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About Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922 | View Entire Issue (July 14, 1895)
i 10 THE CXMAITA DAILY ; SUNDAY , JULY 14 , 1805.
A WILDCAT AT HOME.
Down Big ( intno with
Bow and Arrow.
( Copyright , JfcM , by Maurice Thompson. )
High up In the mountain region of North
Carolina , near "the Tennessee line nnd not
far from where the great lllue Ridge breaks
Into diverging spurs which fret the pictur
esque bank of Cherokee Georgia , wo tco'.c ' pos
session of a shack beside a spring. Our
front doorway gave upon the sharp , rocky
decllgo sweeping down to a trout brook , and
our back door opened Into a shallow cave or
cleft In a natural wall of stone. U was a
cool , lonely place , where for three days , or EO
long as our provisions should last , we pro-
tfosed to have our headquarters , while we
angled nnd shot round about. The shack
had been built years before by sand diggers
or chestnut gatherers.
It was late In October , but the weather
still had Its hot smack of summer at mid
day , with dellclously chill nights to sleep
through ; the air dry , the leaves scarcely
touched by frost ; Indeed , on unusually flue
autumn wns at Its prime ; and by day the
sun swung over the arch of cloudless blue
from rising to setting , nnd at night the moon ,
near Its full , dashed n strange splendor over
grim peaks nnd dusky valleys.
Will and I had the thought of largo game
In our heads. A deer , n wolf , a bear , some
thing worth telling about must come to bag
If possible , for there Is no bottom to the well
of a youth's Imagination , no horizon bound to
his ambition. To say the truth , I was
then almost a man In size , nlthoueh but a
boy In years , and Will was muscled like a
race horse for speed nnd strength. We
were beginning to feel the need of danger
to give tone to our sylvan life.
I may as well tell you"at once that we did
not kill a deer or a wolf , but the dash of
danger came ( fulte suddenly and to our sat
isfaction when wo were least expecting It.
Will had killed two fine trout In a pool
Just below the shack. This-was early on the
third morning of our stay. He was bringing
Will's nrm ns ho waa on the point of
making a liusty shot.
his beautiful catch up the dlfllcult slope by a
zig-zag loute through the labyrinth of
tumbled rocks nnd dense clumps of mountain
laurel when his quick eye saw ah animal ,
. long , sleek and of n brownish gray color ,
lying In a horizontal fissure or space between
two strata of a cliff not ten yards distant.
It was outstretched and looked very vigorous
and lithe , with short ears , a broad head and
I knew that something had stirred Will's
blood. As soon as he came In sight the
pallor on his face showed through tho- tan ,
and his eyes burned with excitement.
"Maurice , " he said under hl breath and
giving the look of one who has met fate ,
"there's a panther down yonder. "
It was my turn to feel a chill and have a
short breath or two.
"A panther , where ? " I demanded , halt
Incredulous , yet knowing that Will had seen
something of the sort.
"Ulglit down there , " Indicating the di
rection by a jerk of his head. He had his
rod In ono hand , his fish In the other. "It's
lying In a largo crack between two rocks
half way up the second cliff this side of the
brook. " Ills lips looked dry.
"A panther ? " I repeated.
"It must bo , and asleep ; stretched out
like a cat. "
I took a few more deep breaths to get my
nerves steady and bring my stampeded
wits together. My own tongtio felt furry.
"A big one ? " I presently Inquired.
"No , that Is I think not ; a young- one , not
quite full grown. It never saw mo ; didn't
wako up. "
Wo looked hard nt each ether and I re
member well the expression of Will's coun
tenance and the trepidation In my own
breast. Of one thing you may rest as
sured , however , scared or not neither of us
had any mind to shirk this grand oppoi
tunlty. If that animal had been a Dongal
tiger our duty would have appeared to us In
the form of attack , with no doubts about
victory. We went to the mountains for
big game. We had hoped for danger , now
It was time to show our metal , but I do not
deny that the thought of a rifle flashed
Into my brain while I was setting my bow
string and. selecting a dozen heavy steel-
Looking back at the adventure now , I see
how foolhardy boys are and how much
they need oTlevel-hcaded man to take coun
sel of In times of emergency. Wo went
right down to attack that wild beast with
out attempting to count the possible or
probable cost. The exhilaration of danger
made our blood tingle.
This js no melodrama , no blood-curdling
fiction that I am writing. Therefore , not
to hold you In suspense I state that Itva >
not a panther , not even a young one , we
"W couM haiill ) ' trmk * our friends * | ve It
Van tlic Icgltlmute trupliy uf our archery.
were going to beard In Its den. It was ,
however , a dangerous animal which might
easily bring us to grief should wo give It
but half an opportunity and at the tlmo wo
thought It a panther. Credit us with fool
hardy courage , at least.
With commendable carefulness , however ,
wo proceeded down the mountain's shaggy
Bldo , Will leading the way , until wo were
very near the rock escarpment In a cleft
or parting < if .which the enemy was sleeping ,
or rather crouching , for when we saw It It
was wldo axvako and glaring at us with
elongated , cruel looking eyes' ,
"There Ir Is , " Will whispered -huskily.
"It ECCS us. "
At n filanco I Know what It was ; Instead
of a , young pautber , nn enormous Jull-
grown' wildcat confronting us , ten yards
uwayV Itift \ * .crouching on ll belly.
I caught Will's arm as ho was on the
point ot making a hasty shot.
"llo cool , " I fcald. "It'll a wildcat. Let's
Co carefully ami' make sure. It's a big oue ,
Hold 011. n , monicpt. " *
t wajui-ij time to think and collect my
"It won't do to miss , " T muttered , "re
member. steady aim nud drive your ar
row with all your might. "
At ton'yards there was little chance ol
missing co largo an animal U we tool
reasonable- card with our aim.
Jile.intlmo It had turned Itself with c
squirming motion so that Its br a t wai
tnlrly presented below Us broad , flattened
head. The danger was that wo inluhl
overshoot , being BO near anil standing oc
lower ground than the animal occupied.
"Not too high. Will , " I added , as wo bo-
" It at nine yards. "
Kan to draw , "I guess
A he spoke the cat sprang down the face
of the rock and disappeared In some butucs
at the bottom ,
"Look out , It's coming ! " cried Will.
