Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, July 22, 1894, Page 13, Image 13

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    THE OMAHA. DAILY BEEtlSUNDAY , JULY 22 , . 1891.
Trip Oror thj New Imperial Fnilroad to
the Wonderful Fortification.
io Napoleon lit Chum urn ! III * Jliirtmroui
Dcoil * iMirinliiB Srcnr * In Jsnrlli
China Men n I'low Honrt
Moru About the llitllrimtl.
( Copyrlfthtcil 1831 by Trnnk O. Carpenter. )
In tlio vice regal tpcclal train running
through north Chlnn , from Sh.-ui Hnl Kwan
to Tlen-Tsln tiy rnllro.1i ! to tlio great wall
of China. On n special train through some
of the least known parts of the Chinese
empire. D.inhlni ; along at the rate of forty
mllea an hour through the plains of north
China. The Btcam demon of the present
cutting Its way Into the most famous ves
tiges of the cclottlnl past.
These arc some of the wonders of the
Journey I nm now making over the new
Imperial road of this vast empire In com
pany with the party of ex-Secretary Poster
In the private car of China's most powerful
statesman and ruler , LI Hung Chang. Wo
liavo traveled already nearly 200 miles
through the agricultural and mining dis
tricts of this part of China , and have planted
our American Hole leather on the borders
of Manchuria. We left the New York of
north China , the great trading city of Tien-
Tsln , and Ha million almond-eyed people ,
In the early morning of two days ago , and
plowed our way through tens of thousands
of brown grave mounds to the eastward.
We pu sed the myriad huts of tlio city of
Tong Ku , at the mouth of the Pelho river ,
nnd turned to the north almost under the
ahadow of the frowning battlements and
of the Krupp and Armstrong guns of the
Taku forts. We Blood on the platform and
Baw the scores of queer windmills which ,
with their square white wings , pump the
brine of the Yellow sea Into the tail pools
of the government reservoirs , and watched
the gangs of yellow coolies cutting down
' 'T. ' . r : rrS A. . , fc , , 1 , it fj
the mountains of salt and loading It
for Tlon-Tsin. whence It will be shipped off
at high prices as a government monopoly
tor the people of the Interior. We rode for
an hour over salt marshes , upon which
Mongolian ponies , red cattle nnd donkeys
grazed , and then entered the rich gardens
of the great plain. Here every Inch was
cultivated , nnd the farmers were everywhere
where- laboring In the Holds. Wo saw the
wheat planted In rows , two feet apart ,
eprlnging from the soil In Its luxuriant
green dress of the early spring , nnd could
note the curious methods of work of these
the best farmers of the world. The crops
ore planted In small tracts and everything
Is cultivated with the hoe and the plow.
There la no cowing ot grain as with us , ana
the rows of wheat , corn and millet are
weeded and fed with manure.
The wheat Is planted In tlio fall and In
the spring , as now. the rows are plowed
nnd other crbps planted between them.
Kverywhero over the landscape you see
nllos ot manure , each containing about two
tmshels of brown earth , and hero and there
Vneh and boys gather up this manure Into
Tbaskcts nnd carefully shako It out over the
newly planted crop. This Is after the seed
lias been sown. Now a donkey or n man
pulls through the row a little roller of
stone , mixing the seed and the manure with
the soil and pulverizing the earth till It Is as
line as the sands of the seashore. Every
one Is at work In the fields. Little children
of 3 and G years go through the rows
with baskets tied to their backs pulling the
weeds with throe-pronged hoes. They put
each , weed Into their baskets and It Is
saved for food or fuel. There you BOO boys
driving donkeys and now and then you will
sen a man plowing and men and boys
hitched to the plow nnd doing the work of
liorses. I photographed one man on my
way to Peking who had his whole family
harnessed ( o his plow. He leaned upon the
handles with all his might , while his three
sons and one daughter tugged and pulled
In drawing the plow through the furrow.
Ho grow quite angry nt my pointing the
Camera at him and rushed up to mo and
tried to take U out ot my hamls. I shoved
Llm back , however , and with the assist
ance of my donkey boy was able to mount
and gallop away.
