Conkllng was agiln on hand , and It Iooke3
for a tlmo as though they would be rejected
1 made a personil matter of It I went to
the senators , many of whom I had been as
sociated with In the past , and I appealed to
them that I would resign from my cabinet
position and go Into pilvato life If they al
lowed Conkling to prevail In this matter
I siU I would have nothing to do with a gov
ernment that gave the president the appoint
Ing power , and In this underhanded way pro-
vented him from using It. At this tlmo I
firmly Intended to have carried out my resolu
tions , and had Conkllng succeeded I would
have become a private citizen Ho d'/l ' not
succeed , however , and that struggle as to the
Now York custom house was the beginning
of the trouble which afterward cuImlnateJ
through Gulteiu In the assassination of Garfield -
field , and which retired Conkllng and Platt
from the United States senate. "
It Is sa'd that Germany bids fair to over
take Great Britain In the production of Iron
during Vie present year.
Statistics show that more than 85 per cent
of the bread winners ot this country are
According to the statistics of the Ark-
w right club , the number of cotton spindles
In Georgia and the Carollnas has Increased
20 per cent since 1892 , as against 5 per cent
Increase In Massachusetts.
The Irondalo Steel and Iron company , Mid-
dletown , Intl. , has lately started two more
in 111 a In connection with Us tin phte plant.
The working force has been Increased by
about 250.
The Carbon Iron and Steel company's plant
at Parryvllle , Pa , has resufted operations
after a shut-down of over a year. Improve
ments amounting to $100,000 have been made
ut the plant.
Thomas Mcrrlron , superintendent ot the
Edgir Thomson Steel works , Bessemer , Pa. ,
has Issued a notice to the effect that In the
future no boys under 1C years ot age will {
bo employed In the mechanical departments.
The prosperous condition of the Rhode
Island woolen Industry Is Indicated by the
announcement that there will be a general
advance cf wages thu month running from 7
to 12 per cent.
New England has a greater proportion ol
wage earners than any other section of the
csuntry , In Rhode IslanJ the propartlon reic'a-
Ing 42 per cent , or nearly one-half of the en
tire population. This remarkable state ol
things Is due to the employment ot women
and children In the mills.
Everything In the town ot Morse , Win. , ex
cept the school house , which no trudt wants ,
has been purchased by a syndicate of Boston
capitalists. The price paid Is supposed to be
In the neighborhood of $2,000,000. The syndi
cate will establish the largest tannery In WIs.
consln , giving employment to nearly 1,000
A Qlimpio of the Jostling Taroa ; Absorb
ing the Waters of Carlsbad ,
Hotr They Are Tnkon Cure of nnd W lint
Tlioy Do t'y Wurman's P.x perl en ecu
null Olicr\ntiiins ut ttio
Health Kciort ,
( Copyright , 1S95 , by S S. MiOlure , Umltnl )
CARLSBAD , July 4 , 1S95.
The blue hills of Bohemia vvcro beginning
to grow green ,
The bees had just begun to put now honey
In the hive ,
Of course the hills were happy , for the river
n\t\K between ,
When I took the cure at Cnrlsbnd In the
spring of ninety-live ,
Carlsbad In the winter time Is about as
jlcak and desolito as a western town which ,
after a hard fight with weekly papers and
Winchesters , had lost the county seat. The
place Is not dead , no more than the ( loners
are dead that arc sleeping under the snow
that had drifted deep In the Hoehmerwnld
With the first blue bird conies the man bur-
dene J with a bad liver , and the first patient
Is followei closely by merchants and shop
keepers , hotel men and waiter ? . There ore
merchant tailors from Vienna , china mer
chants from DresJen and clock makers from
Sw Itzerland
All through the month of April the signs
of life are dally Increasing. The walks that
wind about the many hills are being swept
clean of dead leaves ; houses are repainted ,
and the rooms of hundreds of hotels and
pensions are thrown open to admit the health-
giving winds that come down from the low-
mountains laden with the fccent of pine.
The streets are being made cleaner day by
day , until the last day ot April when they
are all flooded and v\ashed clean. The Iron
fences and railings are actually scrubbed
by an army of women with buckets of water
and rags. Other women are digging In the
ditches , saw Ing wood or drawing wagons
through the streets.
