Omaha daily bee. (Omaha [Neb.]) 187?-1922, July 03, 1892, Page 10, Image 10
10 THE OMAHA DAILY "BEE : SUNDAY , HTLY 3 , 1SS2--SEXTEEN PAGES. Impressing Its nrlnctplos upon the minds of public raon. \Vhllo the southern orRanlzatloo wns ex tending Its Influence nmoiiR the farm ers of the south , nnothor body of similar chnrncUr , based ut > on almost oxnctly the sntno principles and for similar purposes hnJ boon organized In the i state of Illinois. It bcgnti In the year 1877 , and was known ns the National Fnrmors nlllancc. In n llttlo whllo It had extended Into tbo states of Wisconsin , Minnesota , Iowa , Missotiri.Kunsnsnnd the then territory of Dakota. The oojoct of tbl * body was de clared to bo "to Interest the farmers of tbo United States for tholr protection ncamst class legislation , tuo encroachments of con centrated capital , the tyranny of monopoly ; to provide URnlnst being Imposed upon by scandalous and scandallrlnK advertisements In the public prints ; to oppotoiu our respec tive political parties the election of any can didate to ofllco , state or national , who Is not in sympathy with the fatmors' Interests ; to dotnnud that the existing political parties eball nominate farmers or these who nro In sympathy with them fornllofllccs within the gift of the people ; and to do anything In n legitimate manner that may servo to benefit the producer. " Alum of Hi" Northern Worker * . This National farmers alliance was an open body , transacting its business In public , the tame as has always boon done by regular political associations , and In this respect was found Its onlv practical dlfToronoo from the southern alliance , which had n secret worir. In tholr social fcntures they weie much nllko , and their alms and objects were practically tbo same. At n mooting of the southern alliance In 1887 , the following declarations were inudo and publlihod concerning its objoots : "Tho objects of tbo National alliance ere tounllo tbo farmers for the promotion of tholr interests , socially , politically and financially , to sncuro n Just representation of the agricultural Interests of the country In the national congress and state legislatures ; 'oiiouiaml the prohibition of nlion catllo .ind land syndicates ; to oppose ill forms of monopoly ns being detrimental i.o the best Interests of thopubllc ; to demand af our representatives In congress tholr votes anil active inlluonco In favor of the prompt passage of such laws us will protect livestock Interests from contagious diseases ; to de mand tnat agricultural Interests shall bo represented by a cabinet ofllcor. " Another Antl-MoMiipoly Ordur. At about this time , in the fall of 1837 , an other association of farmers was affected in the soutncrn part of the state of Illinois : , which was known ns the "Farmers Mutual Honoilt association. " Its object was to op pose the encroachments of monopolies. This body did not oxtund ns raniuly as the ethers ; possibly , because lU ofllcors did not exert themselves us the ethers had done to sprond into now territory ; probably because of Its later origin. Its principles were almost Identical with these of the older organizations. This body had n secret work , after the fashion of the alliance and grange , but unlluo them it did not admit womor. to membership Tliesovcro not the only organizations of the soil tillers , ns there was the ' Farmers League. " tno "Farmers Union,1' the "Farm ers 1'rotecilvo association , " the "Anti- Monopoly league , " and so on ad inllnitum. These , however , were mostly in Ohio and states to the eastward. The difference between the alliance and the other bodies of farmers named was about this : The ulllanco was in ere nggres- slvo along political lines than'any of the others , and tno nllianco took nioro advanced ground In favor of Independent political action. In fact , It was due to the work of the alliance leaders that tbo people's party was finally born. Uniting tlio Various Orilura. A mooting of the Farmers and Laborers Union of America was called at the city of St. Louis oarlv In December , 1SS9 , for the purpose of bringing together in 0110 great organization ail of tbo different bodies of or ganized farmers in tbo country. Invitations had bnen seat out in lulvntiro to the onlcors of all these dilTcrent bodies and to ttio ofilcials of the Kulehts of Labor , and they were all rowoscntod at this mooting. Confereueu committees were appointed and a co-operative atrangomout for political pur poses was effected. Tlio various bodies were not in reality all merged into one , but virtu ally tbat was what was done. The object of this partial consolidation was to inlluonco legislation in the interests of farmers and la borers generally , fc the now body was styled the "Fanners Alliance mid Industrial Union. " Again ITofcsHcd Noiimrtlimn lili > . The alliance hero again declared Itself nonpartlsan , but It was Intensely political. Although primarily social , Its political fea ture was its most powerful force , and while there was no open disposition to go into poll- tics independently , it was understood upon all sides that every possible effort which could legitimately serve the Interest of agrl- culture ami labor should bo put forth. The tit , Louis convention adopted a political plat form , which was afterwards known ns "i'ho Jt. Louis Demands , " and on this platform were based the calls for subsequent meet ings , which led to tbo ultimate formation of the third parly. At that convention , at which were rep resented the states of Arkansas , Kentucky , Kansas , Virginia , Goorcia , Tnnnessob , Louisiana , Maryland , Alabama , Nebraska , North Carolina , youth Carolina , Indiana , Texas and Oklahoma territory , the following ofticers were elected : President , L. L. Polk of North Carolina ; vice president , D. H. Clover of Kansas ; secretary , J. H. Turner of Uoorgla ; treasurer , William UicKraan of Missouri ; national lec turer , Ben Terrell of Texas. Dolinitn assur ances of a coalition of all tbo larmors' organ izations were secured , and arrangements for mutually satisfactory action on the part of the nllianco and Knights of Labor vvoio made , although terms for a complota consoli dation of the two bodies could not then bo agreed upon , The convention adjourned to try It ngaln n year later. Itlitli of Mm Third Party. In time It became a very serious question with members of the ullianco whether they should operate through the machinery of tholr old parties , or whether they should Join with other workers In a now and dis tinct movement for n redress of the griev ances of which they found causu to complain. This was moro particularly the cuiu in Kan sas. Olllcora of tliu Kansas stuto alliance were called together In Ai.rll , IbUO , for ISO purport * of considering this mutter. The question was , "Shall wo romaln with the par- llea to which wo hnvo belonged In the past onil ask rollef through them , or shall wo Invlto the co-oporauon of other workers and with them form un independent politi cal body ] " After lengthy debute and mature consid eration the latter course was udoptud , und in June folllotving u mooting um nolil In tbo city of TopeKa , at which delegates from the farmers alliance * , from the Farmers Mutual lienollt association , from tbn Knights of Labor and nuvoral otnor bodies were pros unt , and It waa agreed that members of these different hoJIcs would Join with other voters of Into belief In n political movement to bo known as tlio pconlo's parly. Having determined to onorulo upon nn in dependent line , the Topokn meutlng called a state convention to bo held at the same plnco In August , at which time a regular state ticket was placed in the Held and a platform adopted based on the four fundamental Ideas land , labor , transportation and money. Tbo now pat ty elected ono state ofllcor , live members of congress , nlnoty-llvo of the lower house of the legislature , "and In the following January secured tbo election of u United States senator. Houtliuru farmum In l.luo. lu December , 1890 , the supromn council of the alliance met at Ocala , Tin. , and thirty- , five states were represented. Delegates from every body of organized farmers in the country were present to participate or to confer , fi'ha convention of the national alll- auco of colored farmers was hold at the same time and place , and fnondly greetings were exchanged between the two bodies. There was much talk of gonunil independent politi cal notion , but no dollnlto stops were taken beyond the adoption of u resolution declaring lit favor of holding a convention at Cincin nati the following spring , at which every etato and all labor organizations , as well as the alliance , should bo represented , In order that tlio soiiso of uvory section of thu coun try and of all brunches of organized labor might bo first secured before deciding this Important mattor. The olllcors of the preceding - coding year were re-elected at Ocula , with the exception of National Looluror Terrell , who vnis succeeded by J , b. tVllletts of htanias. Northern Third Tarty .Mini. The annual convention of the northern illlauco was hold In Omaha u month later , beginning January 27 , IS'Jl ' , and there were rcpnucututlvos prt' out from NoorasUn , Iowa , Ohio , Indiana , Illinois , Minnesota , Missouri , Washington , Kentucky , Wiscon sin , Connecticut , Texas and Pennsylvania. Hero , lee , the sentiment was avowedly In favor of Independent political action , nltliouL'li that was n subject of minor im portance. The result In Kansas encouraged farmers in other states , and soon n movement was sot on foot looking to tlio organization of nn independent political movement covering tlio whole country. The first decisive stop In that direction was that tikon ta the Ocala masting , in arranging for the National union conference that was held at Cincinnati May 10. 18111 , and ni which tmnrly 1,51)0 ) delegates , representing thirty-two states nnd two territories , were prcsont. They came from Alabama , Arkansas , Cali fornia , Colorado , Connecticut , Florida , Illln- nois , Indiana , Iowa , Kansas , Kentucky , Louisiana , Maine , Massachusetts , Michigan , Minnesota , Missouri , Nebraska , Now York , North Carolina , North Dakoln , Ohio , Penn sylvania , HlioJo Island , South Carolina , South Dakota , Tennessee , Texas , Washing ton , West Virginia , \Vyomlng , Oklahoma , District of Columbia. The Clnvliiimtl I'liitfurni. The conference adopted tlio following de claratory and doctrinal principles : First That in view of the great social , In dustrial and economical revolutions now dawning upon the civilized world und the now nnd living Issues confronting the Amer ican people wo hollovo that the time has arrived for n crystalIzallon of tbo political reform forces of our country and the forma tion of what should bo known as the pooplo'.s party of the United States of America. Second That wo most ho.irtiiy endorse the demand * of the platforms as adopted at St. Louis , Mo. , In IbSi ) ; Ocalu , Flo. , in 1890 , and Omaha , Neb. , In 181)1 ) , by industrial orgnnl- rations there represented , summarized as follows : ( a ) Thu right to make and Issue money u a sovereign power to bo maintained by the people for thu common bonollt. Hence , we demand the abolition of National banks as banks of issue , and as a stlhslltuto for national b.uik notes wo demand that legal tender treasury notes