AVe saw Borne such scones on the way to
Tong Shan , where the famous Kalplng coal
mines are dtuated and where we were en
tertained over night. We pjsFcd many coal
cars carrying the black diamonds down to
the sea to bo shipped In the company's
steamers to all parts ot south Clilna , and
nt every station wo found a crowd of almond-
eyed , yclluw-fjccil mortals gazing at us In
wonder. The trip from Tong Shan to the
wall has been over the new government
railroad , and our special train t > the first
ot the kind which has gone over It. The
line Itself has only been opened to trulilc
for a few days , and this will bo the llrst
report given to the clvllUetl world ot Its
character. It Is a railroad that any country
might own with pride. Well ballasted and
well laid , the steel track Is ns
solid us though It had been used for n gen
eration , and Its stations and bridges have
been built to tny. The Lull Ho bridge ,
which we crossed tcvernl bourn ago , near the
walled city ot Lan Chow , Is nearly 2,000
feet In length , and It has live great spans ,
each of which U 200 feet long , U has a
number of smaller spans , nnd It Is built upon
arches ot solid stone , the Iron work being
inado by the same company that made the
great Forth bridge In Scotland , ami the
heavy arches were sunken by the pnuo-
matlo process. Crossing this we rode
onward part ot thb time lit a speed
ot forty-tlvo miles an hour past other clt-
lea , till wo came In sight ot the mountains
ot Manchuria and stopped with the end ot
the railroad , almost on the edge ot the sua
and within a stone's throw of the broach
lu the great wall , through which the rail
road Is to be extended hundreds ot miles
further on Into the wilds of the almost
unknown country of Manchurln. Hero under
the shadow of the great Chinese wall , gray
with Us ago of 2,000 years , we nto our lun
cheon In the viceroy's car , nine representa
tives ot the most progressive nations of the
present at homo and In comfort among the
ruins ot thu greatest work of China's historic
past.U .
U Is Indeed a curious slgnt for China.
Our party consists ot six Americans , three
Unglltthmen and two Chinese olllclaU , In
addition to a retinue ot servants and train
men. The Americans are : General John
JV. Voder , ex-secretory of ute , and hl
wife ; Mr. Orr , a wealthy citizen of Evans
vlllo , Intl. , and his tire young lady daughters
who are related to Secretary Foster , and
who arc making the tour of the world with
him , nnd last of nil , your correspondent
who haa been sent out here to wrlto up the
modern movement In China. The three
Englishmen are the officials In the employ
ot LI Hung Chang. First , there Is Mr. O
I ) . Churchward , who has built railroads
In Australia nnd New South Wales , nni
wlto Is one of the best ot modern clvl
engineers. He Is In charge o
the locomotive works ot the viceroy
nt Tone Shan , and In the absence1
of Mr. Kinder , the general manager of the
Imperial railroad of China , who Is carrying
on the survey Into Mnpchtirla , Is the super
intendent of the rood. Dr. Robertson Is a
young physician who was connected for some
years with the Chinese imvy , and who li
now In charge of the viceroy's big naval
hospital nt the Kalplng coal mines , and Mr
Garland Is the English traffic manager of the
two Chinese railroad systems. The two
Chinese officials are well educated Chinese
gentlemen , nnd they speak English perfectly.
Mr. Chun 01 Ting was for yenrs consul gen
eral of China to Cuba , nnd ho Is now In
charge of the coal mines here , managing a
capital of millions , nnd Mr. Tong , his secre
tary. Is a graduate of Yale college , and one
of the brightest young men of the empire.
Iloth of these men are clad In official dress ,
wearing gorgeous silk gowns , big cloth boots
and black silk caps with red but
tons In the center of their crowns. They
nro good talkers , nnd nro full
of Information concerning China. The spe
cial train which wo have mlgnt be that of
nn American railroad president , and we
travel In It with as much ease and comforl
an wo would have were we a congressional
party traveling to the funeral of a senator
of the United States at the expense
of the government. The train consists of
an engine built on the English plan at the Chi
nese car works at Tong Shan , of an open
car In which are carried the sedan chairs
and the coolie bearers needed for the trans
portation of the ladles In our trips nway
from the railroad ; of a second special car
which' can be used for smoking or loafing ;
of an open observation car In ivhlch we can
sit outside and watch the every varying
panorama of Chinese farming scenes and of
the vice-regal car proper.