And It was coming. I heard It on the
ground , scrambling toward us on the dry
It probibly did not mean to attack us ; I
am not sure , but the next moment we saw-
It emerging from the thickest part of the
cover and looking decidedly ugly. U was
not moving fast , nor did It pause when wo
confronted It with drawn bows. It's motion
was that of a common cat when creeping
toward Its prey. There was a detestable
gleam In Its yellowish eyes.
I shot first when the animal wns not
more than six yards away. Will's bow
string rang the next moment and with u
scream not comparable to any other sound
1 have ever heard the wildcat leaped high ,
sprawling Its legs In the air and fell back
ward hard lilt by both arrows and then U
began snarling nnd snapping furiously.
It was a savage brute and would have
made bad work could It have reached us ,
but we shot rapidly , while It tore around
madly with tooth nnd claw , and every a.-
ron- told , the range was so short.
When wo reached home with the pelt of
that wlhlcat we could scarcely make our
friends believe that It was a legitimate
trophy of our archery. I had n bullet
pouch made of It soon afterward , which
with a fine powderhorn attached was cap
tured by some of Sherman's men when on
the march through Georgia they plundered
my father's plantation house two mllca
west of Calhoun. If any gojd man has pos
session of that pouch and powderhorn now ,
ho will know It by the Inscription on the
horn's butt , "M. T. , I860 , " nnd please senti
It home. I shall be glad to pay the express
charges and good measure of thanks be
In 1867 wo killed another nnd still larger
wildcat In Florida. In all , we have bagged
five , the last one near old Ducktown cop
per mines In old Tennessee , but the largest
of all In Clark county , Kentucky.
I do not advise boys to get It Into their
heads that It Is nothing but fun to go bow-
shooting after wildcats. True , I have
never been hurt by one of these creatures ,
but they are dangerous game and you must
bo right nervy when you tackle one. The
other day , not so very far fruni where 1
live , ono sprang from a trco upon a man
and almost tore him to pieces.
1IAN.NAH AND , IOK.
The Interesting Citrrcr of Two I'uttlifiil
l.lttlc i : < lclnii < .
( Copyrighted , 1183 , by Sarnh K. Ilolton. )
In the year 1831 Captain Budlngton of
Groton , Conn. , passed the winter In Cumber-
lantl Inlet , west of Greenland. Here ho met
Jco and Hannah on the island of Klm-lck-
su-lc , so called because Its Hat center , cov
ered with grass , resembles a dogskin. Han
nah was 12 years old , dressed In fur panta
loons and short fur overdress , and bore the
name of Too ko-ll-tco , In her own language.
Joe was a good deal older , and his real name
A few years afterward a merchant from
Hull , England , Mr. Uolby , met them at Cum
berland gulf , where they had corno off the
Island to trade , and prevailed upon them to
take the long Journey to England. When he
reached homo ho made a large company , and
In the presence cf these guests the young
woman Hannah was married to Joe. Mr.
llolby took them to several places In England
and Scotland , and they were finally pre
sented to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
The queen was deeply Interested In these
people from the far north , In Urltlsh America ,
and asked them to dine with .her. If the
queen was pleased with the sincere , unedu
cated , fur-dressed pair , Hannah was no less
pleased with the gracious queen In her ele
gant home , so entirely different from a snow
hut. She always said Victoria was "very
kind , very much lady. " After two years they
returned to Cumberland Inlet , and In 18CO
Charles P. Hall , the explorer , met them.
Everybody In both England and America
had become deeply Interested In the fate of
Mr John Franklin. He had left England in
1815 with two ships , the Erebus and Terror ,
with 134 persons in search of the North Pole.
After two yeurs. relief parties were sent out
to nnd them. Lady Franklin spent all her
largo fortune In sending out ships to search
for her missing husband.
ESKIMOS KNEW OF FRANKLIN'S
Finally , In 1850 , the graves of three of the
men were found at the far north , on Deechy
Island , west of Hannah's home , so that the
course which Franklin took was known ,
. -'our years later Ir. Race of England heard
from the Eskimos that a large company of
white men had starved on King William Land
far to the northwest of Baffin's bay , and he
obtained from the Eskimos many articles
which belonged to Franklin and his men.
After England had spent over $5,000,000 In
searching for Franklin It was ascertained
hat both his ships had gone to pieces In
ho Ice.off the west coast of King William
vand , and that his poor men had starved and
frozen as they .wandered over the Ice In a
vain search for food or friends. Then skele-
: ons were found In boats or snowbanks , and
; helr\ boots , watches and silver had become
he property of the Eskimos. Sir John died
two years after the ships left England , and
must have been burled in the ocean.
HANNAH AND JOE AS EXPLORERS.
Some persons believed that the Franklin
; > arty were not all dead. Charles Francis
Hall was an engraver at Cincinnati , O. Ho
tvas poir , and with no Influential friends , but
ho felt that the Lord had called him to the
work of finding some of the Franklin men.
lie read all ho could find about Arctic life.
He ntked of prominent men and learned
societies money , nnd , finally , after enough
obstacles to discourage any other man , ob
tained enough to build a boat and put up
1200 pounds of food for the Journey. A New
London firm gave him a frco passage on cna
ot their ships , and ho went , In I860 , to the
far north , discovering relics of Sir Martin
Kroblsher's expedition made 300 years before.
His boat was lost , to he had to return to
America , and brought with him Joe apd Han
nah , who had been with him two years , and
who were devotedly attached to him.
In 1861 Hall started again with Joe and
Hnnnah , and north of Hudson bay lived five
years among the Eskimos , eating their raw
food and living In their igloos or snow hute.
Joe , with great skill , would kill a walrus ,
which sometimes weighs 2,000 pounds , or
would watch two whole nights near a hole In
the Ice where the seal comes up to breathe ,
that he might spear It for his master.
In 1SC6 , May 14 , the only child of Joe and
Hannah died while on one of Hall's Journeys.
According to custom the distracted mother ,
at the plain funeral , carried the dead baby
In a fur blanket suspended from her neck.
Captain Hall put this note In , the fur cap
covering the head of the child : "These are
the mortal remains of little King William ,
the only child of Eblerblng and Too-koo-ll
too , the Intprpreters of the lost Franklin Re
search Expedition. Qcd hath Us soul now
and ulll keep It from all hntm. "
Later Hall visited King William Land and
brought away 125 pounds of relics of Franklin
and his men. Among these was a complete
skelptch , proved from the filling of a tooth
to bo that of an olllcer of the ship Erebus.