ho Issued in sufficient volume to transact tbo business of the coun try on a C'isli ' h.isls without damage or i > spo- cmt advantage to nnv class or calling , sucli notes to bo legal tender in payment of all debts , public mm private , nnd such notes when demanded by the people shall bo loaned to them at not moro than - per cunt per annum upon nonperishable - perishable products , as indicated in the sub- treasury plan , and also upon real estatewith proper limitation upon the quantity of land and amount , ot money , fb ) Wo demand the ' free nnd unlimited'coiuuiro of silver , ( c ) Wo demand the passage of laws prohibiting nlion ownership of land nnd that congress take prompt action to devise some plan to obtain all lands now owned by alien nnd foreign syndicates , nnd that all land hold by railroads nnd other cor porations In axeoss of such as is actually used nnd nuodou by them bo reclaimed by the government and held for actual settlor. } only , ( d ) LJohovIng the doctrine of equal rlchts to nil nnd special privileges to none wo demand that taxation national , state or municipal shall not bo used to build up ono interest or class at tbo expense of nnothor. ( o ) Wo demand that all revenue national , state or county shall bo limited to ttio necessary expenses of the government , economically and honestly administered , ( f ) Wo demand a Just and equitable system of graduated tax on income , ( g ) Wo demand the most rigid , honest nnd Just national con trol nnd supervision of the means of public communication and transportation , and if this control nnd supervision does not remove tlio nhuacs now existing we demand the gov ernment ownership of such means of com munication nnd transportation , ( h ) Wo de mand the election of president , vice-presi dent and United States senators by a direct vote of the people. Third That wo urge united action of nil progressive organizations in attending the conference called for February 23 , Ib'JJ , by six of the leading reform orgntjiz.itions. Fourth That a national central committee bo appointed by this conference , to bo com posed of n chairman , to bo clectod by this body , and of throe members from each state icpiosonti.'d , to bo named by each state dele gation. Fifth That this central committee shall represent this body , ntlecid the national con ference on February 2.3 , IbOJ , and if possible unite with that and all other reform organi zations there assembled. Sixth If no satisfactory agreement can bo oltccted , this committee shall call a na tional convention not later than Junol , 189J , for the purpose of nominating candidates for president and vice president. Seventh That the members of the central commlttoo for onch state where there Is no independent political organization conduct an nctivo system of po litical agitation in tuoir respective status. I'riilillntlon riank Sno\\ol Under. Such -vas the platform over which the con vention went wild. Tno report was adopted with a whoop , and the now party was prac- tlcallv ushered into existence on the spot. An clfort was made to have prohibition and universal suffrage plunks inserted , but they were overwhelmingly repudiated. Tim St. I.oulH .Mooting. Arrangements were there made for a con- oral union of nil tbo Industrial forces of the country in a convention at St. Louis , Fobri- 23 , IS'JJ , for the purpose of completing organ- i/ntion and arranging for putting a national tlcltet in the Hold. A national committee , composed of the following earnest third party advocates , was appointed to exorcise a general supervision over the now movement : Arkansas It. P. I'o.iUier.itono , Isaac K. Mo- C'raokun , J. O. A. Hush. I'.illforiila Marlon Cannon , H. C. Dillon , A. O. HlnuUly. Connecticut Hnbort I'lquo Klorida W. I ) . Condon , J. 1) . Goss , L. lUs- klns. Ccorula O. C. Post. Iowa J. 11. Weaver , M. L. Wheat. A. J. Wo-Uerlloid. Indiana 0. A. Powers , Lcroy Tomploton , J. 1) . UonisttM'lr. Illlnols-S. N. Norton , A , J. Streater , II , E. Taubt'iiuoU. Kansas.- ! ' . 1' . Elder , Lovl Dnmbauld , U. S. Osborn. Kentucky L. Graves , S. V. Smith , T. G. Fall In. Louisiana J. J. Mills , Dr. U. . Pulno , John IMl'ltOU. aiiitsiirhiisalts 0. I' . Wasuburn , I' . G. Brown , i : . M. lloynton , Mluhlxun Hen Oolvin , Mrs. S. IX V. i niory , John O. bonboll. Miiiiii'sota Icniitlus Donnelly , 0. N , Pcr- Klns , Andruw Slovenian. Mlsinurl 1'uiil J. Dlulihun , J. W. Itodgrrj , W. O. AlUer.ion. Miiliic-ll. 8. Hohbs , P. A. Howard , S. 31. .Smith. Njiuruska-J. H. Dlmuston , William Dysart , Now York Jacob H. Stndor , Joel J. Hoyt. Uhlo-llugu 1'ioyor , J. 0. II. Cobb , II. V. ll.irnus. OUUhonm-Samuol Oroskor , A. R Light , John lluiun. Ponnsylviinla-P. A.Thompson. ! ' . It. Agnew , Lewis ICdwards. , ( Joutli Dakota J. W. Hurdln , H. N. Loucl ; , Vied /.upp. Tova * W. It. Lamb , Thomas Or. Inos , J. II. Davis. Tunnusieo II. P. Osbornu , G. W. J. Kay. J'hn A. Jamas. Wisconslii-Koburt .Schilling , Alfred Mann- hclimir. A. J. I'hllllpi Wust Virginia Luther O. Slilnn , Georzo W. llntiiinunt , TliDiiuiM It , Kuuvoy. IIWiJ ! ° MirrittU ! llruto""ul"'Jll"IUi ! A. Smith , ilislrlutof Culnmbl.i Luo Orandall , S. A. lllanil , 11. J. holuiltorsi. 