This last Is made of Siamese teak finished
In the natural wood. It Is as hard ns ebony ,
and It takes on the rich dark color of oiled
chestnut. It contains half n dozen rooms ,
which are furnished In foreign style. The
sofas nre upholstered with the finest of blue
and silver brocaded silk , and there are
plenty of tables and easy chairs. The walls
of the car nre In blue and gold. The win
dews are large , nnd those at the top of the
car and serving as ventilators are of stained
glass. Pictures of the finest Chinese em
broidery hang upon the walls , and the larder
Is filled with a plentiful supply of all sorts
of things , liquid and solid. It was after n
good dinner that we took our trip to the
I great wall. We spent s > ome hours In walking
about It. Wo climbed to Its top and cx-
nmlned the great towers which crown It at
every few hundred yards , nnd lu our Amer
ican shoes tramped over the brick pavements
which were trod by the Chinese wnrrlors
who built It , now more than two
thousand years ago. We made measurements
and examinations of It at the breach where
the railroad Is to pass through It on Its way
Into the Mancliurlan wilds , and with our
own hands pulled from Its sides four great
bricks , which we will carry back to the
United States as mementoes ot the trip.
What a wonderful structure It Is and how
mighty It must have been before the days of
gunpowder and cannon. I liavo seen the
pyramid ; , but this massive wall Impresses
me more forcibly than they. The greatest
of all the pyramids Is an Immense pile of
stones , covering thirteen acres and reaching
to a height less than that ot the monument
at Washington. The great wall of China , If
the brick and earth composing It could be
carried to the valley of the Nile , would car
pet the bcit parts of Egypt , and It Is a
work Incalculably greater than the monuments
ments of the Egyptian kings. I visited It
where it runs through the Mongolian moun
tains , about ninety miles from the city of
Peking , and I found there an even more
solid structure than that at Shan Hal
Kwan , on the edge of the sea. It begins
hero at the head of the gulf of Pechlll and
runs up and down the mountains , clear
across the boundary of northern China , sep
arating the country from its vast tributary
provinces of Mongolia and Manchuria , till
It reaches the great desert of Gobi , above
Thiblt. It Is mare than 1.200 miles long In
a straight line , and with its windings up the
hills and down the valleys It measures all
told a distance of more than 1,500 miles.
This wall Is about thirty feet lu height , eras
as tall us u three-story city house. Its
width at the points where I have visited It
ranges from fifteen to thirty feet. The
average parlor Is not more than fifteen feet
wide , and If you will Imagine n solid block
of three-story houses fifteen feet deep , built
across the United States from New York to
Omaha , you can get a faint Idea of the size
of this great wall. Such a block , lion ever ,
would bo easy to construct In comparison
with the work needed for this vast fortifica
tion. It would cut the plains of New York ,
Ohio , Indiana , Illinois and Iowa where the
soil has much cluy and where the railroads
could carry the materials.
The great wnll ot China Is built right
over the mountains. It climbs up crags so
steep that the bricks had. It Is said , to be
carried on the bucks of goats. It crosses
peaks taller than the Allegheny mountains ,
and at one point goes over ono which Is
5,000 foot above the ECU , A large part of
It has n foundation ot granite blocks from
two and n half to four feet thick , and the
base ot the wall Is ten feet wider than the
top. The bricks ot which It Is made weigh
from forty to sixty pounds , or as much as a
6-year-old boy , and the clay for these bricks
hud to bo transported long distances
from the Interior nt some portions
ot the wall. These bricks are of a
slate color. According to measurement
they arc fifteen Inches long , nine Inches
wide and about five Inches thick. They nre
put together In n solid masonry by means ot
llmo mortar , and they are built up from
thu foundation In two walls , each about three
feet thick , running parallel with each other ,
the space between being filled with earth
and stone well rammed down , The top of
the wall Is paved with these bricks , and Its
average width Is about fifteen feet. It Is
everywhere so wide that two two-horse
wagon loads of hay could ba driven along
It and the hubs of the two wagons would not
touch. Six horses abreast could be easily
driven upon Its paved highway , and on each
side of the road along Its whole
1,600 in 1103 ot length there la a brick
crenellated wall ns high as your
head , which would prevent them falling off
In case of a stampede. At short Intervals
the wall Is crowned by great two and three-
story towers , made of those big blue bricks ,
and at the passes In the mountains there
are arched gates of stone , some of which are
beautifully carved. Hero and there the wall
Is double , a second wall running over the
country som distance back from the first ,
and on the peaks near It there nro often
watch towers , In which the guards stood In
times past and warned the soldiers statlonci
on Us top of the ndv.incclnff hordes which
they spied coming from the wilds beyond.