Hall fslt sure now that all the party were
dead. Joe and Hannah came back to the
fitJtcs with Hall , bringing a little 3-year-oli :
girl which they had adopted. They bough
her of her parents for a sled , Hannal
named her Sylvia Grlnnell , after the Qrtnnel
family , celebrated for their gifts toward
Arctic research ' , but her real name was
I'unna. " * T " 4tt - . . . .vf - "
A THIRD TRIP TO THE KAR NORTH.
Captain Hall made his third voyage tn the
ship Polaris In 1S71 for the North Pole , tak
Ing his devoted Joe and Hannah and little
I'uun.i. He reached a higher point In Smith
sound than had been reached by any othe
vestel at that time , and anchored In a barber
bor protected by an Iceberg 450 feet long and
300 broad , calling the place Thank God liar
bor. In the autumn ot this year Hall diet
very suddenly , and his men spent two day
In digging a grave only two feet deep. H
wai burled at 11 In the forenoon , but to
dark was It In that high latitude that Ian
terns were carried. Poor Hannah eobbec
aloud at the death of her belt friend. Th
party on the Polarli determined to return
cot caught la tha Ice , and U was dctertnluei
o abandon her nnd throw the provisions and
lothlng out on the Ice. In the midst of
his work , tn the night , the ship drifted
way , with fourteen persons on board , leav-
ng on a piece of Ice 100 yards long and
eventy-flvo broad Captain Tyson nnit eight
white men and nine Eskimos , Including three
vomen and a baby 8 weeks old. Hannah and
'unna were among them.
GAL TWO HANNAH & JOE
A dreadful snow storm came on. and the
hlvcrlng creatures huddled together under
omo musk ox skins. Later they built n
ttle house from materials thrown out of
ho ship and floated down lialtln's bay and
) avls strait , the Ice constantly crumbling
nd the t ea washing over them. They useJ
P all their boats save one for fuel , nnd
vere only kept alive through the heroic ef-
orts ot Joe and another Eskimo , Hans , who
aught some seals for them , which were
agerly eaten uncooked , with the- skin and
mir on. They had only a little moldy
> read , nnd the sufferings of the children
ran hunger were painful to witness.
Once , when nearly all were dead from
larvatlon , Joe saved them by killing a bear ,
le and Hannah , retuml to leave Captain
Tyson anJ the party when they were drlft-
ng past their homo at Cumberland Inlet ,
ven when It was probable that the Eskimos
hcmsclvcs must be used for food by the
amlshed white men. After drifting 1,500
nllea In , lx months (19C ( days ) , one of the
nest thrilling Journeys on record , the party
vau rescued off the coast of Labrador by the
English ship Tigress.
EARLY DEATH OF THE LITTLE ES
Hannah and Joe settle ! at Groton In 1873
n a little house purchased for them by their
good friend , "Father Hall. " Joe became a
arpenter nnd Hannah ma-Je up furs and
ther articles on her sewing machine.
Two years later , In 1875 , their beloved
Ittlo Punna died , nt the age of 9. She was
much beloved In the Groton schools.
The next year Hannah , at the ago ot 38 ,
led of consumption , her health broken by
he exposure on the Ice lloe. She had long
> een an earnet-t Christian , loving and reacl-
ng her bible dally. She was tenderly cared
or by Mrs. Captain Iludlngton nnd others ,
aylng at the last : "Come , Lord Jesus , and
ako thy poor creature home. " A handsome
: cno mark. ? the grave of the faithful Han
nah In the cemetery. Joe came often to
he graves on the hillside of Groton , and
aid nt last : "Hannah gone ! Punna
gone ! Me go now again to King William
Land ; I have to fight ; me no care. " He
vent with Lieutenant Schwatka In the
franklin search party , June 19 , 1878 , and
never returned to the Unite ! States.
SARAH K. HOLTON.
I'll.lTTLK UJTllK yUlTXaHTKUS.
Harper's Round Table : "Waldo , " said Mr.
lostone , "your mamma tells me that you
called her a mean , stingy thing today. "
"Yes , father , I did , " replied the boy , with
"And don't you know It was very wrong
of you to do so ? "
"Yes , father. The word stingy and mean
convey the same Idea , and I was guilty of a
bit of tautology of which I am heartily
ashamed , but In the heat of my wrath at
ler refusal to bestow a second morsel of pie
upon me , I completely forgot all questions of
rhetorical Import. "
Somervlllo Journal : First Little Girl
And Isn't your cat afraid of mice ?
Second Little Girl Oh , no , not a single
First Little Girl That's queer. And she's
a lady cat , too. Isn't she ?
New York Mercury : Sunday School
Teacher Now , children , we have read the
story of Rebecca waiting nt the well. Who
can tell me why she waited there ?
Willy Dee I can. Her sweetheart was n
milkman , nnd she J < ncw that was the surest
place to find him.
Detroit Free Press : Mother I am not
whipping you because you went In swimming ,
jut because you told a story about It.
Boy ( blubbering ) Welt , If you didn't
want to whip me anyhow , what did you ask
me about It for ?
Chicago Record : Sunday School Teacher
Why did the naughty children mock the
prophet Ellsha when he went up the hill ?
Little Johnny Because he had to get off
lis wheel and walk.
( Written for The nee. )
High up above the haunts of fevered men ,
As If some angel sought Its pure repose ,
And near to heaven ns things of earth may
The edelweiss blooms In the Alpine snows.
As soft nml velvety Its stalnlets white
( And they say , too , who live below , as
Howbeit 'tis the emblem of young love.
Cloud-kissed and rare the llowcret doth
The slow plebeian herdsman hath no skill
To tell the love to which his life doth
He knows the song his heart sings all day
And yet the words are fettered there at
There's not a bird that carols to the morn ,
There's not a bee which sips the sweet
Nor anything In nature's noble realm
But seems to him that deep love to dis
\nd often , when the Alpine evening wane1 * .
The musing swain looks up with tender
Marvels how much his life might still con
If , when the morning mellowed In tha skies ,
His hand mluht pluck this blossom of the
In truth , they say It hath so strange n
It wins the inald whose heart had else been
It It Is found nnd given In her name.