1'lnul Coalition in : uliul. On W ashlngton's birthday of the present your , the St. Louis convention assembled , und It waa then und there that the final coalition between all thu organizations was uffocted , although the new party inovntnoiit had boon practically agreed upon nearly a year boforo. There was really but llttlo to do Doyonit tt > o perfecting of details , but. this llttlo guvu rise to several stormy sessions. Prohibition and universal suffrage udvocato * were bound to lie hoard , and worked bard to got their favorite planks Inserted In the now party platform. Tholr prospects for success wuro brilliant until Just at the final moment , when thu convention deliberately turned its back on them , so to speak , and they ware unceremoniously snuffed out In u twinkling. The selection of it place for holding thu nominating convcptlou on July-1 was left tea a co mm lit oo of rtn , und that couiuilttou do- elded In favor of Omaha. It was decided to allow four delegates for each member In thu two houses of congress , or eight delegates from each state and four from each congroisloiml district. This gave the hUtoilcal number of 1,770 dolegutos , although 110 ono had autlclpitod it lu ad vance. Tin ) bt. I.iiuU riutfurm. The platform adopted at Su Louis stated that the nation U on the rargo of moral , political nnd material ruin ; that corruption dominates the ballot box , lo Ulaturos , congress - gross und touches even the orinlno of the bunch ; newspapers art ) subsidized or muz zled ; public opinion Is silenced ; U'jslnws l > ro tratod ; homes covurod with mortgages. ; lubor Impoverished , and laud ana inonov con centrating la ttio hands of canltulUls. Worn- men , It declared , nro denied the right of organlzitlou for solf-pro'octlon ; Imported , pauperized tabor boats down wages ; n hire ling standing nrmv , unrocognl/od by our laws , Is established to shoot them down ana they nro rapidly de generating to tun European condition , The nntloml power to create inonoy Is ap propriated to ourlch tha bondholders ; silver has boon demonetized to ndd to the purchas ing power of gold , und the supply of currency is purposely abridged to f.Uton usurers , bank rupt enterprise and enslave Industry. Tbo platform declared that the old political par ties allowed this to ovlst wl bout an effort nt restraint , und , therefore , n now political or ganization , rnpresontlnL' the political princi ples heroin Mated , was necessary. A decla ration of principles was then made , nnd n na tional currency demanded that U snfu , sotind and lloxlblo , to bo Issued by the general gov ernment only , and which snail bo n full losal tender for nil debts , public and private , nnd that without the ttso of banking corporations ; u Just und equitable mains of circulation ; und n tax not to oxco3il 2 p2r cent , us sot forth In the subtrcasury plan of the farmers alliance , or snmo hotter system. It demanded the free and unlimited coinage of silver , no that tbo amount of circulating medium may bo speedily increased to not less than $ , " > ( ) par capita ; n graduated Income tax : that nil national and state revenues bo limited to thnnoccssary expenses of the government - ornmont , and that postal savings banks bo established oy the government. Thd plat form duclarod that land should not bo mono polized for speculative purposes nnd alien ownership of lands should be prohibited ; nil lands now hold by railroads und other cor porations in uxcnss of tholr actual needs , und all kinds now owned by nitons should be re claimed by the government nnd held for no- tuul settlers only. It declared that the gov ernment should oivn nnd operate railroads , telegraph und telephonesnml demanded that the government i'.siio lognl tcndor nutos nnd pay union soldiers the difference between the prlco of depreciated inonoy In which they were paid ami gold. It is on this platform that the 1,770 dele gates of the first national convention of the people's parly of the United Stntos of America uro now assembling in"Om ilia. .Miirlmi Ciiiinoii. Marion Cannon , president of the Callfor- foania Fanners Alllancn nnd Industrial Union , was born in West Virginlallfty-sovon years ago. His ancestors for three genera tions were West Virginians. Ho wus edu cated In u loc school house in that stuto , and In the early 50's , when still n boy , ho crossed the plains overland to California , driving un ox team all the way. Ho hat resided In Cali fornia slnco that time llrst in Nevada county and afterwards In Ventura county , his present homo. Ho owns , occupies and cultivates ono of the finest nnd most pro ductive nineties in California. A natural loader of men , ho has always boon prominent In public affairs , but has always refused oulco , except two years in Nevada county , when bo was induced by his neigh bors to accept the position of county recorder. Ho was elected president of the Aruntura county farmers ullianco In July , 189J , und wus unanimously chosen state president at San Jose , and was unanimously rc-olcctod nt Los Angeles In IS'.ll. Un possesses the con fidence of the people of Colorado to n ro- marltablo dogrco. He was. the first state president of the furmors alliance to cotno out boldly for independent political action , tak ing the position that it is the only logical re sult of the "Campaign of Education , " that has been carried out by the ullianco from the boglnning o ! the organization. The general Interest in California is in the construction of the canal , and President Can non and the members of the nllianco arc in favor of it ; but they opuoso the granting of special priviiogos which would moku u few Individuals millionaires , at the opunso of the rest of the people. Mr. Cannon cuino Into national notice ns tpmporarv chulrman of the historic conven tion of Fobiuury 22 , nt St. Louis. His powerful , resonant voice , his prompt action , and bis familiarity with parliamentary usage hold that iiroat body firmly to bublness. lion. I , . I . l.UliiKKton. If , ns Dr. Holmes says , "Llvo people nro dnad people warmed over , " then Iloii. L. F. Livingston is nn animate second edition of Uicheliuu. A member from Georgia of tlio lower house of the present congress , ho is ono of its