On the 1st day of May there Is a grand
opening. This year It was of especial 1m-
lortance as It opened to the public the new
jath house of Kalserbad , which cost this
enterprising municipality 250 000 florins , and
s the finest bath hout > e In the whole wide
world , I am told Tills marvelous celebration ,
which begins with a military parade on the
Ir.t day of the month , ended on the fifth w th
banquet In the city park cafe at which
Mon. Ludwlg Schaffer der Burgermelster pre
sided. '
"Jim Thompson and friend , " was the way
we went on the register at Pupps , not
Jim wanted to star his own signature , but in
order that he might bear1 tlio burden of readIng -
Ing all the circulars sent to bur roonii' , and
receiving the good father ot the tov.n , who
always waits upon "wealthy Ameileans" am !
asks a llttlo aid for the poor , ragardltss of
the visitor's religion. When we were trans
ferred to the revolving switchboard In the
center of the great lobby It read , "Herren Jim
Thompson , " and when It uppeared on loca
letters and circulars sent It was "Wellborn
Hcrren Jim Thompson , " sometimes It was
"My Lord , the wellborn Htrrcn. " But Jim
had been so much among .titled people In
Europe and so often read their "ads" for heir
esses that these little mistakes were no more
to him than so many pfennigs.
So , In time , there came a gilt-edged can
bidding my lord , the well born sardine , tin
his friend to the feast the guests of the city
Just In front of the orchestra there was u
nairow , high throne , a kind of cross between
a pulpit and a witness box , and from behlm
this little stand the speaker spoke. "It Is ,
good Idea , this pulpit ; It gives the speaker
something to pound and does away with his
hands at the same tlmo , " said Jim , whci
the first man had finished. The lion of the
evening was the architect who had built the
KaUerbad , and when he made his talk the
men cried "Ho1" and beautiful women let
their scats to click glasses with him. Am
the band played under the double eagle , am
everybody stood up , and they were all very
happy , and I knew that the homely leader
with his cars full of cotton , had made n hit
"Was that the 'Bohemian Girl , ' Jim ? "
asked , when we had ail settled down am
began to feed again. "No , " he said , with a
hzit sad intle "I don't know the 'Bohemian
Girl' from the 'Irish Washerwoman , ' but
know that tune ; It's the national air. Couldn'
you hear the B flat scream and wall away down
the line ? Ah1 If the Austrlans had played
that tune the Seven Days' war would have
labted longer "
It was an excellent little dinner , and th
enthusiasm ami patriotism ot the people were
good to ses True , they have been buffetei
about by political waves , between Germany
and Austria , for many years , but the peopl
In these Bohemian hills are happy , Indus
trlous and enterprising to a remarkable de
On the morning of the 10th of May , when
we went down to the Drunn to drink , 1,00
people were standing In line.
"Reminds me ot the day when
we used to line up at the post
office In Thompponvllle. " ald Jim , his mln
going back to the big day of Colorado when
he was mayor and silver was a dollar ten
It was a great show ; men and women from
everywhere , with every disease that can pos
slbly be charged to the liver , stomach o
gall. Even nervous people come here for th
baths , and get well , or think they do , vvhlc
Is the same thing There were men whos
skin and eyes were yellow , and others a
green as ol ves , German dulcs who walked a
prancing greyhounds , fat young Germans wh
seemed to bo walking on eggs , and eli
gouty Germans who did not walk at all , bu
There are big bony Britons In knlcker
backers , and elderly Englishmen whose lov
ot plaids Is largely responsible for the dall
tains that come to this otherwise delight
ful region. There are modest Americans
their pretty wives and daughters
and other Americans who tal
loud In the lobbies and cafes
Tyrolese In green hats trimmed In feather
and Polish Jews with little corkscrew curl
hanging down by their can , such as we se
In Jerusalem. Then there are a few stra
Frenchmen , walking alone , end once bu
not more than once In a , while a Parlsla
lady , and you know her by the charming
cut of her skirt and the way iho holds It
up , and the beautiful dream nf a petticoat
the act discloses. There are Austrian sol
diers In I out ; teats and ufilcers In pnlo blue
uniforms , spurred and cinched like the cor
set wcaicrs of France.