Precipitous , alas ! the mighty peaks ,
So delicately poised that but the stride
Of some light , errlns foot doth often send
An avalanche a-down the mountain side.
And hero It grows ! What brooding poet
The pure significance It proudly bears.
There where the mountaineer may search
In vain ;
There , high above men's murmurlncs nnd
cares. KATHKYN HUSH.
PRESSURE OF THE DEEPS ,
Grave Coincqucncn ot Hiving Ono Hun
dred nnd Sixty I > ct.
The steamer Alfonso XII. , having on board
ten boxes of gold coin , each box worth
$50,000 , struck on a rock and sank at Grand
Janary while on a voyage from Cadiz to
Havana In 1SS6.
It was ascertained , says the Boston
Traveler , that the specie was at n depth of
Lwenty-elx and two-third fathoms 160 feet
and grave doubts were entertained of the
possibility of any diver being able to with
stand the tremendous pressure Incidental to
such a depth , viz. , sixty-seven pounds to
every superficial square Inch of his body.
Experiments .at this depth were made off
Dartmouth , and two men , Lambert and
Tcssler , were found equal to the perilous
task , dresses having been prepared which
would remain water-tight at this great
An expedition > vas sent out by the Marine
Insurance company , the divers to receive a
reward of 5 per cent , or $2,500 on each box
recovered. Lambert got up seven boxes and
Tctsler two. So terrible was the pressure
that neither man could stay below for mure
than a few minutes , and Lambert , for some
time after his return , suffered from chronic
paralysis of the bowels , by which he was In
many respects reduced to the hopeless con
dition of a babe In the cradle. Probably a
tightly sealed kettle , sent down empty to the
same depth , would have been crushed fiat.
As It was , tlje divers only succeeded In
finding nine boxes out of the ten , JoO.OW
thus remaining below.
A subsequent expedition went In search ol
this box , and the diver , after being down
for twenty minutes , was hauled up , only to
die. Not a whit discouraged , another ex-
nedUloji went out with two divers from
The first of these was promptly hauled up
half dead , only to be sent ashore to the
hospital , raving mad ; the other went down
but returned , declaring that no box wai
there. Whether ho really got to far as the
lazaretto from which the nine boxes were
taken Is open to doubt. The pressure a
tuch depths must be positively crushing.
In the accounts of one of the deep sea
dredging expeditions It Is mentioned tha
when the trawl was raised from a grea
depth the pressure proved to have been sucl
as to crush together the wood of thu traw
becm , so that the knots started out of It.
The Keystone Iron works of Reading , Pa.
have resumed operations after three years
Idleness , . . . .
'Say ' Not that the Fmm r Tim's Were Far
Better Than Taoso. "
IS EVIDENCE TO THE CONTRARY
low Ilio Diiilillm ntitniced tn 1,1 vnVltli -
out the CciiviMiloiicennf Our liny The
It Is common with some men , especially
hose advanced In life , to complain of the
irescnt and to contrast It with "tho good
Id times , " to the .advantage of the latter.
The habit of decrying the age In which we
Ivo Is old ; even In the days of Cicero there
vere croakers who lamented the departure of
ancient times and customs , and It may be , EO
ommon Is this hahlt to people advanced In
yea'rs , that even Adam In his old age grunt-
ilcd to live about how the times were chang-
ng , and that the world was different from
vhut It was when he and the mother of nuin-
clnd were young. But nothing Is more certain
han that the world Is wiser , better , happier
odny than ever before. So rqpld has been Its
irogrcss In all directions that In compani
on , the people of even a century ago were
avages. It Is difficult for us , says the
St. Louis Globe-Democrat , accustomed as
ve are to the conveniences and comforts of
nodern life , to understand how our grund-
athera could have lived without them. The
vorld has moved so fast and gone EO far that
nany things now deemed Indispensable and
vithln the means of the poorest , were then
regarded as luxuries obtainable only by the
rery wealthy ; while by far the greater por-
lon of appliances In everyday use were
hen absolutely unknown. Their day had
lot then come. A glance Into any history of
discoveries and Inventions snows that the
vorld has made more progress In the last 100
years than the preceding ten centuries.
A hundred years ago there was not a mile
of railroad track , not a locomotive , not a
railroad car , not a railroad Invention , not a
lelegraph line , not a phonograph , rot a type
writer , not even an effective system of short-
liand In the world. The steamboat was an
experiment whose success was greatly
doubted ; steam engines were looked upon
with grave suspicion. In England the com
mon people regarded Watt as ? a necromancer ;
.n . America there were a few steam engines
which had been brought from the old country ,
but not much was thought of their working
power. A hundred years ago thtre was not
in accordion nor an apple-parer In existence.
Balloons were In their Infancy , blast fur
naces unknown. There was not a gas pipe ,
not a gas jet In the world , nor even an Ar-
gand lamp , and coal oil , procured In very-
small quantities , was.soH In little vials as a
specific for rheumatism. The poor used a
"rush" light , made by Hipping a dried rush
nto the most convemeimsort of fat or grease ;
: he middle classes used candles of tallow ;
: he rich burned Bperm < or wax. Chlnawure
was not In common use ; a few years before
1790 a factory was set up by Wedgewood , and
was not at that time a success. The circular
sa\y waa In the. hands of Its Inventor. The
farmer shelled corn by hand and with the
assistance of a cob. Whitney was busy with
the Idea of a cotton gin , which he was com
pleting In 1783. The features of the people
were preserved far future generations by
: neans of oil paintings or crayon portraits ,
.or ' daguerreotypes and photographs were un
Miners were subject to constant danger
'rom explosions , for there were no Eafrty
amps. People left one page of letter paper
blank , folded It over the rest , and scaled It
with wax , ' for envelopes were not made
Letters wore not stamped ; postage was paid
it the time ; the letter paper was unruled ,
lor there were no ruling machines. No rub
ier bands were In existence to hold papers
together , ! or India rubber had not yet been
Drought from the depths of the Brazilian
[ orcst ; papers were sewed together in place
of bolnp fastened with convenient clamps ,
and were then tied with the traditional red
tape. Handkerchiefs wore known only to
the wealthy , and seldom made use of by
them , being first made popular by the Em
press Josephine , who had bad teeth , and
concealed the deformity by holding a hand
kerchief before her lips when she laughed.