Much of the great wall Is still In perfec
condition. Standing upon U nt the city o
Shan Hnl Kwan wo could see It climbing
up the Mancuttrlan mountains , jumping the
gorges and scaling the peaks. Gray with Its
llfo of twenty centuries , It seemed to grasp
the earth of the pre-cnl with Its mighty
hand , and where It crossed the mountains
It seemed ns Imperishable ns the hills whose
hoary brows It crowns. At other places ,
however , time has gained the mastery , and
nearest the railroad there Is a breach nl
least 100 feet wide , and one side of the wall ,
where It bounds the city of Shan Hal Kwan ,
has been almost overthrown. Its sides are
covered with mosj , and the grass
haa grown upon Its pavements. No
arches now guard It , and It
only remains as n monument of the hun
dreds of thousands of almond-eyed men who
2,000 years ago thus sought to protect their
homes nnd those of their descendants from
the savages of the north for all time to come.
No one can stand upon Its ramparts and not
be Impressed with the strength of this great
Chinese nation. Seventeen hundred years be
fore America was discovered ; at a time when
our blue-blooded nncestors , hnlf naked and
altogether savage , were wandering through
the wilds of France , Germany and England ,
when Home was still n republic , lighting
her last battles with the Carthaginians ,
200 years before Christ was born ,
these same Chinese people built this mighty
wall. Their history states that It required
an army of 300.000 men to protect the
builders , nnd millions must have been em
ployed In the undertaking. I have seen
enough of the building of railroads and other
works In China during my present tour to
understand how It was probably constructed.
There was no machinery used , and few cat
tle and horses. Every foot of It was built
by man , and in Its 1,500 miles of mountain
climbing there nro today bottled up within
this structure the vital force of millions of
the Chinese of the past , a monument to the
thought that while man dies his work re
mains , ns docs the hand that carved the
Venus dt Medici nnd the pen that wrote
Shakespeare and the Acneld. These Chinese
of 2,000 years ngo probably carried the earth
and stones which formed the filling of the
greater part of the wall In baskets , and
this earth was rammed down by means
of discs of stone or Iron as big around as a
half bushel measure and from six to eight
Inches thick. It Is In this way that the em
bankments of the railroads nre being
built today. It takes eight mtn to each of
such discs. There are boles cut about Its
circumference , and In these ropes about ten
feet long are fastened. The men stand nt
equal distances about the disc , nnd by pullIng -
Ing back raise It nnd throw It upward often
to a height above their heads , and It falls
upon the fresh earth with a thud. A ninth
man often sings a song whllo these men
thus work , keeping time to his music with
the weight , and joining In the chorus , the
weight falling at the end of each verse and
line. It Is the same with the packing ot the
earth with wooden stamps. Each nun has
one of these about the weight of the dasher
In an old-fashioned churn , nnd the gang
of stampers sing as they work. The bricks
were made by hand , and men and women
aided In their laying. Such wood as was
used in the towers was pulled up by human
niusclo to the top of the wall , nnd the saw-
ine of the timbers was with cross-cut saws.
The organization required for the buildIng -
Ing and the defense of such an army of
laborers shows a high state ut civilization.
The man who began the work was one of
the great men of the world's past. He has
been called the Napoleon of China , and ho
to a largo extent was the founder of the
Chinese empire. His name was Tsln Chi
Hwangtl , and he consolidated the many
kingdoms of China Into one. Ho built at
his capital a vast palace , with many build
ings , which were connected by colonnades
and galleries. Each set ot these buildings
he had made the exact counterpart of the
palaces of the rulers ho had conquered , and
when the whole was completed ho bi ought
them to his capital and kept them there In
state. He built this great wall In ten
years , and organized many public works.