In a solid mass the crowd of cup heircrs
moves up and down In the gieiit colonadc ,
keeping tlmo with their feet or hinds or
heads to the strains of the band , which
begins to play at C 45 In the morning.
By 9 o'clock the springs are deserted , and
the multitude has distributed Itself among
the many restaurants and cafes In the canon
An hour later , having breakfasted lightly
on toast and coffee on such tout and such
coffee as can be had only In C.irlsbid largr-
dash , the great army of healthy-looking In
valids lose themselves In the hills.
. Here comes an old , old woman bearing a
load that would bend the bick of a Turkl h
hammel , followed by a landau , where loll the
fairest dames of Sixony. Then a sausage
man , whoso garlic-flavored viands freight
the whole gulch with their fumes , and just
behind him a wagon laden with flowers and
shrubs for the new gardens of the Grand
Hotel Pupp , and their opening leaves fling
such fragrance out upon the still air that
It follows and trails far behind , as the smoke
of a locomotive follows a freight trnln
Women with baskets on their bicks , filled
with empty milk cans , are climbing the trails
that lead back to their lespectlvo ranches ,
which they must have left , their cans laden ,
at early dawn.
The men are most pol'te ' to each other and
always take off their hats as they meet and
pass. The employes In the hotels do this ,
from the manager down Indeed , all these
peop.'o are almost tiresome with their polltc-
ne"s A table girl who serves you at a way
side cafe today will rush out to the middle
of the street tomorrow and say good morning
and ask you how you feel She la honestly
endeavoring to make It pleasant , and Is un
consciously making It unpleasant for you
If you epeak English she argues that you
lay be a lord , or , what to her and for her Is
xjtter still , an American grind , rich and
wiful , and she Is proud to show the proprle-
or or manager that she knows you.
ut we should not complain , for
owhere are visitors treated so respectfully
nd decently as at Carlsbad. I remember
hat the burgcrmclster left his place at the
ead of the table at the banquet , crossed the
oem , Introduced himself to Mr. Thompson ,
ouched glasses and bade him welcome to the
ty , and caused a little munlclpil check
look to be placed at the visitor's elbow , so
iat for that day and date he could order
hat he craved , and It was all "on" the
own. Last year when 500 rooms of the
argest hotel In the place were occupied , 400
f the guests were Americans or English. So
ou can see they can afford to like us , and
hey do.
One can live here as one chooses for $1 or
10 a day , but two people can live com-
ortuble for S5 a day. The hotels are good
nd the service almost perfect so far as It
elates to the hotels , but the service In the
Inlng rooms , cafes and restaurants Is bad
lany of these are poorly arranged H Is
common thing to bee a waller freighting
our breakfast or dinner which Is at mid-
ay here a half block In a pouring rain The
real trouble Is to get things hot. It Is next
o Impossible What Carlsbad needs Is a
aiiltarium where people can have delicate
Ibhes prepared and served hot The stoves
re too far from the tables In most places.
Amerlcins will flnd many funny little
hlngs even In the best hotels. You can go
p In the elevator , but' you cannot
ome down. You can have writing pa
per free In the writing room , but not In your
apartments. You can get hot milk or warm
milk but they will put butter In It You
can have boiled potatoes , but only with car
away seeds and a few fine flavors of alfalfa
n them or poached eggs , but you must have
hem poached In bouillon.
After a while you will get u d to all this
and give up trying to say "sear helce , " get
veil and go way. Party thousand people do
his every year. This establishment alone
eeds 2,000 people a day , and most ot them , 1
ancy , go away feeling very kindly toward the
ilace and the people. The Germans predom-
nate In the month of May , the Ausrtlans In
lune , nnd In July the French come. This
s a rafe sandwich , with Austria In the mid
dle ; It keeps Prance and Germany from
touching. The English and Americans ( but
lot the poor ) , they have all the sea on. The
floating palaces of the Hamburg-American
company and the North German Loyd make
the voyage from New York to Hamburg an
easy one The railway Journey of twelve
nours Is made over a fair track. In comfort
able cars through a country very beautiful.