most conspicuous fiyuros. It is n foregone conclusion , nt n convention , that Colonel Livingston will carry a point or pass a measure which ho champions. After the several orators have effervesced und hud tholr way. Just nt the criticalclinching time , "Colonel Livingston of Georgia" will have the lloor , nnd the outcome will generally bo as ho desires. But ho mot n Wutorloo nt St. Louis. Ho was opposed to independent political action , and made n determined though unavailing fight , but although defeated this modern Klchoiiou was great to the last. Colonel Livingston is of Scotch-Irish pa- rontngo. Ho was born 1832 , in Nowtoncoun- ty , Georgia , nnd received his education in tbo common schools of his native countv. Ho has always boon n farmer. For many'yoaps ho was president of the Georgia Agricultural society , nnd bubiequontly president of the Georgia State alliance , which position ho still holds. After his election to the presi dency of the state furmors alliance , ho can- vassoJ the state of Georgia for two years , addressing the people on the economic ques tions affecting industrial classes. Ills dis cussions were mainly devoted to the consid eration or llnanco and taxation. This can vass resulted in his present seat in the na tional congress. Colonel Livingston has served several terms , both in the house nnd sonata of the Georgia legislature , nnd was chairman of thu commlttoo on agriculture in the house , und u moinbor of that committee in the sou- ate KiniHtror Nlnliolui of ItlUHlil. A writer in Longinivn'a Magn/.ino gives graphic description of the Kmporor Nicholas of Russia as ho appeared Borne joura before the Crimean war , and of his curious fancy for mashed bulls , at which ho alone were no mask. In tlio b.illroom of the palace at St. Peters burg ho was wont to stand motionless , "towering above all , " as if waiting to bo attiickod. This is quite correct , but only to a certain oxtunt. At the masquerades at the winter palace , the czar , among all tlio guests , were no musk ; but ho was accustomed to dis guise himself very closely indeed when ho attended , as ho was very fond of doing , tlio bals masques at the opera " hotHo , whoro" lie would mingle in con versation with the other maHkors , espe cially with the ladies , and hoar very often rather curious remarks about him self. Tips for tln > lli-utiiil Torin. Now York Herald : Heat your ice water before drinking it. Don't over oat. Shut up your liouso and board. Change your collars evor.v llftoon min utes. Send your wife and her mother to the country. Don't got tight clothes. If the night is cloao and hot olimb up to the roof , but don't yield to the temp tation to hang yourself by the clothesline - line If obliged to ride in a street car ride outside. Avoid all excitement. If a man tries to talk politics to you knock him down. Avoid over exertion , particularly when the boss isn't looking. Don't wear needless clothing simply a-j a mutter of loolca You look llko a boiled lobster anvhow. Don't worry over what the poor will do next winter. Suoscrlbo to the free ice fund. Chicago Herald : There are some exceed ingly Interesting nnd oxcil.lng projpoois bo fore the country If It should happen tbat the people's purtv should put up popular and ao- cuptablo candidates for the piosidonoy nnd vicu presidency. BUIII.IVOTOv'ta , April 1,1331. Dr. J. II. Moore Dear Sir : Have boon troubled with catarrh In my head mid faoo for three yonrs-at times Ausunubloto hoar , had a constant ringing In my oari nnd for two years wis almost duaf. Hnvo trlod ev- oral so-called remedies and boon treated by regular physicians and noted specialists , but failed to got any relief. I trloa ono bottle of Mooro's Tree of Llfo Catarrh Curo. It gave immediate relief und uffoutnd a permanent cure. I heartily recommend it to all sufferers - ors of this disease and will cheerfully glvo any further Information on being addressed nt my homo , No. UZ1 Swoonoy nvo. , Hurllug- 011 , In. For sale by all druggists. Hojiiaotfullly , it. L. Uuiu. GREAT FAJIlES ' OF HISTORY Histirlo Djvxstatfoai bj Flojl and Dm1. in B6rop3 and Asia , f > . _ COMPARED WITH' HUSSIA'S ' AFFLICTION 13 ti _ Trunk ( 'urpc ntcr , T'rolitnry to Ills I'.nnttio AH It-Ins for Tl'i'n Vine fro til tliol.iml of the C/'ir , Ti'rtdVif ' tlio World' * ( Irim Sliirvatlhrfc _ > r Wlior I ) iy . Uy the time this letter Is published I will bo in the heart of the famlno districts of Uus- sia. 1 mall It as I start for the steamer which Is to tnko mo to Hamburg. From th.-nco I go direct to St. Petersburg , and by rail , stage nnd droltzschkn will make mv way through the country where It la said from : )0.0l)0,000 ) ) to 4UUOiOOJ ) of people nro starving , 'a ho lamina will bo at Us highest from now on until the harvest In August , and the crops must bo very largo In order to prevent Its ex tension on into the winter.Vithln the past week I have spent some time In looklrg up the great famines of the world , and I find that this Russian famine Is ono of the most torrlblo mankind has ever known. There have boon slnco the world began ,150 mighty famines , each of which has killed thousands nnd most of which hnvo carried off people by the millions. The ncrlpturos sneak of famines in the time of Abraham , and the story of the "aovon yours * famine" which prevailed when Joseph was secretary of Pharaoh's treasury is a matter of biblical history. Homo had tu famines hundreds of years before Christ , nnd nbout ! ! 