Like Alexander and Napoleon , ho grew vain
us he went on In his conquests , and ho de
cided that Chinese history-should begin with
him. With this view he committed an act
which has made him In the eyes of the
Chinese the most despised nnd detested of
their emperors. This was the collecting of
all the libraries nnd histories of Chlnn to
gether nnd burning them. He had all of
the copies of Confucius and Menclus that
could be found * committed to the tlames. and
for fear that there might be other books
written than such ns ho desired he killed tlio
500 most eminent of the scholars of his
empire. It la suld that not a single perfect
copy of the Chinese classics escaped destruc
tion , ami such as exist today are made up
Irom the parts remembered by scholars who
were not known to the emperor , and which
were written out after his death.
Eight-year-old Fred was the youngest
nomber of a large family , and , unlike many
joys of that ago , was accustomed to re
gard himself as a person of llttlo Impor-
At the table he nto what wns given to him
vlth a thankful heart nnd a vigorous appo-
Ito. Ho was not consulted as to his per
sonal likes or dislikes , as far as food was
Naturally enough , therefore , his Ideas were
nuch confused when , on the occasion of his
Irst dining out nt the home of one of his
schoolboy friends , ho was asked whether he
vould like his slice ot beet rare or well
" " stammered Fred bash-
\Vhy-I think , , -
ully ; and then , with his usual bright smile ,
to said :
"It doesn't make any difference , Mrs.
Jrown. Any old thing will do nicely for
no ! "
* *
Ilcsslo was just finishing her breakfast ns
> apa stooped to kiss her before going down
own. The llttlo ono gravely took up her
lupkln and wiped her cheek. "What ,
lossle ! " said her father. "Wiping away
mpa's kiss ? " "Oh , no , " slio sntd , looking
up with a sweet smile. "I's wubblng It In. "
Teacher Sammy , In the sentence , "I have
a book , " what Is tha case of the pronoun I ?
Sammy ( promptly ) Nominative case.
Teacher Next boy , tell me In what cse to
put { he noun book.
Next IJoy ( thoughtfully ) Dookcase.
'Plckey ' I'd think Jimmy nice would feel
list like an orphan. Mamma Why ?
Jlckoy Why. his papa and mamma lot him
do everything he wants to.
Frances nnd her papa had a few squares
o go and the latter asked ; "Frances , shall
ve walk or take the street cars ? " "Well ,
papa , " replied the little girl , "I'll walk It
ou'll carry me , "
Father ( solemnly ) This Is going to hurt
ue uioro than you. Napoleon ,
Napoleon ( sympathetically ) Well , dent be
00 rough on yourself , dad ; I ulti't worth It.
Friday our stoJo
was closed all day
to give us time to
arrange stock and
mark down prices.
Saturday ( as you all
know ) wo wore
crowded to the
doors. Same for
Lower Than Ever ,
If cost will
not do it
half cost will
close out our
Lower Than Ever.
( .
All Day '
in our drinkinfg
. . ' T
it is free. ,
ID ,
Your Time
To Buy
Your Carpets.
Monday you
buy them at a
low price and
have them made
and laid for
Closing Gut.
Tlio China and
Glassware Depart
ment continues to
draw the people ;
and why should It
not ? You can buy
Rood , reliable goods
at hal' the prlco
you have to pay for
questionable quali
ties. First class
merchandise at
manufacturers' ' cost
and under. This la
the magnet that
These were
marked down
Friday :
49c comforts.
69c comforts.
98c comforts.
8c Berkley and
72 < iC fine Out
ing Flannel.
For the more
songr ot a price.
Lace CurtaiusLaco
Muslins. Screens
very cheap. Oil
Cloths and Linol
eums 25 per cent off
The only prices
wo have are :
Ribbons at 2o
" "
" "
" " 12o
" " IGo
" " 22c
" " 27c
But sec them for
the price.
An Important Subject Discussed by the
United 3Utjj Ojnn'.ninar
Women Not Crowding Itlun lu Alocluinlca
Industries , While the Proportion ol
Children la tirudimlly tSrowliig
I.esH in Thoau Industries.