Hie last half wonderful to see. The steam-
phlp fare Is , say $90 each way ; the railway
fare , second class , which Is better than first
class In France , $10 , or altogether $200 for
the round trip. Expenses here , $100. Total ,
The sad fac ° d consumptives who swarm
around the health resorts of western Amer-
'c.i ' ure not setn here , on the whole the people
ple who come hero look healthy. The dread
ful army of mlserables who haunt the grotto
at Lourdes are not to be seen here Tru
the priests go at the head of the procession
on the let of May , from spring to bprlng ,
blessing the water and thanking God for
the goodness of these wondrous fonta. But
they look not for a miracle.
Some things appear a little Inconsistent
and trying on the waters , and yet I know
not that the visitors go away disappointed
Tor exampie , you will see a very happy mar
ried woman , fat nnd 40 or 45 , and a long ,
lank , lingering maiden , the two quaffing at
the same well and the ono hoping to gain
what the other longs to lose.
When you have taken rooms at a hotel one
of the employes will bring you a long printed
form , which , If you fill out , will give the
sheriff or any one Interested In you a fair
history , the length of your Intended stay
your nationality and business. The form goes
to the office ot the burgermeister and from It
you are "sUed up" and assessed In what
ever class you appear to belong Third class
visitors pay between $1 and $2 , second be
tween $2 and $3 , and first-casa from $3 to $ I'
only Americans are always rated first-class
They do not Insist upon your staying there
By filing a personal protest you can have
yourself placed In whatever class you claim
to belong In , "Why do they do that ? " 1
"It Is so In all European cities , " said Jim
"The moment you enter a shop and talk
United States the price goes up To a cer
tain extent Americans are to blame for this
condition of affairs. A lot ot Americans with
more money than modesty go up and down
the world making a great noise , and they
prefer to pay the highest price rather than
be considered poor , which they often are
These rainmakers make It hard for modest
people , who are able and willing to pay hotel
bills and railway fare , but who do not cire
to pay the samrles of hotel and railway em
"But the tips or fees are light In Europe ,
are they not' "
"True , " said my friend , "But look at th <
army of people you have to tip , not less thai
ten In a first class hotel. At 10 cents apiece
that will cost you $1 a day and the legltlmati
fees on an Atlantic liner are anywhere from
$15 to $25. "
"And what , may I ask , becomes of tbo ta >
one pays Into the city treasury ? "
"first , JQU have the use ot the water foi
three weeks or six months , nnd hnvc also
the pleasure of hearing good tniMc while
you take your medicine every morning Part
of this money gees tei make and keep up the
miles'nnd miles of brnutlful wnlks , to plunt
rnrc shrubs In the very foiest , and put boxes
In the trees for the birds to build In , whose
music cheers Iho thou'nnds of sliollors who
throni ? these winding wnys"
So , nflcr nil , the tax one pays to the
munlclpillty Is very little , even If you are
first clai > s nnd ns nearly everyone lenves the
place feeling better than when he arrived ,
theie Js no complaint.
"Are all the people cured who come here ? "
I asked of Dr Grunberger , who was mcdlctl
Inspector of the district for twenty years
"Not all. " he said. "But all who take the
cure ; foi the doctor who examines the patient
will not allow him to take the water unless
ho has a disease cureablc by the Carlsbul
treatment "
There are many doctors In Carlsbad , nnl
they are largely responsible for the splendid
reputation of the place. They ore honest
enough to tell the patient to go away If they
believe his dlkcase Incurable by the u o of the .
wnters The waiters In the hotels all know
what you are allowed to cat. and when you |
ask for n tempting bit of ia try the girl will
shako her head , emllo pleisintly and tiy
1 Tint teh not gute for you " In fact , nil the
people appear to want you to get well , and be
happy go uwuy and eat bad things and c me
Now , like many others , t nm going away ,
and I have trie ! to finJ one man or woman
among the thousands here now who Is with
out faith in the cure or without hope of be
ing cured The water won't cure a ftono ,
bruise or a broken heart , perhaps , but It
will brace you up. give you an nppetl'le that ]
will help your heart to heal , and the stone-
brul e will get well of Its own accord
And whit do I know for sure ? Nothing
But I know a man who ha. been going ab-nit |
for ten long years with n leggy liver nud a
gall-ejector that wouldn't work , nnd after
twenty-fix days In Carlsbad he thlrks he to Is
better than he has felt for years , and Is al
most foolish with joy at having been cure ! ,
and he wants to tell everybody about the
wonderful waters that here come boiling up
from God's earth. CY WARMAN.