00 years uftor Christ wheat was worth 400 nieces of silver n bushel In Aiitioch , nnd nbout 100 years later parents were oatlng tholr children lu Italy to koat ) themselves from starving. Great Britain has had famines back to the earliest of her records , anil about the time that the Normans came over It is suid that tli ere was such n famine over the northern country that many of tlio inhabitants sold themselves for slaves , and that the flesh of horses , dogs , cats and rats bud llxcd prices in tlio markets and some , it is alleged , even ntn human llcsh. Twenty thousand people starved in Uiondon during the twelfth century , nnd in the times of Queen Ellzuboth wheat was worth $3 n bushel In London. Ireland has bud many ' famlnns , nnd ovciy tlmu the potato crop fail's there nro numbers of deaths I rom starvation. Lo s tbun llftv years ago tbo great potato funlino of 1815 took plnco , In which more than n quarter of n million Irishmen came over to America. This famine lusted moro than six years nnd it reduced the population of Irolund 2.50JOOJ. .Soiiut ( JiiMit lailliiti und ClilnoHo 1'iiiiiliies. India has ahvays been a land of famines. Tlio people llvo from hand to mouth , and they do not get fat even when tlio crops uro pood. Tuoro nro more than 2. > 0UOOOlK ) i.eo- l lo in India nnd nearly every your therb is some part of Hindoostan which is moro or loss uftected byvynntof food. Ono of the biggest famines 'fit India was Just six yean before our declaration of independence. At that time mme than I ) , 1)00,000 ) people died for want of food , und thu air wns so infected by the smell of the dead bodies that it brought disease ns well ns death. Whole villages were depopulated.mil when the now cron came on it had , in many cases no owi.or. This famine was caused by drouth. Ton years later India bad another grout famine nnd when George Washington first took his scut in the presidential chair people - plo were killing und eating their children in sonn ! parts of India , and thousands were dying of famine. This tcr- riblo famine was caused by an army of black ants which swar.iu.od over the country and destroyed the vogotatipn , und n few years latsr un army u'of locusts came along , nnd hojo were followed by a plague of rats which altfup the' crops and nlmOstr attuckod the people themselves. In IbiM n million and u-half of people perished from famlno In Bengal and nbout ton years later a famine In Madras cost the English government some thing llko ST > 0,000OOt ) . It is much the same in China. The people are so many that at the time of a great Hood or a great drouth they die by millions. It is estimated that batwcen 10,000,000 and 20.000- 000 people were wiped out oy tno ovorllow- ina of the Yellow river homo years ago , nnd in 1877 70.00J.OOO were suffering from famlno und an appeal xvas made to England and America for assistance. At this time women nnd children were offered by their parents for sale on tlio streets , and the price for a married woman wns JJ ( nnd you could buy n Uttlo girl for ? , ' . Many parents killed their children rather than witness their pro longed suffering , nnd the scenes of destitu tion and starvation were terrible. It is the same as the story of Ku.ssian famines , which seem to have occurred at intervals baclt to the beginning of history , nnd which promise , it is said , to continue In the future. On-lit I'looiU and Drouths oT thu World , Ono of the great causes of famine In the past has boeu Hoods.Vliether the deluge covered the whole world or only n part of it , It certainly killed millions and It remained upon the earth 150 days. England and Ire- laud have had many Hoods which have killed thousands , and the Inundations of Hol land have several times nearly destroyed the entire population. In 1874 the Hoods of tlio Mississippi covered 250,000 acres of cotton , 100,000 ncros of corn nnd . " 00,000 ncros of sugar , and the rising of ono river In Franco nbout tills sumo time caused n loss of $75,000- 000. Some of the Hoods of India hnvo carried off men by the tuns of thousands , and in ono inundation in Holland seventy- two towns were destroyed , and 100,000 people perished. Hundteds of famines liuvo been caused by heat , and drouth has carrlod away millions' . All of the eastern countries have been affected by drouth , and nearly every year sees nfiimino In some part of India. 'India hns had thirty-four big famines in u century , but none of these famines has covered the whole country , nnd had the moans of trans portation been bolter there would have been no need for loss of life. Such of the soil ns is under Irrigation ahvays produces a crop , und the English government is now doing what it can to increase the irrigated area. and it has covered the country with u network - work of rnlltouus. Otiu of the great troubles nbout the fumlno in Russia Is thu dufculivo transport. Thu railroads , whllo they run between the large cities , nrc nevertheless comparatively few , nnd It is not possible to got the food ijuiculy tu the peoplo. Australia is another country which has boon troubled with drouth , and nearly 8 0,000,000 worth of shbop were lost through luck of water in 1877 , In Now South Wales. .J ififc about tbo same year 10,000,000 sheep \xvna Jrnt in the Australian colonies and in South Africa , and about this same time tucriMvnan period of distressing drouth in the uWcd States. The Kusslan firfmno of today was caused by drouth. For lWlj months thosu Russlun provinces had not'a drop of rain , nnd this great hum had./bMii preceded bv terrible frosty winds In the xpriug. All sorts of grasses were bu i d ui > und withered by the bout , nnd prairie rirrt , by the tons of thous ands swept ovorthg. country und ute what was loft. In addition to this there were clouds of insects which cuino oy the millions , consuming otrurfthlug with which thuy came In contact. Tlio devastation cannot bo con- colvud , and li wllbo some years botoro