( Copyrighted 1891. )
The presence of women and children In
ncchanlcal Industries Is considered by many
as u menace to the pp ltlon of men , affecting
lot only their tenure , but , their wages. Hy
others , their presencp Is considered as an
evidence of advancement , nnd , so far us
vomen are concerned , as tending toward
heir Independence , securing to them freedom
rom burdensome dependence and making
hem a moro actlvo factor In the affairs of
ho world. All agree'however , that children
ought not to bo engaged * In any Industry ,
but should use the yenrs dt childhood for the
purpose of securing mich-n practical educa-
ton that they may U > more able to become
olf-supportlng when .they reach maturity ,
'ho discussion of the question , therefore , Is
nterestlng sociologically , b\it \ it Is often con
ducted moro from tho' standpoint of senti
ment than from fact. 'Tho results of the
? lavonth census gveiisi'tlio ( ? ' facts and show
learly the tendencies ot the times In respect
o the employment of the classes named.
In this article I shall deal only with the
vomen nnd children employed In the mo-
hanlcal and manufacturing Industries of tha
ountry , because this Is sufficient for this
Imo and purpose , and , further , the classlfi-
atlon of all the population of this country
a to occupations , both remunerative and
therwlse , has not yet been published by tha
ensus olllcc.
The total number of persons , men women
nd children , engaged lu tho. Industries named
was , lu 1890 , 4,711,832 , as against 3,732,595
n 1880 , 2,053.996 In 1870 and 1,311,240 In
SCO. Iteduced to percentage- ) , these persons
constituted , In 1SCO , 4.IT per cent of the
vbolo population ot the country ; In 1870 ,
. .33 per cent ; In 1880 , 5.45 per cent , and In
890 , 7.52 per cent. As a side fact from the
ns under discussion , I may remark that
to you all
It is pure.
It is healthful.
We were
closed Friday.
Marking down
Greater sacri
fices made than
ever before , to
close out our
I should say prices
were cut Friday on
China Silk , $1
Ulienoy Roods , Including llros ! . ? 49c
Ono table of
No\olty Silks.
.Some have sold
A lot of Fancy
Silk ,
they aiol coods.
At 75c n , dozen
Your choice of all
our 81. $1.23 and
31.50 Thin ong.
At J8c a dozen
Tin top Jolly Tum
ble rs.
At ISc Your
choice of our 25c ,
30c and Hoc glass
Berry Bowls.
At j5c Quart size
Wlno Decanters ,
At 29c A fine
plain glass Water
Prices will do it.
On Friday hosiery
was marked away
Ladles' Seamless ,
Lndlcs' Tan Seam
less , 12c |
Childrcns , Seam
less , ! ) c
Ladies' Silk Hose ,
Boys' Bicycle.
Black Goods
To be sold ,
all have been
marked low.
One lot of
silk and wool
Novelties that
have never sold
for less than
$1.75 , go for
Prices like
these talk.
must go faster.
Lace Dross Nets.
Lace Flouncings
Black Laces in
all widths.
White Silk Laces.
All must go.
Half Cost Will Do It.
At Co Ladies' 25o
gauze vests.
At 18c Ladies'
silk finished
At 23c Ladies'fine
lisle vests.
At 35c Ladies' ox-
tru fine lisle
thread tights ,
At23o Ladios'lislo
vobts , long
33fr per cent , off Dr.
Jaeger's under
those figures Fhow conclusively that a con
stantly Increasing proportion of the total
population Is engaged In the mechanical and
nnnufacturliiB Industries of tno country. If
\\e consider women alone the same fact ap
pears ; for In 1800 , talcing females above 15
years of age , there were employed In the
mechanical industries of the country 270,897 ,
being , S6 of 1 per cent of the total population ;
In 1870 , the number was 323,770 , being .84
per cent of the whole population ; In 1SSO ,
the number had arisen rapidly to 531,639 , or
LOG per cent of the total population , while
In 1890 , the number had grown to be 815,428 ,
or 1.35 per cent of the whole people. The
proportion of the total population was prac
tically the same at the censuses of 1800 and
1S70 , but Increased largely before 18SO , and tea
a still higher point In 1890 , as shown.
These two comparisons between the total
number of persons employed In manufactur
ing Industries , separated as to males and
females , would Indicate a relative progress
In the total number employed ; but as the
women Increase In number and m percentage ,
that Is , both In fact and relatively , we must
discover the relation which tlio chlldicn , or
persons under in years of age , bear to the
whole , and then wo may bo able to determine
whether the employment of women Is a
menace to the position and wages of men or
Unfortunately the classification of the
renms of 1800 illd riot glvo the number of
children employed In manufacturing In
dustries , but In 1870 wo llml the
under 15 years of ago of both sexes to liavo
been 114,028. or .30 per cent of the total
population ; In 1SSO It was 181,921 , or .36 per
cent , being a slight Increase relatively ,
while In 1890 the actual number had fallen
to 121,194 , being only .19 per cent of the
total population. This Is on exceedingly
gratifying showing and proves conclusively
that not only Is the number of children
employed decreasing , but thaP the relative
proportions of the total population allows a
still greater decrease.