Rev. H. D. Fisher could not resist the
temptation to tell a story on a brother
minister , says the Topeka State Journal.
"It was Presiding Elder Still of the
Methodist church The good old man Is dead
now , and It can't do any harm to tell this
story of him.
"The early traveling of the elder In Kansas
was not easy. He had a mule on which he
used to ride , nnd this mule was not always
obedient Ono day the elder and his mule
encountered a swollen stream. Along the
edge of the stream the elder and his mule
strayed In hope of finding a safe crossing
Finally the elder found a tree that overhung
the stream and from which he believed ho
could swing to the other side But the mule
couldn't swing He could swim , however ,
which the elder couldn't
"All the extra clothing and the bible were
made Into a bundle nnd tied on the mule's
back nnd the animal led to the wnter He
swam safely across nnd began eating grass
on the other side
"The elder looked nt his swinging limb ,
and , dropping to his knees , prayed fervently
that ho might make no mistake In getting
across. Then he swung out and landed
"He knelt and thanked the Lord.
"But there was a new obstacle The mule
was having a good tlmo In the grass nnd re-
fueed to be caught ngnln Several well
directed efforts flew wide of the mark nnd
the good elder was In desperation He must
keep his appointment and he couldn't walk
It There was but ono thing to do nnd the
elder did It. Down In the damp grass he
dropped on his knees and prayed the Lord
to help him catch the mule.
"This Is the only Instance I ever heard of
In which a man called on the Lord to help
him catch a mule , and to his dying day the
elder firmly believed the Lord did It , though
It took them both tome time. "
In the "Life of Karl von Gcrok , " n man
distinguished as a poet and as a minister ot
the gospel , nn Incident Is given which
Illustiates not only his kindly spirit , but his
quick wit.
He was one diy walking In Stuttgart ,
carrying an umbiella. At the sime time the
prlma donna of the Stuttgart opera troupe
was tripping along the sidewalk without that
protection against the weather. Suddenly
rain began to fall and He-rr von Gerok
offered the lad the shelter ot his umbrella
Though entire Grangers to each other , they
had a pleasant chat. After awhile the
reverend gentleman remarked
"May I venture to ask your name7"
"It Is plain to see that you never go to
the opera , " answered the lady. "EveryboJy
knows that I am the leading singer at the
Court theater Now It Is my turn to ask to
whom I am Indebted for the protection of an
"Your question cleatly proves that you
never go to church , " was the reply , "for all
religious people know that I am the chief
pastor of this town , "
Something new , even fn the matter of
"standing off" the preacher , has been ills
covered , and In Kansas. When the now
dominie called on Farmer Tom Wilson of
Rock Creek , Jefferson county , a week or so
slnco for a donation toward his salary , Mr.
Wilson sild he had no money , but would give
two ro.vs of potatoes , each twenty rods long.
"If the Lord wants you to get $20 from me , "
said the farmer , "He will water the potatoes
well , and I will bo mighty glad to have you
get It. If He doesn't water them , I'm
afraid you'll not get much. "
"You are accused of seeking chean
notoriety. "
"It Isn't cheap , " protested Rev. Mr. Hovv-
lout ; "I have to pay full rates for getting
my sermons printed. They won't even give
me the usual ministerial discount. "
Dr. H B Slllman of Cohoes , N. Y. , has
given to the Presbyterian church of that
town the sum of $50,000 for the erection
of a new church.
In early life Archbishop Kaln , the coadju
tor ot the venerable Archbishop Kenrlck ol
St LoulB , was a missionary priest , am :
traversed on foot or horseback the mountain
fastnesses of West Virginia.
The proposed new Protestant Eplscopa
diocese of Washington Is to consist of tlio
District of Columbia and four counties of
Maryland Prince George , St. Mary , Charles
and Montgomery
Ex-Senator James M. Scovel of Now Jcr
soy after thirty-five years of activity In
politics , has turned evangelist , and , under
the direction of Dwlght L Moody , will hol <
revival meetings throughout the Unltei
Rev Edward D'Aqulln. rnctor r { the
Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmcl Now
qrk , has fallen heir to a large fortune by
( lie recent death of his father at Naples
Captain Henry fiundy. now 67 , Is ono o
the most Intel estlng characters of the grea
lakes He la known as the "sailor cvango
1st , " and for twenty yearn has been doing
missionary work among the lake mariners
Ho distributes tracts , cells bibles , and when
a family Is unable to purchase a bible b
presents It with ( inc.