Linen collars and cuffs were unthought ot ,
and starch was little used by either richer
or poor. The fanners cut grain with a
sickle , for the scythe and cradle had1 not
Seen invented , while harvesters , reapers and
mowers and twine-binders were undreamed
of. There were no horse railroads In the
streets , no stages save for long journeys ,
no Ice machines , no Ironclads , no rilled
guns. The knitting was all done by hand ,
[ or stocking machines were not In existence ,
nor were lightning rods nor lifeboats. There
were no road wagons ; musical Instruments
were scarce and costly. There were a few
clavichords and harpsichords , and although
some of the greatest composers had finished
their work , their compositions had not been
leard on the Instruments best adapted to
them. Bach never heard his compositions
Clayed on a piano. Nails were made by
iiand. There was no straw paper ; there
were no paper bags , nor skates , nor steel
ions. Coal tar was not In existence , so
hero were no aniline dyes nor flavoring ex
tracts. The power press bad not come Into
Delng ; printing was done by hand ; nor wap
there any stereotyping.
NO REVOLVERS OH BANKS. ;
There were no revolvers for the use ot
the criminal classes ; highwaymen armed
themselves with horse pistols a foot long ,
giving a report like a young cannon. There
were no savings banks , no seed drills , no
sewing machines , no machines for making
shoes , uo steam fire engines , no stem-wind
ing watches , no street sweepers , for sweep
ing was never done save at crossings. The
streets were unpav d ; at the corners and
on both sides of the way , stepping stones
were placed about a Soot apart that pedes
trians might be kept cut of the mire , and
these steps , on a rainy day , caused frequent
conflicts between citizens anxious to keep
their feet out of the mud. There were no
tacks , and consequently no jokes about
stepping on these Instruments of torture.
There was no machine-made thread. Vac-
clnnatlon had been In use about ten years ,
aut had not come to America , and In Eng
land Jenncr sometimes found It necessary
to have himself attended by a guard to
prevent violence- from the common people.
There was no wooduu pavement , no wood
paper ; very few roomaUn America had car
pets on the floors , sand being used Instead.
There were no factory-made chairs , no water
pipes In the streets ; * there was no water
In the houses Bare -what was carried In
tiy hand ; nor weret there any house fur
naces. Cooking In winter was done In Iron
pots before a might)1- hearth , and In the
outhouses In summer.- The windows would
not lift , for window weights had not been
Invented. . The sasbch sometimes opened
outwardly like ourtshutters , but were not
often used In this \ y , for the Importance
of ventilation was TIM understood.
A hundred years a.no there were no med
ical colleges worthy ) ot the name In Amer
ica ; a young doctarlleirned his trade from
an old doctor , a ad In the course of six
months' study acquirud the art of mixing
tbo big doses which rtvcre then In common
use. There were ad > drug stores , with their
long array ot bottles labeled with unpro
nounceable names. Moat of the chemicals
now In use are ot the present century. No
patent medicines vee employed. In the
spring of the year people drugged themselves
with huge doses of senna and manna , as
well as of rhubarb , of brimstone and trea
cle. Ague Ma were common , but thcru
was no quinine for thalr alleviation ; pounded
Peruvian bark , at an enormous price , an
swered the purpose. There was no mor
phine , no bromide of any kind , no chloral ,
There wa no mercy for the tick man.
"Bleed him till he faints , " was the favorite
precept of more than ono physician. It.
New England , at least , there was no chance
to escape the church service. The preacher
often preached for four hours at a time ,
noted his audience very carefully , and any
member of the flock abient without suffi
cient excuse was waited upon the next day
by the constable , hauled before the must"-
trate , admcnlihed , and uoon a second of-
fenw. was fined and put In the stocks , A
wealthy clergyman was unknown ; the
preacher was paid in kind , and received
during the year a little ol. everything that
hlii flock ate nml wore. Each parlshlniict
deposited at the door nt his spiritual ad
viser a little corn , a few potatoes , a llttit >
wood , a little salt perk , a little hominy ,
some , oats , a fowl or two , some fish , n
piece or two of corn beef. Illch editors
were as scarce as wealthy preachers ; their
subscribers paid their dues In wood. , corii
and wheat ; the editors were apparently
always asking for money and never getting
CAHUYINO THE MAILS.
There were no regular malls , for the mall
carrier was never scut out until he had
enough matter to pay the expenses ( if the
trip. The mall between New York nml
Huston , In 1794 , was carried In n single
pair 'of raddle-bag ; , and when Its quantlt )
had Increased so that two pair wore neces
sary , the carrier rebelled and struck for
higher wages. No facilities for traveling
existed. A man starting from Massachu
setts to Virginia made his will and bade lls :
friends farewell , as though ho never was to
roe them again. Two stage coaches plica
between New York and Boston , were from
six to nine days on the road , and passed
each other on the way. In the cities of
100 years ago there were a few street lamps
fed by whale or train oil , but they were
seldom lighted , except on gala occasions ,
fpr everybody was In bed shortly aftei
dark. A century ago there was no sleep
for the boys In the churches ot New Yorker
or Boston , for a man with n polo stoo'l
ready to prctl the sleepy youth and tliti ?
keep him alive to a fence of the spiritual
condition. Nor was there any escape from
the collection , for a deacon passed round
with it bag at the end of a pole , to which
a little bell was attached to call the atten
tion of the drowsy contributors. No organb
were used In the churches , and the singing
was so slow that one preacher testifies
ho had time to take breath twice on one
note. Our great-grandfathers had no coal ,
nor were they fortunate enough to possess
matches. When the lire accidentally went
out during a long winter's night a boy was
dispatched In the morning with n thovel
to the nearest neighbors to bring fire. If
there were no neighbors an effort was made
to kindle a blaze by a handful of whittled
shavings. Ignited by powder touched off
with flint and steel. Stone houses were few ,
those of brick still fewer. In the country
log houses were fashionable , and In cities
most of the houses were of frame work.
There was not a chromo In America , nor
were there any statues ; marble cutting wa
unknown. There were no visiting cards , no
engraved Invitations , no paper boxes.