A more Instructive comparison , however.
Is to be found In discussing the proportion
of the total number of employes engaged In
manufacturing Industries. This comparison
shows that In 1860 20,00 per cent of all the
persons employed In manufacturing Industries
were females over 15 years of ago ; In 1870
they constituted 15.70 par cent of the total
number employed ; In 1880 they wcro 19.45
per cent , and In 1890 they were 17.91 per
cent. The relation therefore to the total
number of persons employed was quite sta
tionary at tliu last three federal censuses ,
and * 'as only about 3 per cent In 1890 over
what It was. In 1870 , and nearly 3 per cent
relatively less than In 18GO. The women are
therefore not crowding upon the men In
mechanical Industrie ! ,
ING uss.
The proportion of children has fallen , very
rapidly. It was not given la 18GO , but In
Bath TowoJa.
All Llnon Towels.
Oar $2.00 Damask.
nicnoh Damask , CC-
12-1 Spread ( Mar-
Eolllos ) .
Dress Goods.
Three lots of
Dress Goods
that are hum
mers :
At lie One table
of changoabla
At 29c Ono
table of Scotch
At 75c Ono
tnblo loaded
with choice
floods worth up
to $2.00.
At $1.00
Extra long elab
orately trimmed
Drawers , corset
covers , regular
$1.35 goods.
Underwear ,
made of China
and surah silk
at loss than half
Infants' Dresses
Half Price.
Toilet Articles
Cnldor's tooth pow
der 12c
English tooth pow
der loc
Vcnnard's Wosh..l3c
Hay Hum 29c
Prorch I < orfumo..07o
Tot low's face pow
der 12o
Swans Down OCc
Ijiibln'b powder..lie
Spougo cups ODc
Almond meal 13c
C'uslllohoup , lOc
Magic secret I7c
Honu luilr pins Olc
Funoy pins 05c
pmcns WILL no IT
1870 the persons under 15 years of age were
C.5S per cent of the total number of em
ployes In manufacturing Industries ; In 18SO
there were C.fiG per cent , whllo In 1890 there
there were only 2.57 per cent of the whole.
There can bo no other conclusion than that
the children are disappearing from our great
mechanical and manufacturing Industries.
This Is the result of two causes tlrst , public
Bontlment and general opportunities for edu
cational work , and , second , the law which
In many of the older states , or In those
more largely Interested in mechanical In
dustries , prohibits the employment of chil
dren under 10 years of age. In some of the
eastern states , those In New England es
pecially , the law relative to the non-employ
ment of children has been so rigidly en
forced that thcro arc practically no children
under 10 years of ago In the factories. When
this law becomes general throughout tlio
manufacturing states , and Is well and rigidly
enforced , no child under 10 years of ago
ought to be found In any manufacturing es
tablishment. To the mind of the writer-
anil this has bcon his opinion expressed con
stantly for twenty years children under it
or 15 years of ago ought not to bo found In
such establishments. 1 know very well that
there is a conlllct In this mutter , because
states that , on the other hand , have com
pulsory education laws , and , on the other ,
laws which prohibit the employment of chil
dren In factories , have found themselves '
In the position of preventing the support of
parents through the wages of children , thus
making It Imposslb'o ' for the children to at
tend school , and yet nuking no provision for
the Mipport of the parents. This problem
will some tlmo be solved , but It will liavo
to bo solved along very broad lines , which I
am Inclined to think the public Is not ready
to adopt ut present. It Is a serious dtlllculty
and one which may well agitate the minds
of people who are looking to the amelioration
of conditions.