Ray York , aged 12 , and Brvln F Lake
aged 17 , are holding successful revival ecrv
Ices In Missouri. Ray was converted wlic
C years of age , and not long attervtnn
united with the Uaptlet church , at one
becoming a preacher. Ervln Is the paste
of the First Baptist church of Mount Car
me ) , III , and Is eald to be the youngeu
pastor In the world
The up-to-date women of the Trinity Prot
cstant Episcopal church In Towton. Md , ar
raising money with which to buy a blcycl
for the rector ot the church , which he i
to use In making pastoral visits and In at
tending to other duties ,
The steamship Berlin tailed the othe
day from New York carrying the big poly
glot temperance petition , which U to b
taken around the world , betides about 1C (
delegates who accompanied It on their wa
to the biennial session of the World'
Christian Temperance union in London.
Meeting of the Stnto Federation at tlio
Oreto Ohdutaiunia.
rrutnntlng Socltt mill IMticutlonnl Improve *
ini'iit mill lointilnhiR tlio llmt Irnturci
of Individual Unlit A tlrowinc
1'imcr for Onod ,
The corn colored badges prevailed on the
diy appointed for the State reiteration ot
Woman's clubs at the Crete
grounds. The ministers and Iccturcis cycj ,
the ( women with some doubt , not quite under
standing what they wished or Intended Tim
persons ' from whom the most was expected
were conspicuously absent , but others sup
plied i their places as best they could. Ai
the program went on the faces In the
audience rehxed and even grow Interested
when It was shown that the club meant
nothing hostile to the good and happiness
of all men and women. The State Federa
tion of Nebraska was formed last December ,
nnd nt present embraces thirty-five clubs.
Seventeen ' of these were represented nt thla
meeting ' , tlmo for which was courteously
granted i by the Crcto Clmulauciua manage
ment. :
The officers of the federation asked for the
place on the program that the women might
have ] on opportunity of becoming acquainted
previous 1 to the first regular meeting of the
federated clubs , which will bo held In Lin
coln In October Iho Crete club women
made the occasion of grinter use In this di
rection by giving a delightful reception on
the grounds , where all were Introduced and
various plans discussed In an Informal man
ner for a couple of hours
Many Ideas as to the possibilities ot this
organization were advanced The need ot
state federations Is clearly apparent because
of the great size of the general federation ,
of the different needs of the different sec
tions , and beciuso Iho general federation
will naturally be In the hands of the most
celebrated. The federation Is Intended to bo
to the state what the club Is to the com
munity It was felt by most that the com
mingling of different clubs would prove ai >
Inspiration to each other. It would bo
especially helpful to women In the smaller
towns. Concentration of work and Ideas Is
apt o be much greater In n small town than
In n city because of less diversion , but miny
of the smaller clubs need the Inspiration
nnd enthusiasm of the larger So the feder
ation becomes mutually helpful
Theic Is no doubt that the prime object
of the federation Is education ! ) As Indl-
vidmls are Influenced by social and Intel
lectual culture , oommuntlts arc reached ,
homes are Improved , there Is a cl'innml fop
better fcchools , for choicer leading , and for
ore healthy turrouiullngj. The sentiment
lat the Innocent must bo protects ! and the
Ic'ous ' restrained , reformed. If possible , In-
reases Of course many genomes are agl-
ated and projects entertained that provo
utlle , but this result Is not chaiacterlstlo
f hone t endeavor or of women's organlza-
ons Women a clubs are mi Influence for
oad reading , and for starting public II-
rarlcs , or If that Is not possible , mnall clr-
ulatlng libraries with hooks of reference ,
n this day of cheap editions , many news-
apers , magazines and cyclopedias In every
ommunlty , systematic rending and study
ro posslbie and easy. If need be , the
trougir clubs might assist the weaker to
ooks of study or reference. Many Infill-
nces have paved the way for the club movc-
ifnt , but today It Is not an object of de-
IMon. The club Is a democratic body.