Uusslu can rccovor-from it , TiilliN M'i i hininniu . Ministers. I doubt whollicr.aho people of the United States buvo any udo < | uulo luea of thu itussm of today. I huve' ' ' > khowii n number of the ministers which wb have sent to that coun try nnd I II nd that tholr Iduus of Russia and the czar tire fur different from thosu of other pooplo. I mut the other dny at Ddtroit ox- Mlnlstur Lothrnp , who represented this country ut St. Potorsburtr some years ago. Mr. Loturop is ono of the most famous luw- yor * ot thu north wait , und ho wus verv pop ular In Husslu , Ho ix a man of pxtiuurd- luary ubiliiy nnd grout culture , and during hU stay ut St. Petersburg his daughter married ono of the most noted of thu Kusiiun barons. Wo have the Ideu Unit the Russian puoplo r.ro oppressed by the czar and that thuy look upon him ni a dosput und u tyrant. Suld ox-Mlnistor Loturop to mt : "T.Uo Rusolan people uro us loyal to tholr ruler us are uny people of the world. They ruvoronco tbo czar and look up to him , uud thn masses consider him of a higher order of creation than ibumiolvos. The czar has boon much misrepresented. Ho U a con scientious , Godfearing man and Is doing nil bo can for his people , The Uunlau govern ment , however , has to control moro than 100,000,000 of soul * . It U made up of many diverse elements , nnd It has to hnvo n vnst machinery und numerous officials to control thoso. The emperor hns to Intrust his work largely to subordlnatos. nnd though tbaso nro on the nvcrngo ofllclont nnd honest there are in Uussin , ns In the United States , some who may not bo. Uussin Is to n Inrgo ox- extent governed by the people , nnd It will bo surprising to ninny to know that the Rus sians hnvo civil rights to n larger extent than most of the countries of the world. Ac cording to the village system of Russia , the villagers govern themselves. 'Ihoy elect tholr own ofllcors with the exception of n f w who nro appointed by the czur. They make their own laws anil Ihoy nro nllowul to do ns they plenso , where they do not como Into contact , with the czar. They have tholr own courts nnd they pass tholr own sentences - toncos , now nnd then even to sending pris oners to Siberia. The Russians nro doing n great deal In relieving the distress of the fimlno , nnu Russia is spending millions upon millions of dollnM for this purposo. I don't bollovo there is n moro courteous , kinder nnd bettor people In the woild than the Rus sians , and 1 consider tli urn ouo of the great est nations in the world. " r Smith on th Ititvslnu Timilno. Hon. Charles Emory Smith , who has Just returned from Russia , tinys thnt the Inmlnn there will lust UD until Into In August nud without the crops nro good it will probably extend on Into the coming year. "Tho des titution of the people is , " says ho , "Incon- culvublo nnd n great part of tholr toss comes from their stock. The famlno wns so ter rible that the cutllo were carrlod oft by It nnd tbo people hnvo nothing with which to work their Holds. In snmo provinces moro than half tno horses were killed , and these thnt lived uro baggnrd nnd loan. A grunt number of the cuttlo were either killed or stnrvod to dcnth , nnd Inasmuch ns these are lurgoly used fordrnuehtunlmals In Russia the loss Is incalculable. " Minister Smith says thnt the Russians hnvo given between $7 : > ,000.000 und $100,000,000 to rcliovo the famine und that they uro continuously send ing food into the fnnnno districts. Mnnyof the richest nnd noblest Indlos of Russia are working among the starving , und they have established soup kitchens und lood supply points throughout the most severely uilllctod districts. Mr. Smith says that the Russians fool vorv kindly toward the Amoi leans for the aid they hnvo sent thorn , nnd ho thinks the action lias brought the two countries closer together A few days ngo I callnd at the llusslau legation in Wnihinglcn on Hon. Clmilos do Struvo , who has for years represented Russln in the United State , and ho told mo that Americans could not npproeinto how kindly Russia felt townrd them for their sympathy nnd aid in their time of trouble , und It is .said tills feeling Is current throughout the Russian empire nnd hat its moral Iniluonco will bo very groa t. A Talk with Cl.ini llarton. It is well known thnt all the gifts of the United Status hnvo boon through the Red Cross society , with Miss Clara Uarton nt its bond. How much these gifts amount to will be surprising to the people. Already four shiploads have boon sent , nnd thusu will nvoragu nbout $100,000 ench in vuluo. Thn lowu corn which loft on thoTynchcad loaded that great ship down to the water and it will bo of grout usu m the keeping nllvo of the cattle. This Included 200 carloads of corn , and it came from lown alone. The mlllor.i ot the northwest furnished u shipload of Hour and the citizens of Philadelphia bought fi.OOO barrels of Minneapolis flour and sent it off. A great deal of inonoy hns boon con tributed and much of this bus como from liltlu children. Miss Barton tolls mo that she received the other day SO'J , every cent ot which was contributed by children'who had worked for thu pennies or who hud denied themselves some luxury in order to got them for the Russians. Many children through out the country have been allowed by their parents n cent a meal for doing without bultor or sugar , and some llttlo ones have been paid by their parents n cent n dny for doing curtnfn chorus , and it Is from such pen nies that nnmlrous upon hundreds of dollars have boon gathered together und huvo been sent , to tno litllo children of Russia. The other day a llttlo girl wns brought into thu Rod Cross society rooms heto by her father. Sbu had tightly cluspedm