THE WAY OF THE TRANSGRESSOR
Our great-grandfathers had no mercy on
prisoners. In Newgate , Conn. , an old mine
served as R prison. Descent was effected to
It by means of a ladder , and , for further se
curity , the prisoner was fastened to the floor
by one foot , and to the celling by means of a
chain passed round his neck. The treadmill ,
stocks and pillory were In every parish , and
hangmen kept knives for cutting off the cars ,
slitting the 1'ps ' and trimming the noses of
offenders , and also manipulated the branding
Irons. Counterfeiters were marked with a
"C" on the forehead ; thieves were marked
with "P" for the Latin "fur , " or "T" for the
English "thief. " Swearing In public was not
allowed ; the oath 'by God , ' used In Massa
chusetts , was punishable by the stocks , ten
lashes and a lecture from the preacher.
Gradations In profanity were made. "By
Christ" was punishable by the stocks and
fine , without the lashes ; "G d d n" by a
fine of 10 shillings , and plain , simple "damn"
was worth G shillings. There was no surgery.
The hod carrier today , who falls off a lad
der and Is carried to a charity hospital , re
ceives better medical and surgical attention
than all the money of George III could have
purchased , or than all the wheat raised on
George "Washington's farm could have se
cured. There were no amusements ; the mart
worldly-minded sinners Indulged only In danc
ing and cards. There were no theaters save
In two or three cities , where the play began
at fi o'clock , and the managers stated that
they would be obliged for any old plays their
patrons did not care to use. In New England ,
100 years ago , a bitter controversy was going
on as to whether "theater going" should be
allowed. Somebody hired a barn In Boston ,
put up a sign , "Exhibition Hooni. " over the
door and sent a bell man up and down the
streets to announce that "moral lectures would
bo given by several performers at one time , "
but while the "School for Scandal , " a moral
lecture In several flttes , ' " was being" delivered
by a company of lecturers , the players were
arrested and the play stopped.
There were no manufactures In New Eng
land , and New York was of no Importance
as a port of entry. AH the rice , , pitch , tar ,
wheat and corn exported were sent out from
southern ports and the New England states
were regarded as too poor to feed their own
people. There was not a cotton factory In
the world , for the fiber could not be separated
from the seed save by hand. Linen factories
had not yet come Into existence ; every house
wife raised her own flax and made her own
linen. Heady-made clothing stores were un
known ; every housekeeper made all the
clothing used by her entire family , her
self spun the thread , wove the Hnsey wool-
sey cloth , borrowed a pattern , adjusted It to
her own notions and made every article of
clothing worn by self , husband , sons and
daughters. There was no unity of language
In this country. Dutch was spoken In New
York as much as English ; German rilght be
heard In many of the Pennsylvania bcttle-
ments and Scandinavian was common along
the Delaware. Gaelic was spoken along the
North Carolina mountains , French In South
Carolina , Spanish In Florida and English In
Georgia , the Central and New England states.
No macadamized roads connected the colonies
nies and no galloping horses were allowed
In the city streets under penalty of n fine
of 3 shillings and C pence. The women did
no shopping and the store keeper tent out
no flaming advertisements. Normal schools
were yet In the future ; Sunday schools with
their millions of scholars were unknown.
The teacher of the district school boarded
iround among his neighbors and patrons and
Impressed Ideas on the youthful minds by
means of a stick. Educational appliances
were of the simplest possible description , con
sisting of a spelling book and a manuscript
arithmetic owned by the teacher. There
were no slates , no paper pads , no lead pen
cils ; a copy book was made from half a
quire of paper. The copy was set by the
preceptor -'and the writing done with the
pupil's own pen manufactured from the quill
3f a home-grown goose. There were no base
ball games and no boating. Gymnasiums
were unknown and sawing wood was con
sidered appropriate exercise for young men.
There were no dude college graduates ; the
Yale student had no privileges and no dainty
dishes were set on his table. In the college
boarding house his rations consisted , for
breakfast of a pint of coffee , a biscuit nnd
some butter. Mondays and Thursdays were
"boiling days , " the others were "roasting
days. " On "roasting days" he had for din
ner two potatoes and bread In addition to
his roast. On "boiling days" there was cab
bage , potatoes and pudding , usually rlum
duff , boiled dough with a few nihlns scat
tered through It. For supper he had a tlce !
of bread and a bowl of milk. If he wanted
more he had to buy It for himself.
FLOWERS AND VEGETABLES.
Our great grandmothers had few flowers ,
save such as grew wild. They knew noth
ing of the hydrangea , which did1 not come
from China until 1810 ; nor were they fa
miliar with the maurandla vine , the salvla
or the tiger flower , which came together
from Mexico aboutJS22. They did not have
the thumbergla , which was not brought from
the East Indies until 1823 ; nor the "Wan
dering Jew , " which reached North America
from South America at the same date ; nor
the bleeding heart , which came from Siberia
In 1810 ; nor the colcus , which emigrated
trom Java In 1801 ; nor the lemon verbena ,
which came from Chill In 1791. The calla lily-
wag not known In America , and was rare
In England , though it had come from the
Cape of Good Hope In 1731 ; thes mllax was
scarcely more familiar , though It had come
from the tame part of Africa In 1732 , and
the heliotrope , little better known , though It
emigrated in 1757 from Peru. The straw
berry geranium was just beginning to at
tract attention , having come from China In
1771. and the mignonette waa unfamiliar
though brought from Italy In 1752. The
cyclamen had come from Cyprus in 1731 , but
was not widely dlffuied , wnilo the dow plant
had net yet come from the Cape of Good
Hope , nor the dahlia from Mexico , and the
petunia had juet arrived from South America.
The vegetable garden * were hardly tetter
cared for than the flower plats , The tables
of our great-grandfathers of 1791 were well
supplied with- flesh foo-1 and groaned under
the weight of call pork , salt beef , dried or
jerked beef and venison , bear meat , buffalo ,
mooie and elk beef and ealt ( Uh. Their
meats were mostly tail or dried , for no Ice
was put up and there were no bu'chor shops.
"Killing a beef" was an event ; all the
neighborhood was InvlteJ ; each family took a
part. J-V Jjegeiables they had
_ TV " *
* * A f
onions , Icckf , potatoes , dried beans and a
few peas. Indian corn was plentiful , but
turnips were scarce and little eaten , for they
were thought to be bad for the eyes. The epg
plant and cauliflower were unknown , although
the latter had come to England from Cyprus
In 1003 , but they ImJ not yet reached Amer
ica , Tomatoes were grown among the
( lowers , called "love apples , " an I thought to
be poisonous , Itadlshes were known , but
little used. Lettuce and cucumbers were
used In England , but not in America. There
was no sweet corn ; the succulent snapbcan
was not yet developed , nnd asparagus wns not
In favor , Parsnip * were occasionally grown ,
but not liked.