Vhllo many have restilcted membership to
eep their working force fiom becoming un-
telldly , there Is nothing1 to prevent a new
lub being formed , with the possibility ot
ederatlon membership for a nominal sum.
"lie smaller clubs have the advantage of
ersoml effoit , the larger ones of financial
trength , and probably the benefit of espf-
lally gift d leaders. Yet. bright minds and
; een wits appear In most unexpected places.
The parliamentary value Is not to be under-
stimated While during Inexpetlenc'd days
omen may inrjulie of their husbands at
ionic , according to scripture nile , It Is be-
levcd that when the boys of the present club
\omen become men tliey will know how to
conduct a church bublncss meeting or go
.hrough a session of the city council , should
hey chance to be In It. The Idea that club
vcmen are not home women was discussed
t length , and It was declde-ily the consen
sus ot opinion that good club women nro
cooks on the economical , health giving : and
clentlfic plan They arc housekeepers with
out being foiced to do every detail cf the
\ork themselves as their grandmothers did ;
luy are good , faithful mothera , the prldo
rather than the slave of their children.
When their husbands como homo they can
llecuss the silver question and talk Intclll-
; ently on the tariff , provided said husbands
lo their part.
Much emphasis was placed upon the fact
that the Interests of men and women nro
Identical and that whatever Is tiuly for the
inpiilncfK and Improvement of tfie one is
equally so for the other.
The federation Is Intended to embody and
itllUo the best of the Individual clubs. Its
cotiitesy can be of the truest , Its kindness
: ho slncerest. Us alms and aspirations tha
"ilghtst and noblest. T. C. II.
311/.MO A It J\Jj ;
National banks were established In the
United States In ISlfl The hlghc't denomina
tion of o ir legal tender notes Is $10,000 and
our circulation of paper money Is the largest
In the. world , being $700,000,000 , while Rus
sia has $670,000000.
Impartial writers say that the gold con
tained In the fncdils , vessels , chains and
other objects preserved In the Vatican would
make more gold coin than the whole ot the.
present European circulation
Bills of exchange were first used by the
Jews In 11CO and In England In 1307. The.
first English exchange was called the "buree"
and was opened In London by Queen Eliza
The capital employed In banking In the
principal countries Is as follows. Great
Britain , $4,020,000,000 ; United States , $2,655-
000.000 , Germany. $1,425,000.000 ; France ,
$1,025.000.000 , Austria , $830,000,000 ; Russia ,
$775.000,000 ; Italy , $455000.000 , Australia.
$425,000,000 , Canadi , $175,000,000.
The term bankrupt originated In connec
tion with the money changers of Italy. They
sat In the market pUce with their money dis
played on a bench ( or banca , as It was
called ) , before them. When ono of these
financial gentleman failed his banca ( or
bench ) was said to be broken and ho was
styled a "bancarotto , " or bankrupt The
modern bank Inherits Its name , from the un-
Impoelng money bench ( banca ) of mediaeval
Sterling signifies money ot the legalized
standard of coinage of Great Britain and Ire
land The term , according to ono theory , Is a
corruption ot Easterllng a person from North
Germany , on the continent of Europe and
therefore from the cast In rela
tion to England The Easterllngs were In
genious artisans who came to England In the
reign of Henry HI to refine the * silver
money and the coin they produced was called
monetaesterllngorum the money of the
The Dink oi . . . . . .nil was projected by H
Scotchman , V. l.l'.m ' 1'atcreon , and established
1(191 ( It stalled with a government loan ot
$6.000,000 at 8 per cent , aecurtd on taxes.
The charter appointed a governor and twenty-
four directors to be annually elected from
members of the company poueiilng not less
than JJ.COO In block. The South sea bub
ble (1720) ( ) , the Jacobite rebellion (1715) ( ) and
the failure of a number of country binki
(1792) ( ) seriously affected the bank The bank
charter act of 1811 limited the note circula
tion to $70,000,000 , agalnnt a like amount
lent to the government , uuless a similar
value In bullion were In hand. The act wan
suipended during the panics of 15i7 , 1852
and 1SCC.