" The facts as to numbers having been given ,
"It may bo well to see what proportion of the
total wages paid In the country falls to
women and children. From recent calcula
tions ) I nm uble to state that the wages of
males constitutes 87.73 per cent of the total i
wages paid In 1890 , while the wages which
went to females over 1C years of ago was
only 11.3'J per cent of the total amount , the
children receiving but .88 per cent of the
wholo. These .percentages , triken In compari
son with the percentages as to the number
employed , are quite Instructive , while name-
what disappointing ; as for Instance , In 1890
the females above. 15 years of age constituted
17.91 per cent ot tlio total number of persons
employed In manufactures , yet received but
11.39 per cent ot tlio total wage * paid out.
The children constituted 2.57 per cent of the
total number of persons employed , yet re
ceived but .88 per cent of the whole wages
paid. Looking ut the classification of wages.
It Is found that 70.85 per cent of the total
number ot males received P and over per
All Carpets bought
Monday wo Vrill
lay free of charge.
This Offer for
Men's Goods.
Tun hose , 20c.
Fast black (50c ( ) . .
Halbrlggiin tin.
dorvcii rl)50c ( )
Men's $1.00 white
shirt SOc
$1.25 negligee
shirt 75c
Retiring from
Our stock was
not moving : fast
enough , so we
closed our store
last Friday to
make further re
duction in prices
Saturday. Our
store was crowd
ed all day and
Monday it will
be , too.
Coats1 throud ,
At Ic-
Hooks and oyos.
Durnlng cotton.
1'lns and trnys.
At 17c-
17cUorullno stays.
At 7c-
7cTwln stays.
Tupo measure.
At Oc-
Safety pins.
At 3c-
Itubbor corset
At 27c-Slk ! shield,0 ? * "
At Oc Holts.
At 3c Largo fans.
At Oc-Illndlini ribbon.
At 3c Ladles' collars.
Boys' Clothing
Your choice
of four lots.
lot 1 , $2,00 $ ,
Lot 2 , $3,00 $ ,
Lot 3 , $4,00 $ ,
Lot 4 , $5,00 $ ,
They hnvs sold
for more than
twice our price.
At $1.99
Roynlor's 8-inoh
At $ i.i3
Best Icld 7-hoolc.
Boat Kid G-hoolc.
At $1.00
White kid Gloves.
Retiring from
We have a
very large stpck
that must be
sold and the
prices that we
have put on
them will do it :
If you have the
least thought of
a black silk
dress for the
Dress Goods.
Large stock to
select from and
must be sold ; if
one price will
not do it , we
know what will.
Perhaps half
cost will.
Retiring from
weelc , while90.02 per cent of the whole num
ber of females over 1C years of ago received
less than $9 per week , and a little over 28
per cent of the whole number of females em
ployed received less than $5 per wcolc for
their services. Nearly all the children , that
Is , those persons under 15 years of age , em
ployed In manufacturing ebtabllshmenta re
ceived $5 per week or less.
This Is not the place , of course , to dlscusa
the reasons why women receive less than
men , but the facts certainly Indicate that the
women , Instead of crowding upon the moil
to as great nil extent as Is generally sup
posed , are rapidly taking the places of boys
and girls and doing the work which they
formerly did In our factories. The constantly
Increasing proportion of men Indicates this ,
but supplemented by the constantly de
creasing pioportlon of children , thu fact be
comes apparent.
On reading the foregoing statements tlio
Inquiry may bo , what proportion of the
females over 15 years of ago are married ?
There nro no very general statistics on this
Hiibject. but so far us Investigation shows It
may be estimated with a fair degree of ac
curacy that about 10 per cunt of the women
employed In the manufacturing Industries ot
the country are married.
The employment of women has become
more und , more the subject of legal restric
tion. They have been classed with the
children and legislatures have felt It In
cumbent upon them to regulate the em
ployment of women and children so far as
hours and conditions were concerned. It
has not bcon deemed wise to Interfere with
the employment of male adults ; nevertheless
the male adults have found their work
regulated to a certain degree through the
regulation of the work of women and chil
dren. The hours of labor of men were
IOIIK ago lessened , but the hours of labor ot
women and children were shortened only
through positive legislative enactments.
Tlio whole ethical , social and political effect
of the employment of women In manufactur
ing establishments U u broad subject , thu
discussion of which must bo prefaced with
a knowledge of the actual facts.
Washington , D. 0.
Perform at 3.30 , 4:30 : , 9 and 10 p. in. today at
Courtlpjnd Beach.