For fruits they had apples dried for win
ter use , peare used fresh , and n few trees of
peaches. The grape , the strawberry , the
raspberry , the dewberry and blackberry grow-
wild , and were sometimes picked for use , but
the fruit was small , sour and Inferior , and
there was no thought of cultivating these
plant ! ) . The watermelon , cantaloupe and
muiftmelon were unknown , while oranges ,
bananas , pineapples nnd other trnplc.il fruit1 !
would not bear the long ocean voyaue , nnd
consequently were not seen once In a decade.
A hundred years ago there was nt > talk about
political parties , for , nsfde from Whig , under
stood to mean a man In favor of American
Independence , and Tory , u man In favor of the
continuance of British rule , political par
ties had no existence. Slaves were held In
all the states and slave trading was consid
ered a legitimate form of business enter
prise In which the pious New Englanders
engaged as earnertly nnd zealously as did the
natives of the south. Human beings were
openly bought and sold , and kidnaping Indian
children for slaves was a lucrative business.
The multiplicity of religious denominations
was yet a thing of the future. The faiths of
the colonists were few and simple. The New
Englanders were Congregatlonallsts , the Vir
ginians were Church of England members ,
the Catholics were most numerous In the
Carollnas and the Methodists were Just mak
ing a start. The morning papers were yet
In the future. Hoston had the. News-Letter ,
founded In 1701 ; the Boston Gazette , estab
lished In 1719 ; the New England Courant ,
1721 , and the Columbian Sentinel , 1776.
Philadelphia had the American Weekly Mer-
curle , 1719. New York had the Gazette ,
1773 , and the Hoyal Gazette , founded In the
same year , and Worcester , Mass. , had The
Spy , established In 1775. All were weekly ,
and consisted of shipping news , local mat
ters and on occasional very cautious expres
sion of opinion on matters of public Interest.
There were no telegrams , of course ,
and the. news letters , when dealing with
political matters , rarely ventured on pub
lishing names , but darkly hinted at the
persons alluded to. The advertisements con
sisted mostly of legal notices and reward'
offered for lost animals and runaway slaves.
The printing press was manipulated by han 3 ,
for steam was not applied to printing until
1814. The editor was called the printer
nnd was liable , civilly nnJ criminally ,
for everything that appeared In hh papsr ,
nnd waa'held to an accountability so strict
that a few years of the business generally
made him anxious to find another Job. Such
were the good old days days when every
man raised his own tobacco In his front yard
and smoked it In a pipe , the cob of which
grew In his own field ; when every woman
made her own soap with lye from the ash hop
per , mixed with vile smelling grease saved
for a year In her "fat barrel ; " kept her but
ter In n bucket hung In the well nnd her
milk In the Effing house ; days when the
young gentlemen had neither cigarettes nor
canes , and the young lady neither her
candy nor chewing gum , nnd the small boy
coulil not make the Immortal Fourth hideous
with firecrackers , because he had none. Men
may pralso the good old times for their
simplicity , but not even the veriest croaker
would bo willing to see them return.
THE ARMY MULE.
A llenst that Uns Mmlo 111 * Mnrk In the
History of the Country.
Unless you have seen actual war you can
hardly Imagine what an Immense number of
wagons an army requires. There are so
many things that must be takan along.
Ammunition , food , clothing , medicines and
surgical appliances , tents , forage for the
animals nnd material for the repair of the
wagons themselves form the bulk of the
baggage , but there Is a deal of miscellaneous
stuff besides. Indeed the supplies required
are so great , says the Philadelphia Times ,
that a large force cannot operate more than
100 miles from Its base without clinging to a
railroad or navigable stream.
If we take an army corps at Its average
strength , say 25,000 men , It would need a
train of from COO to 1,000 six-mule teams.
This Immense train would stretch for ten
miles behind the troops. It would cost about
$1,000 per team , or from ? COO,000 to $1,000-
000.An army contains from two to eight corps ,
each requiring the transport facilities above
stated. Just before the battles of the Wilder
ness the Army of the Potomac had 125,000
men. The train consisted of 4.300 six-mule
wagons nnd 835 ambulances. In addition to
this each man carried on nls person fifty
rounds of ammunition and three days' cooked
rations , while three days' beef ration , were
driven on the hoof.
When the terrible battles took place this
great mmiber of ambulances was only suffi
cient for use on the field. The wounded had
to be transported to the rear In wagons that
were going back for supplies. As those
wagons were wholly without springs you
may Imagine that the poor soldiers endured
The Fifteenth , one of the four corps that
marched with Sherman to the sea , numbered
20,000 men at the start. It had 856 six-mule
teams and 150 ambulances ; 225 wagons were
loaded with ammunition , 300 with rations
and the remainder with miscellaneous sup
plies. Eight wagons had nothing but shoes
nnd socks. Each wagon at the- start carried
five days' forage for Its own team , but after
the campaign was well under way this Item
ceased to be carried. Sherman's famous
bummers" found plenty among the farmers.
When an army moves it would be Impos
sible for the troops and their supply wagons
to march on one road. If they did the column
might be 100 miles long. Instead , It Is
customary for the different corps , each with
Its own train , to march on separate and
Before the war the regular troops out west
performed some wonderful marches , relying
wholly upon supplies carried In wagons.
Railroads did not exist In that part ot the
country ; In fact. It was a wilderness.
In 1857 the Sixth Infantry marched from
Fort Leavenworth , Kan. , to Benlcla , Cal. , a
distance ot 2,100 miles. The Journey took
six months. The Immense wagon train of
149 six-mule teams was under charge of Cap
tain Hancock , who afterward became famous.
Hancock did not lose a wagon or even a
wheel on the entire trip , nnd In his conduct
on this occasion gave evidence of the great
ability which he afterward exhibited as a
general officer during the war.
As a draft animal for our baggage
wagons , the mule has been used for a long
period. Ho can pull as much as n horse and
can better stand the poor food and rough
service which , are necessary accompaniments
of a campaign. We tried horses In 1861 , but
on account of the Immense numbers of them
which died from exposure and hard work tha
experiment was quickly given up.
Mules are abundant In this country , and of
the very best quality. St. Louis Is probably
the best mule market In the world.