her hands 110 cents which she said she wished to give to the hungry little ones in Russia. SKo had saved this und the giving of it was bur own idea. Her father told her while she was in thu roam that she need not glvo the money unless she wished to. Ho said to her that the Russian children would novcrknoiv that the money came from her and explained - plained tbat It would go into a general fund nnd nu ono would know that she had any thing to do with it. "But , " said the llttlo girl , "the people will hnvo that much moro to oat , won't they I" And when she wns told yes , she gave the mouoy. Many in stances huvo occurred hero nnd nil over the country nnd the gifts in somu cases amount to thousands of dollars. A few days ago a lady bunded Miss Barton a slip of nnpor say ing she wanted to give this to the Rod Cross society but she did not wnnt her name con nected with it. It was a check for 51,000. How tin ; HIM ! Cross U'oika. There Is no moro modest woman In the United States than Miss Clara Barton. She works very quietly , and to talk with horyou would never imagine that she bad managed some of the largest charitable efforts in Ihe history of this generation. Sao is of nbout medium height und weighs , I Judge , not over 125 pounds. She dresses In black nnd her only jewelry is her round pin of wuitoonnuicl with u red cross in the center at the neck , nnd below this n ureat pansy made of un amethyst nnd presented to Miss Barton by the grand duchess of BHtlon. Shu does not court newspaper notoriety and her manners in conversation uro ns quiet and simple us thosu of uny mother in the country. She makes you think more of n good mother than of uny ono else and her uyes fill with sympathetic tears us she discuss'es the woes of tbo famlno or the sorrows of suffering hu mnnity. She is a woman who loves her fellowman lowman and who U endowed with a largo amount of the practical ability of knowing how to help them. She wns the first woman nurse durlne thu latu war and she did gteat good In the Fninco-Prus lun wnr among tlio wounded , Sbo believes In doing good on n largo scull * and she tells mo thnt the Red Cross society devotes itself to a study of the condition of the world , nnd wherever It llnds that there Is wnnt , destitution and suffering it considers it its duty to point out to the rest of the people the fact. It does not stand before fore the world as n beggar but us a great in formation bureau which announces to the people who have means whuio they may have the privilege of giving to help their fullnwmun. It also under takes to forward Mich gifts to these who nro in want , uud It devotes Itself to national ca- lamltos ruthur than to individual onus. "It is now moro than n year , " said Miss Barton , "slnco wo saw the coining dungor In Russia. Wo know that the famine was Immi nent , but before wo went to work wo called upon the Russian legation nnd asked as to- thu situation and whether Russia would ace cuut our holp. Wo were told there that the reports had not been oxaggoruuid , nnd wo found thnt 20,000,000 Russian peasants were nfloctod by the fail uro of crops nnd that the people wore living on roots und other rofusu nnd that millloiiH were on the verge of star vation. Wo organized our xvork ut onoo and the result Is well known. Wo will bo send ing over money und food from time to time , though wo may not send It in shiploads. Wo nio receiving contributions daily nud wo nro glud to forward all that is sent. " FIIANK G. Now York Sum Do ( lurry An long ns yon ivu inunoy thu buiiimor Kill sticks to yon llkn a hnithur. Murrlltr-That'i so : and when the season Is ovur Him Is no mom than a nKtcr to you. Baby's ohouk It llko n poach , Is it Mndnmo Iluppert's bleach ? ' mama's choolt No ! but baby's Volumes to its pralso doth Hpealc ! Cull for Mmo. llupport's Look , "How to 1)0 Uonutl- fill" PURE Is n whiskey smooth as cream , particularly pleasant to the taste and guaranteed to bo absolutely pure. IJy reason of its ago and rich quality it is recommended by physi cians to sufferers from lung diseases , heart failure and weaknesssucceeding La Grippe. It has no rival for sideboard use. You may know it by its delicious flavor and the proprietary bottle in which it is served. Call for Cream J'ure Kyt and take no other. For sale at all first-class drinking places and drug stores. ii DALLIJMAND & CO. , Chicago. JHEYJYA5H THEIR CLOTHES WITH MADE ONLY BY N.K.FAIRRANK&CO. CHICAGO. _ ABSOLUTELY PORE - . . . . . . F.F.JAQ.UEi R. CO. KANSAS CITY. MO. Owing to the short space of time given us by the Insurance - > ance Companies to close out \ the stock of Clothing , Fur nishing Goods. Hats , Caps , Boots and Shoes , slightly damaged by SMOKE AND WATER , we are obliged to sell this entire stock at ri diculous prices. In order to get these bar gains you must call early and get your choice. 1317 and 1319 Douglas Street. Open Evenings until 9 o'clock. COLLEGE OF THE SACRED HE DENVER COLORADO. CONDUCTED UY TilE KAT1I Ha Oi'1 THE SOCIhTV OF JESUS This iiitftltullon iillimU uvory fiu-ility fur ubt unliiK a thorough , Classical , Scientific and English Education. KHnatetl on u bountiful knoll about llftemi i ilnutrs rldi ) by ulnutrlo llnti from Dunvor , It ro- cohns the full nomi'llt of the huilihrul and llfii jrlvln IJICUZUK iliut . have madii Colorado , thu Hiinllurlnin of the Unltuil btaloi Tim Kroumln . uivur un upland Ir.iut of llfiy auiim unit the DiObliuut M onii uf I alien iind jnmmtiilm . and nuj.idowx Kijiediil attention . Hal von tu thu lihyul- ual duvulonuinv nl uf thu Htnduuld. Uutaluunus hunt free un upjilluullou. oupjr Entirely t'rtv , In I'Ulu ' oraled uirur. "A ri'fuyo from llJoqusckB. " THE ERIE MEDICAL CO. , UUFFALO , N. V.