Some , one has called the mule the best
soldier we had In the war. It Is certain
that the service he rendered Is beyond cal
culation. Some teams were conspicuous , as
witness the history ot this ono : It was
fitted out In Berryvllle , Mil. , In April , 18C1.
A year later It was transferred to Washing
ton , and In May was sent to Fort Monroe to
join McClellan's army. U followed the latter
up the I'cnliikula , was at the siege of Yorktown -
town , the battle of Willlanuburg and In the
swumps of Chlckahomlny. Participating In
the Seven Days' battles , It finally brought up
at Harrison's Landing , whence It went back
to Washington. It then hauled ammunition
for the second battle of Bull Hun , followed
the army to Antletam and froju there to
Frcderlcksburg. When General Hooker took
command of the army It went with him
through the Chanccllorsvllle fights. In 1861
wo flnoU.lt. at , City Point with Grant. It
served with him until the war closed and a
year later was In Washington , as ready for
duty as ever.
The team was frequently without a bite
of hay or grain for four or five days at a
stretch , and nothing to eat but what they
could pick up by the wayside. There were
times also when they went without water
for twenty-four hours. Those mules should
have been tenderly cared for during the re t
of their lives nnd never worked except for
Teami of six mules each are the standard
for army u e. The driver rlde the near
wb el mule and uiei tniteadi of reins a
leather Btraj ) . The wagon U large and very
strongly built , each piece having Its dl
mcnslona and material determined front ex
perience. Wagon covers arc white canvas
nnd have printed on each sldo In largo let
ters the contents of the wagon anil the
nanio ot the regiment , etc. , to which It bo-
The Drlttah u o nil sorts , of animals And
conveyances for their baggage. This results
from the widely scattered countries In which
In the Ashantoe war they used coolies , tor
no animal could live updn the GoU coast.
Men , women and children were employed.
They carried the loadn upon their lictuls ,
the common load being fifty pounds for a.
man , forty for n woman nml less for a
chllJ. Each battalion of C50 men had as
In India and South Africa the British lisa
oxen. They are somcwlmt slow , but require-
bui ! little caie nnd thrive upon poor fee > J' ' .
They will stand fire better than any otheg
The camel Is another animal used for car
rying baggage , but only under the pack-
saddle. The pack camel will make from
two to three miles nn hour for any length
of time , will carry a load of 400 pounds and
go without water four or five days. For the
reason that he Is so well adap ed for use In
the Je."crt the British employed many camels
In the recent Soudan campaign.
The camel has some disadvantages from
a military standpoint , however. He Is very
dcllc.ito In constitution and Is subject to
diseases but llitlo understood. He niuxt
also have proper food and plenty of It. Lord
Wolselsey states that the dally ration for n ,
good sized camel Is twenty poun's ' of dry or
green fodder , together with eight ( rounds' ' of
barley flour. The latter Is made up Into a.
paste ball and rammed down the camel's
The British consider th ? elephant the kins
of beast , ; of burden , although , of course , ho
can only be used In warm countries. The
elephant becomes fit for work nt twenty years
of ago and lasts until ho Is SO. He can paclc
1,200 noun-Is imon hip back nnd haul a much ,
laiger load , llo will not s'aiUl fire , lcw-
ever , and that Is n very serious drawback.
The usual rnttbn for nn elephant Is a large ,
thick cake , coaslstlng of twenty-five pounds
of wheat flour mixed with one pound of mo
lasses. In addition ho Is given 400 pounds ot
green food , such ns sugar cane. He will
drink thirty gallons ofwater per day.
A. J. Cooley , nn Inventor of Horncllsvlllp ,
N. Y. , says ho 1ms successfully completed
an nln < hlt > which will carry olid IMJISOII. It
Is about ten feet In length , with two palrs >
of wlnpH , each pair having a spread oC
twelve feet. Placed between the two paint
of wings Is n large hollow box , oiv ono end.
of which the pilot-house for the occupant
will be built. The front pair ofvliiK8 l
rtntlonnry. Mr. Cooluy's Idea Is tluit hl
machine will snll like n hawk or nn albatross
tress that 1ms been thrown on the air.
Having been once stretched , It will nkliu
along on u certain plane , and may be either
raised , lowered or turned entirely around by
the movement ot the rear imlr of wind ;
beaters. A public demonstration of the In
vention will soon be Klvon , after which it
will IK ? placed on exhibition to raise money
enough to build a larger machine.
I SWEET SAVORY SATISFYING
SWIFT'S ' PREMIUM
Think of the thousamlH of hnms
niul bacon that poout from South
Oniiiha duilylVo Boluot but the
best ones for the brand. "SWIFTS
PREMIUM. " Smoked lightly
trimmed nicely extra mild not
salty. No mini could make thorn
For Sale by all First-Class Dealers.
SWIFT AND COMPANY.
A SOUTH OMAHA. NEB.
Furniture of Every Ecsiiption
in our July Special.
CHAS. SHIVERICK & , CO.
12th and Douglas.
The Garden of the World !
Summers Cool-Winters Mild !
Mean temperature 42 to CO , Average rain.
fall CO Inches. No loni ; cold winters. No
bllKhtlns hot summers. No blizzards. No
drouths. Kreo fuel. Good water. The
earliest markets In the country. The best
prices for fruit and Bardrn truck. Twenty
acres properly worked will make you moru
money and mnko It euBler than the best
ICO acres In the wunt or north. The tide Ima
turned towards the south , the land uf quick.
eat and surest results with the Ic.ist rlBlc
and labor. One half the work you do hero
will brlnK you four times the results In thla
wonderfully rich country ; theio Is no buch
thlntf as failure. The people nro friendly ,
the cllmato delightful and healthy ; nillionil
facilities llrst-clups , und the whole country
bills nnd pays fcr what you ral o. Cattla
run out the whole year and do well and two
to thrco crops can be rained caoh year.
Particulars plvcn on application ; correspon
1017 Parnain St. , Omaha , Nub.
Bloomers and Sweaters'
and all sorts of cycle clothes will never
start to shrink if you wash them with
It makes flannels beautifully clean without
shrinking. Then again it'o the best onJ (
most refreshing in the bath tub. Non
othtr as good ,
AT YOUR GROCERS.
RAWORTH & SCHODDE , CHICAGO.
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